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Full text of "Biographical annals of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; containing biographical and genealogical sketches of prominent and representative citizens and many of the early settlers"

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Cornell University Library 
F 157L2 B61 

Bioaraphical annals of., .Lgnfi^.fA^r.ifijPttf'*''' 


3 1924 028 852 998 


The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 







Biographical and Genealogical Sketches of Prominent 

AND Representative Citizens and Many 

OF THE Early Settlers 



J. H. beers & CO. 


|\- tii;i^7 


HE importance of placing in book form biographical history of represen- 
tative citizens — both for its immediate worth and for its value to coming 
generations — is admitted by all thinking people; and within the past decade 
there has been a growing interest in this commendable means of perpetuating 
biography and family genealogy. 

That the public is entitled to the privileges afforded by a work of this 
nature needs no assertion at our hands; for one of our greatest Americans has 
said that the history of any country resolves itself into the biographies of its stout, earnest and 
representative citizens. This medium, then, serves more than a single purpose; while it perpetu- 
ates biography and family genealogy, it records history, much of which would be preserved in no 
other way. 

The Biographical Annals of Lancaster county had its inception in the mind of John F. 
Meginness, a citizen of that county, now deceased, widely known throughout the State as an his- 
torical writer, who, as manager for the firm of John F. Meginness & Co., commenced the work 
now completed. 

In presenting this work to its patrons, the publishers have to acknowledge, with gratitude, 
the encouragement and support their enterprise has received, and the willing assistance rendered 
in enabling them to surmount the many unforeseen obstacles to be met with in the production of a 
work of this character. In nearly every instance the material composing the sketches was gathered 
from those immediately interested, and then submitted in type-written form for correction and re- 
vision. The volume, which is one of generous amplitude, is placed in the hands of the public with 
the belief that it will be found a valuable addition to the library, as well as an invaluable contribu- 
tion to the historical literature of the State of Pennsylvania. 




Acheson Family 7S3 

Acheson, T. B 753 

Adams, Frederick 1315 

Agnew, David H 5 

Agnew Family 5 

Aherne, William 974 

Aikin, Joseph 1036 

Albright, Frederick A 191 

Albright, Mrs. Sarah 191 

Albright, Walter F 1375 

Alexander, Guy L., M. D 876 

Alexander, John A 1 165 

Alexander, Samuel 574 

Ambler, Joseph P 505 

Ambler, L. R 1203 

Ament, Eli 1420 

Ament Family 1420 

Ament, Henry H 817 

Ammon, Alonzo D 1170 

Ammon, Mrs. Elizabeth 461 

Ammon, John 1047 

Ammon, Peter G 444 

Ammon, Samuel 461 

Anderson, John W 1379 

Ankrimi Family 983 

Ankrim, J. Martin 983 

Appel, Rev. Dr. Theodore 22 

Appel, Theodore B., M. D 23 

Appleton, John B 1177 

Appleton, Mrs. Miary S 11 77 

Armor, Smith, M. D 71 

Armstrong, John W 855 

Armstrong, Williami C 647 

Arndt, Henry 1340 

Arnold Family 622 

Arnold, Gideon W 628 

Arnold, Mrs. Gideon W 629 

Arnold, I. Clinton 622 

Arnold, Ira W 629 

Arnold, Walter J 629 

Atlee, John L., M. D 166 

Atlee, William A i i 

Aument, Aldus 301 

Aument, George 274 

Aument, H. H 274 

Aument, Jacob , 301 

Auverter, Isaac L 1308 

Bachman, Abraham 531 

Bachman,- Christian 332 

Bachman, Ellis 333 

Bachman Families ....332, 743, 1471 

Bachman, Miss Harriet 456 

Bachman, Jay 743 

Bachman, John B 1471 


Bachman, John M 791 

Bachman, John W S3i 

Bachman, Lewis 945 

Bachman, Morris 333 

Bachman, Miss Reibecca 456 

Bachman, Samuel 456 

Baer, Chrisitian R iS3 

Baer, John 152 

Baer, Mlartin H 1031 

Baer, Mrs. Mary L 153 

Baer, Reuben A 152 

Baer, Squire S. C 1096 

Bahn, Adam 1269 

Bailey, John H 1095 

Baily, EHsha W., M. D 7S 

Bair Family 1017, 1091 

Bair, George W 534 

Bair, Henry R 1091 

Bair, Howard M 1166 

Bair, Jacob A 1183 

Bair, John B 1017 

Bair, John J 805 

Baker, Amos 220 

Baker, Andrew 78 

Baker Families 496, 681 

Baker, George F 681 

Baker, Jos:eph W 1196 

Baker, Miss Louise 681 

Baker, Thomas 496 

Balmier Family 1418 

Balmer, Israel P I4S4 

Balmer, John F 1418 

Balmer, Oliver C 833 

Balthaser, John F 903 

Banzhof, John 849 

Bard Families 344. 961 

Bard, George 1420 

Bard, Samuel, Jr.., 961 

Bard, U. G 344 

Bard, Wayne 1043 

Bare, Adam 310 

Bare, Milton L isoi 

Bare, Samuel G 414 

Bare, Wayne 309 

Barefoot, William M 1254 

Barnett, Benjamin F 934 

Barnett, Joseph 536 

Barnholt. William S 846 

Barr, Benjamin 749 

Barr, Beniamin M 716 

Barr, B. Frank i337 

Barr Family 7i6 

Barr, Martin I57 

Barr, Susanna M 716 

Bartch, Amos 1249 


Bartch, Mrs. Mary E 1250 

Bartholomew, David H 913 

Barton, Benjamin S 135 

Barton Family 968 

Barton, Henry 840 

Barton, Miss Lizzie 1 840 

Barton, Matthias 187 

Barton, Ralph A 1243 

Barton, William H 968 

Bassler, Christian G 571 

Bates, W. Edgar, M. D 1340 

Batten, Hiram L 537 

Bauer, Eugene ^S 

Bauer, Mrs. Judith 688 

Baughman Family 662 

Baughman, Hervey 662 

Baumgardner Family 386 

Baumgardner, Henry K 386 

Baumgardner, John H 168 

Baumgardner, Mrs. Mary S. . . . 923 

Bausman Family 56 

Bausman, Jacob S6 

Bausman, John W. B 58 

Beamesderfer, John 1302 

Bear, Albert R 1002 

Bear, Elias 463 ■ 

Bear, William G 1368 

Beard, Samuel J 483 

Beates Family 752 

Beates, Frederick A 662 

Beates, Harry S 7S2 

Beck, Peter R 1376 

Becker Family 1000 

Becker, John F 660 

Becker, Levi 855 

Becker, Michael 1000 

Beckler, Henry B 1511 

Beiler, Joseph H 551 

Bell, Henry D 1282 

Bell, William J 826 

Bender Families 557, 1035 

Bender, Franklin 1413 

Bender, John (Manheim) 1035 

Bender, John (Upper Leacock) 975 

Bender, John W 975 

Bender, Kinzer, Jr 965 

Bender, William K 557 

Bender, W. K •. 1349 

Benkert, George 623 

Bennett Family 1239 

Bennett, Harry A logS 

Bennett, John T 1283 

Bennett, Joseph M 1239 

Bergman, Andrew 316 

Besore, David F 430 




Besore, Henry J 1155 

Best, James B 422 

Best, John 420 

Betz, Mrs. Catherine 87 

Betz, Jacob, Jr pog 

Betz, Jacob, Sr 87, 909 

Betz, Philip 88 

Beyer Family 776 

Beyer, Josiah 776 

Bicknell, Walter F 490 

Bingeman, S. H 1000 

Binkley, Abraham E 1108 

Binkley, David E 1077 

Binkley Families 911, 1324 

Binkley, Henry 1290 

Binkley, Henry F 911 

Binkley, Capt. John L 1323 

Binnesderfer, S. L 1372 

Bireley Family 831 

Bireley, George W 831 

Bitner, Abraham 585 

Bitner, Mrs. Amelia 1031 

Bitner, David P 1031 

Bitner, John R 584 

Bitzer, Martin R 403 

Bitzer, R. R i486 

Black, Hon. James 1323 

Black, J. Joseph 1297 

Blank, David S 893 

Blank Family 894 

Blank, John S 877 

Bleacher, Benjamin F 1044 

Bleacher, Mrs. Ellen E 1044 

Bletz, John H 764 

Bletz, Mrs. Naomi 764 

Blickenderfer, Henry 720 

Blickenderfer, Richard 720 

Blough, Hon. Henry K., M. D. 736 

Boardman, Arthur I3S0 

Bolster, George 1238 

Bolton Family 976 

Bolton, Wiilmer ' P 976 

_ Bomberger Family 105 1 

'Bomberger, Henry 1 193 

Bomberger, Henry H 1051 

Bomberger, Jacob H 488 

Bomberger, Philip L 1 194 

Book. Daniel 1483 

Book, Flam G 984 

Book Family 1483 

Book. John G 414 

Bookman, Harry R 993 

Bookman, William H 993 

Books, Franklin 1035 

Bowers, Michael F 905 

Bowman, Amos 829 

Bowman Family 317 

Bowman, Franklin 317 

Bowman, Isaac M' 1443 

Bowman, John M ' 7S3 

Bowman, Right Rev. Samuel, 

D. D 24 

Boyd, Hon. C. G 143 

Boyd, Henry C 231 

Boyd, Samuel H 830 

Boyd, Samuel H. (1862) 1300 

Brackbill, Mrs. Anna '. 874 

Brackbill, Benjamin 874 

Brackbill, Christian E loog 

Brackbill, Rev. Christian M. .. . 276 

Brackbill, Elias E 366 

Brackbill Families . .'. 276, 365 

Brackbill, Henry P 365 


Brackbill, Levi H 1445 

Bradley, John S ' 1046 

Brandt, David 414 

Brandt, David H 64a 

Brandt Family 1068 

Brandt, Frederick H....^ 1311 

Brandt, Harriet 414 

Brandt, John 1261 

Brandt, Mrs. Margaret 1261 

Brandt, Mrs. Maria E 1069 

Brandt, Mrs. Mary P 640 

Brandt, Samuel L 1068 

Brecht, Michael 1334 

Breed, Rev. Walter R., B. S., 

B. D 1217 

Breinig, Jacob 1237 

Breneraan, Mrs. Anna M. (West 

Hempfield) 678 

Breneman, Anna M. (Lan- 
caster) 68 

Breneman, Major B. Frank 388 

Breneman, Benjamin K 1473 

Breneman, Elmer M 910 

Breneman Families 388, 1473 

Breneman, George L 1371 

Breneman, Dr. Henry F 1014 

Breneman, Henry M. 1 678 

Breneman, Capt. Henry N 68 

Breneman, Henry P 639 

Breneman, Henry R 1397 

Breneman, Jacob K 1474 

Breneman, John L. (Mt. Joy) . . 1409 

Breneman, Joseph K 723 

Brenholtz Family 907 

Brenholtz, Walter S., M. D 907 

Brenneman, Franklin 315 

Brenneman, John L 1389 

Bressler, George B 830 

Brimmer, John A 1080 

Brinton, Charles C 637 

Brinton Families 719, 1173 

Brinton, James 1272 

Brinton, Joshua 622 

Brinton, Lewis 313 

Brinton, Mrs. Lydia T 1272 

Brinton, Mrs. Mary B 313 

Brinton, Mrs. Susan M 1391 

Brinton, Mrs. Susanna 719 

Brinton, William 7jg 

Brinton, William P 1391 

Brinton. William P. (Christi- 
ana) . .. 1172 

Brinton, William R., Esq 1391 

Brison, Jacob L 875 

Brobst, James C, M. D 158 

Broome. John C 773 

Brosius, Jesse 357 

Brosius, Hon. Miarriott, LL. D. 16 

Brosius, Hon. William H 145 

Brown, Alvin 539 

Brown, Alfred M 207 

Broiwn, Arthur 320 

Brown, Benjamin W 321 

Brown. Mrs. Clara H 773 

Brown, Davis A 501 

Brown, Edwin H 772 

Brown, Elmer E 321 

Brown Families 68, 320, 1478 

Brown, Frank 1478 

Brown, George 320 

Brown, George H 321 

Brown, George H. (Little Brit- 
ain) 980 

Brown, George W 1294 

Brown, Hiram F 320 

Brown, Jacob J 1142 

Brown, Jacob K 71 

Brown, John H 1142 

Brown, Josiah 284 

Brown, Levi K 70 

Brown, Mrs. Margaret C 1142 

Brown, Mrs. Mary A : 284 

Brown, Slater F 504 

Brown, Thomas J 320 

Brown, Walter G 321 

Brubaker Families. .. .352, 1064, 1133 

Brubaker, Frank S 1064 

Brubaker) Henry S 475 

Brubaker, Jacob B 737 

Brubaker, Bishop Jacob N 354 

Brubaker, J. Frank 1049 

Brubaker, John D 85 

Brubaker, Joseph E 434 

Brubaker, Joseph S 1178 

Brubaker, Mrs. Marianna 659 

Brubaker, Martin K 1114 

Brubaker, Martin N 1427 

Brubaker, Nathaniel K 1133 

Brubaker, Oliver B 1458 

Brubaker, Philip 351 

Brubaker, Roland S 559 

Brubaker, Rolandus 11 12 

Brubaker, Samuel 1431 

Brubaker, William B 737 

Bruce, Amos F 1021 

Bruner, Alfred C 1188 

Bruner Family 1188 

Bruner, Jacob M 1371 

Bruner, Owen F 1370 

Bryson, L. M., M. D 238 

Bryson, William M 1221 

Buch, Henry B 782 

Buch, J. Frank 1350 

Buch, Jonathan B 1313 

Buch, Mrs. Mary A 1313 

Buchanan, James 430 

Bucher Family 1032 

Biicher, Frederick 576 

Bucher, Frederick C, M. D 577 

Bucher, Rev. George 1032 

Buckius, Charles 433 

Buckwalter, George L 726 

Buckwalter, Isaac (West Lam- 
peter) 780 

Buckwalter, Isaac loio 

Buckwalter, John 780 

Buckwalter, Silas R 1218 

Buehrle, Robert K 440 

Bunn, William' H 641 

Bunting, Walter S 535 

Burger, Prof. Chris 1505 

Burger, Henry 359 

Burger, John A 588 

Burger, Rev. S. Clement 1319 

Burkholder, Abraham W 954 

Burkholder, Amos E 900 

Burkholder, Ezra 1003 

Burkholder, Ezra H 1003 

Burkholder Family \ 095 

Burkholder, John R ..'. 803 

Burkholder, Joseph ' .' 1050 

Burkholder. Weidler B 995 

Burrowes, Thomas H., LL. D. . 104 

Burt, Arthur 272 

Burt Family 272 

Burt, Nathaniel 272 




Bush, Philip S 189 

Bushong, S. E 1515 

Butz, John 1321 

Byers, Benjamin F 742 

Byers Family 742 

Byers, Jacob J 607 

Byers, John 607 

Cain, James M 1214 

Cairnes, Rev. William G 1506 

Caldwell, William J 895 

Cameron Family 3 

Cameron, Gen. Simon 3 

Cameron, Maj. Simon B 3 

Campbell Family 907 

Campbell, Samuel 907 

Cannon, John A 914 

Cannon, Mrs. John A 914 

Carmany, Jacob S 1522 

Carpenter, Christian G 1113 

Carpenter (or Zimmerman), 

Emanuel 163 

Carpenter Families 186, 522 

Carpenter, Henry 186 

Carpenter, Samuel L 522 

Carpenter, WilUam S 1184 ' 

Carrigan, Enos 429 

Carrigan, Joseph 1102 

Carter, John H 1072 

Cassel, Abram N 312 

Cassel, Abraham H 330 

Cassel, George L., M. D 1132 

Cassel, Hon. H. Burd 3J2 

Cas6el, Jacob 330 

Causse, John B 216 

Champneys, Judge Benjamin... 13 

Charles, Amos 1014 

Charles, Andrew 304 

Charles, Mrs. Anna L 85 

Charles, Barbara A 1006 

Charles, Christian F 246 

Charles, David H 283 

Charles Families 282, 1006 

Charles, Miss Harriet 304 

Charles, Henry H 892 

Charles, Jacob 483 

Charles, John A 84 

Charles, John F 706 

Charles, John F. (1857) 417 

Charles, Joseph 416 

Charles, Levi F 1482 

Charles, Willis B 1474 

Chartiere, Martin 78 

Christ, Michael K 924 

Christ, Norman M 924 

Clair, Stephen S 199 

Clark Family 997 

Oark, Franklin 179 

Clark, John 319 

Coble, Mrs. Anna A 710 

Coble, Christian H 709 

Cochran Family 160 

Cochran, Harry B 162 

Cbchran, John J 1343 

Cochran, Thomas B 160 

Collier, Cloyd R 795 

Collins Family 959 

Collins, James P 232 

Collins, Judge Orestes 13 

Collins, Ross C 992 

Collins, Thomas 992 

Collins, Thomas S 9S9 

Conley, Thomas E 1307 

Connelly Family 917 


Connelly, Samuel S 917 

Conner, Henry 1449 

Conrad, John 598 

Cook, Clifford 1059 

Cooney, J. M 1427 

Cooper, Calvin 636 

Cooper, Joseph P , I140 

Cooper, Rufus K 967 

Cornelius, William 1318 

Corrigan, John H 1260 

Cox, Walter J 1460 

Craig, Alexander, M. D 133 

Craig, Alexander R., M. D 134 

Cramer, Owen 1159 

Cramer, Rev. W. Stuart 1220 

Crane, George 947 

Crane, Col. Robert 361 

Crawford, John 1260 

Crawford, Rev. John A 856 

Crawford, Oliver 1260 

Crist Family 1190 

Crist, William E 1190 

Crouse Family ; 1347 

Crouse, William M 1347 

Crumbaugh, Rev. John S 15 12 

Cully, George G 977 

Cully, Thomas 300 

Cutler Family 996 

Cutler, Irwin : 996 

Dague, William 601 

Dambach, David H 1472 

Dambach Family 974 

Dambach, Henry H 1422 

Dare Family 75 

Davis, Eli W 999 

Daivis Family 757 

Davis, Hill E 569 

Davis, Jenkins 1519 

Davis, Reese H 757 

Davis, S. T., M. D 1388 

Deen, David L 328 

Deen Family 328 

DeHaven, Abraham A 1248 

DeHaven, Mrs. Clara E 1414 

DeHaven, Edward P 97° 

DeHaven Families Iii, 1248 

Deichler, Albert Mi. 1230 

Dellet, Adam 1258 

Delp, George Mi 53i 

Demmy, Aaron B 1045 

Denlinger, Abraham R 495 

Denlinger, Benjamin K 527 

Denlinger, B. Willis 936 

Denlinger, Daniel 482 

Denlinger, Daniel H 748 

Denlinger, Daniel K 11 33 

Denlinger, Elmer K i IS4 

Denlinger Families 748, 936 

Denlinger, Freeland L 748 

Denlinger, Jacob 498 

Denlmger, Jacob (Leacock)... 933 

Denlinger, Jacob B 1408 

Denlinger, Jacob M 1 136 

Denlinger, John B 498 

Denlinger, Mrs. Margaret 482 

Denlinger, Samuel 1284 

Denlinger, Simon SSo 

Denlinger, Mrs. Susanna 496 

Denney, John Q 304 

Dennison, Joseph 1058 

Derrick, Richard J 1416 

Desch, George S 1306 

Desch, Joseph G 1015 


Detwiler, Hiram L 904 

Detwiler. Joseph 912 

Detwiler, William B 743 

Detz, John G 1293 

Detz, Joseph 1317 

Deutsch, Mrs. Elizabeth 1369 

Deutsch, Kaufman 1369 

Dickey, J. Scott 1359 

Diem, John H 710 

Diem, John K 810 

Dierolf, William 1522 

Dietrich Family 708 

Dietrich, Pljilip 708 

Dietrich, Samiuel 706 

Diffenbach, John R 26 

Diffenbaugh, Aaron H 427 

Diffenderffer, Fra;nk R 172 

Diller, Mrs. A. M 565 

Diller, Charies F 1328 

Diller, Edwin C 424 

Diller, Elias 376 

Diller Family 564 

Diller, Grabill 1496 

Diller, Isaac 564 

Diller, Isaac (Leacock) 1443 

Diller, Lewis 1496 

Diller, Roland 28 " 

Diller, Samuel W 1090 

Diller, William F 1322 

Dillich, Franklin 793 

Dillinger Family 982 

Dillinger, Henry K 982 

Dinks, Henry 1495 

Divet, Mlarion 13^ 

Doble, Charles 971 

Doble, Charles A 971 

Dodge, Byron G 600 

Donley, Hugh 1022 

Donoghue, Dennis 175 

Donoghue, Mirs. Jane 175 

Dorsey, Mrs. Martha 1024 

Dorsey, Samuel 1024 

Dorsheimer, Peter 1082 

Douglas Family 1507 

Dorwart, Martin 323 

Doutrick, Byram 1382 

Drennen. James K 498 

Drybread, H. M 956 

Duffy, James 8 

Duffy, Col. James 7 

Duffy, Mrs. Martha 8 

Dunlap, Andrew J 1232 

Dunlap Family 1232 

Dunlap. Mrs. Frances 1233 

Dutt, Christian 414 

Eaby, C. Reese 1343 

Eaby Family 253 

Eaby, George W 459 

Eabi', Jacob 724 

Eaby, Jacob M 253 

Eaby, Jason K 275 

Eaby, Joseph Ii8g 

Eaiby, Peter R 1338 

Easton, Rev, William, D, D 19 

Eavenson, Benjamin 1178 

Eberle, John, M. D 185 

Eberly, Adam J 381 

Ebersole, Jacob L 861 

Ebersole, Samuel E.. 1362 

Eby, Araaziah B 435 

Eby, Amos F 512 

Eby, Christian 509 

Eby, Elias 444 




Eby, Emanuel W 288 

Eby Families 480, 511 

Eby, Henry N 511 

Eby, Henry W I180 

Eby, Bishop Isaac 316 

Eby, Isaac D 117 

Eby, John - N 480 

Eby, Lemuel C 796 

Eby, Hon. Milton 1493 

Eby, Samuel 510 

Eby, Sim 435 

Eby, Simon P 268 

Ecicert, Otomer S 834 

Eckmian, B. D 437 

Eckman Family 1182 

Eckman, Miller 1182 

Eckman, William H 1131 

Edgerley, Edward 368 

Edwards, William H 975 

Efinger, Adolph 818 

Ehrenf ried, Joseph 131 

Eisenberg, Simon U 1172 

Elliott, Samuel 646 

Ellmaker, Amos 60 

Ellmaker, Levi, Esq 648 

Ellmaker, Nathaniel 64 

'Ellmaker, Mrs. Nathaniel 65 

Ellmaker, Thomas, M. D 60 

Elser Family 767 

Elser, Peter 767 

Engle, Abraham W 558 

Engle, Daniel G 258 

Engle Families 257, 29s 

Engle, Frederick 929 

Engle, Frederick S 929 

Engle, Mrs. Harriet 765 

Engle, Hon. Henry M 258 

Engle, Jacob H 765 

Engle, Levi L 428 

Engle, Samuel G 836 

Engle, Simon H 295 

English, John W 970 

Epler, ChrisUian M 1489 

Epler, John H 1383 

Epler, P. S 1278 

Erb, Abraham 1 150 

Erb; A. Lincoln 1371 

Erb, Benijamiin H 1411 

Erb, Clayton iocs 

Erb, Daniel B 7 1150 

Jirb Family 465 

Erb, Henry R 512 

Erb, Hiram L 465 

Erb, Israel G 192 

Erb, Mlahlon 942 

Erb, Samuel B 950 

Erb, William W 96s 

Erisman, Christian 597 

Erisman, Clement S 1515 

Erisman, John 377 

Esbens'hade, Abraham 1128 

Esbenshade, Christian B 203 

Esbenshade, Isaac B 881 

Esbenshade, Joseph H 1158 

Esbenshade, Peter 1157 

Esbenshade, Peter B 1352 

Esbbach, Abraham L 11 16 

Eshbach, Henry F 1033 

Eshbach, John B 1500 

Eshelman, David B 1503 

Eshelman, David M 949 

Eshelman Family 949 

Eshelman, Henry S 1026 

Albert H 

Benjamin K 


Rev. Daniel M. 

David, Sr 

David B 

David F 

David G 



440, 924, 1122, 

Eshleman, George R 

Eshleman, H. Frank 

Eshleman, Jacoib 

Eshleman, Jacob S 

Eshleman, John B., Esq 

Eshleman, Samuel 

Eshleman, Samuel S 

Eshleman, Walter M 

Evans. Benjamin 

Evans Family 

Evans, Franklin J 

Evans, Capt. Samuel 

Evans, Rev. Sydney K 

E-vans, William L 

Eyer, David M 




1 122 

1 153 






1 153 


Eager, Charles F 1164 

Fairer Family 955 

Fairer, William W., Jr 955 

Farmer, Clayton R 1354 

Fasnacht, Joel 184 

Fausnacht. Samuel S 949 

Fawkes, Joseph W 23 

Feagley, Frank S 1246 

Feagley, John 1246 

Ferguson, Christian C 277 

Ferguson, John G 1476 

Ferguson, Joiin W 395 

Ferguson, Mrs. Sarah A 277 

Ferry, James H 759 

Fieles, Martin M' 713 

Fink, William D., M. D 1201 

Fisher, Daniel S 1 120 

Fisher, David R 1313 

Fisher, Mrs. Elizabeth 758 

Fisher, Henry 758 

Fisher, Philip 1405 

Fisher, Sheridan D 1313 

Fitler, James W 525 

Flickinger Family 886 

Flickinger, John 885 

Flowers, Addison S 1498 

Folmer, Frank R 740 

Foltz, Jonathan M 10 

Foltz, Peter Y 877 

Foltz. Samuel F 895 

FonDersmith, Charles A 76 

Fordney, Thomas P 1068 

Foreman Family 812 

Foreman, Peter 812 

Forney, Abraham R 432 

Forney, David R 1273 

Forney, John W 154 

Forney, Levi R 1422 

Forrest Family 79 

Forrest, Hon. George 79 

Forrey, Amos N 1267 

Forrey, Danief N 839 

Forrey, Isaac N 1361 

Forrey, Jacob C 390 

Forrey, John 1266 

Forrey, John C 607 

Forry, Daniel D 14S0 


Fox, Henry 1088 

Fox, Jacob D 938 

Fox, Mrs. Margaret 1088 

Frailey Family 880 

Frailey, William 880 

Frame, Rev. Cleveland 11 14 

France, Ike 583 

Frank, Charles 977 

Franklin Family 402 

Franklin, George M 462 

Franklin, Thomas E 402 

Franklin, Walter 13, 402 

Franklin, Walter M 402 

Frantz Family 734 

Frantz, Henry L 226 

Frantz, John R 734 

Frantz, Mrs. Susan E. W 226 

Freitchie, Barbara 205 

Frew, George W. H., M. D. . . 1226 

Frew, William C 1226 

Frey, Charles H 1168 

Frey Family 824 

Frey, Henry D 1457 

Frey, James F 1276 

Frey, Samuel F 824 

Fridy, Sam Matt 236 

Fritchey, Rev. John G 372 

Fritchey, Joseph U 376 

Fritz, Ezra B 1436 

Froelich, John M 404 

Fry, Rev. Charles L 615 

Fry, Emanuel G 1352 

Fry Families 615, 1169 

Fry, Jacob M 1169 

Fry, Menno M 740 

Fry, Phares W 1332 

Frybarger, Sylvester 563 

Fuhrman, William 1368 

Fulton, Edgar F 843 

Fulton, Hugh R., Esq 412 

Funk, Amos G 1016 

Funk, Henry K 220 

Funk, Isaac S 542 

Funk, John H 1451 

Furniss Family 426 

Furniss, John M 426 

Futer, Amos 206 

Futer, Andrew J 1134 

Gable, Michael F 937 

Gable, William K 1084 

Gallagher, Albert L 1376 

Gamber, John H 906 

Gamiberling, John H 1056 

Gantner, John 128 

Gara, Miss Elizabeth 32 

Gara, Hugh S 31 

Garber, Amos E 1384 

Garber, Andrew 1295 

Garber, Andrew M 1 124 

Garber, Christian G 1307 

Garber, David L 931 

Garber Family 931 

Garber, Henry G 943 

Garber, Jacob L 884 

Garber, John E 973 

Garber, John S 1195 

Garber, Simon E 1 102 

Garber, Mrs. Susan 1195 

Gardiner Family 150 

Gardiner, Rev. Frederic, A. M. 150 

Gardner, Edmund 923 

Gardner Family 923 




Garrett, Elwood P 1312 

Garrett, George K 850 

Garvin, Milton T 852 

Ga'st, Christian 140 

Gast, Frederick A., D. D 140 

Gatchell, Hon. J. C, M. D.... 1177 

Geiger, Mrs. Catherine M 339 

Geiger, Christopher 148, 543 

Geiger, William C 543 

Geist, Henry 14 

Geist, Isaac S 1400 

Geist, J. M. W 88 

Geist, John 487 

Gemperling, Henry C 580 

Gensemer, Mrs. Mary A 1093 

Gensemer, Samuel G 1093 

Gerhard, Rev. Dariits W., A. M. 55 

Gerhard Family SS 

Gerhard, Milton U., M. D 589 

Gerhart, Rev. Emanuel V., 

D. D., LL. D 33 

Gerhart, Henry 556 

Gerhart, John 379 

Gerhart, Col. William R., A. M. 1342 

Getz Family 578 

Getz, Noah L 578 

Geyer, George S ........ .■ 418 

Gibble, Isaac S 1277 

Gibble, Isaac W 1277 

Gibbons, Joseph, M. D 659 

Gibson, George 199 

Gibson, Henry W 747 

Gibson, John 1 179 

Gibson, Samuel 1220 

Gibson, Mrs. Susan 1179 

Gilbert, Amos 562 

Gilbert, Edwin M 533 

Gillespie. George W., M. D 363 

Ginder, Ephraim C 1087 

Gingrich, Alfred B 1499 

Gingrich, Jonas S 1521 

Gingrich, Milton E 1520 

Girfin, Frank G 1317 

Girvin. Robert 499 

Gish, Mirs. Amanda S 328 

Gish, Amos R 1473 

Gish Famiily 327 

Gish, Henry B 327 

Gish, Henry J 1470 

Gish, Jacob R 144S 

Gish, Peter R 1305 

Given, Frank S 493 

Given, William B 492 

Givler, Hosea 1287 

Glass, Samuel 1296 

Glatfeker, David L. 1109 

Glatfelter Family 1109 

Glatfelter, Harris A 497 

Glosser, William A 1227 

Gochnauer, Andrew H 1358 

Gochnauer Family 538 

Gochnauer, John M 538 

Gochnauer, Joseph H 538 

Gochnauer, Samuel 247 

Goldbach, George G 853 

Goll, John A 1211 

Good, Amos G 1288 

Good, Benjamin 1158 

Good, David K 1106 

Good, Mrs. Elizabeth 96 

Good, Ezra M logo 

Good Family 573 

Good, Henry 1461 


Good, Isaac B 877 

Good, Jacob H 1429 

Good, J. Martin 575 

Good, John B 95 

Good, John E 433 

Good, John J 1501 

Good, Martin H 1453 

•Good, Martin R 1092 

Good, Miss Mary 433 

Good, Michael R 343 

Good. Solomon H 883 

Goos, Henry 1381 

Gorrecht, William P 1380 

Goss, Christian E 643 

Grab, Frederick V 355 

Grab, Mrs. Louise 356 

Gra'bill, Clayton L 858 

Grady. John 875 

Graeff. David 619 

Graeff, John H 620 

Graham, Dana 114 

Graham, Mrs. Lucy M 114 

Grasnick. Dr. Dorothea J. L... 876 

Graul, Daniel D 933 

Graul Family 933 

Graver, Amos 317 

Graver, Henry M 1415 

Graver, Henry M., Jr 1415 

Graybill, Hon. David W 800 

Graybill Families 715,1187 

Graybill, Herman W 715 

Graybill, Rev. Jacob N 296 

Graybill. Samuel G loii 

Grebill, John B 1 191 

Greenleaf. F. M 1470 

Greer, Adam 1102 

Greer, John A iioi 

Gregg, Lewis B 1D18 

Greider, Amos M 917 

Greider, Christian 678 

Greider, Mlartiti 1386 

Greider, Samuel S 1305 

Greiner, Anthony G 1087 

Gress. George W 1113 

Greybill, Rufus D 1004 

Grier. William H 53 

Griest, Major Ellwood 92 

Griest. Hon. W. W 92 

Griffiths. Herman B 896 

Grilhortzer, Esther A 446 

Gril'bortzer, Gottleib 446 

Grissinger. Jacob R 1408 

Groff, Abraham B. loio 

Groff. Abraham S 422 

Groff. Adam ISII 

Groff. Adam R 406 

GrofF. Aldus 1215 

Groff, Amos 1264 

Groff. A mos H 1064 

Groflf, Christian 279 

Groff. David 187 

Groff. David E 566 

Groff. Rev. Elias 103 

Groff. Ezra 912 

Groff Families 

103. 263. 204, 566. 805, 845, 1064 

Groff. Frank R ■^55 

Groff. Frank S .* 84.^ 

Groff. Harry 406 

Groff. Henry L 452 

Groflf. Isaac 203 

Groff. Rev. J. N 263 

Groff, John L 734 


Groff, John M. (East Drumore) 1246 

Groff, John M. (Strasburg) . . . 407 

Groff, John M. (Lancaster) . . . 664 

Groff, M. H 834 

Groflf, Martin K 1008 

Groff, Nathaniel S 761 

Groflf, Silas E 491 

Groff, Wenger R 1231 

Groff, William S 805 

Grosh, John 1183 

Grosh, Samuel E 629 

Gross Family 639 

Gross, Levi S 639 

Grubb, Charles B 50 

Grubb, Clement B 49 

Grubb, Miss Daisy E. B 50 

Grubb Family 48 

Grubb, Henry B 49 

Grube, David K 606 

Grube, George B 1264 

Grube, Martin H 405 

Grube, William C 942 

Gruber, John C 1479 

Gruel, Jacob W 1 197 

Gruger, Pearson E 944 

Guiles Family 1303 

Guiles, William M 1303 

Gunzenhauser, Christian 888 

Guthrie, William H 797 

Habecker, Christian 1346 

Habecker, Joseph H 1487 

Habecker, Joseph K 1419 

Hackenberger, George W 633 

Hacker, Mrs. Lavinia L 338 

Hacker, Levi S 337 

Hackman Family 771 

Hackman, Franklin S 771 

Hackman, Jacob W 771 

Haefner, Joseph 656 

Hager, Charles F 179 

Hager, Christopher 555 

Hager, Christopher (1800).... 179 

Hager Family 178 

Haines Family 701 

Haines, Henry B 701 

Haines. John F 764 

Halbach, Jacob 1200 

Haldeman, Samuel S 144 

Haldy, Lewis 560 

Haldy, William Y 560 

Hall, Edward C 548 

Hall, Joseph A 1081 

Hall, N. Franklin 879 

Hamaker. John S . . . '. 962 

Hambleton, Thomas B 652 

Hamibright, Albert B 1505 

Hambright, Mrs. Fanny 1403 

Hambright, George 1402 

Hambright, Prof. George M... 170 

Hambright, Mrs. William T... 293 

Hamilton, John A 1275 

Hamilton, Lafayette 867 

Hamilton. William 714 

Hamt), William H., Sr 1071 

Hanck, George 224 

Hanck, Michael S 1067 

Hanck, Samuel M 1068 

Hanna, Charles G 1005 

Hannum, Preston E 729 

Hark, Dr. Hugo C 1135 

Harm, William 760 

Harman, Daniel 153 



Harner, Henry C 155 

Harner, Jesse 473 

Harner, John S 486 

Harner, Joseph 1049 

Harner, Samuel 482 

Harnish, Abraham 717 

Harnish, Abraham B 1204 

Harnish, Amos B 11 18 

Harnish, Benjamin 786 

Harnish, Benjamin B 940 

Harnish, Daniel F 1030 

Harnish, David F 309 

Harnish, David H 1038 

Harnish, David L 908 

Harnish, H. H 1453 

Harnish, Michael 786 

Harper, Joseph D 516 

Harple, Franklin G 1062 

Harrar, A. Jackson 1057 

Harrar Family I0S7 

Harrar, John D 1257 

Harris, Alexander 59 

Harry, Willis G. 1373 

Hart, Stephen J 1454 

Hartman, Aaron E 976 

Hartman, Albert 860 

Hartman, Mrs. Anna M 1500 

Hartman, Mks. Catherine. 1331 

Hartman, David K 1380 

Hartman, George H 1300 

Hartman, Henry F 1331 

Hartman, John 1 248 

Hartman, John K 1518 

Hartman, Lewis S 540 

Hartman, Mrs. Mary A S4i 

Hartman, Samuel 488 

Hartman, Samuel B., M. D 968 

Hassler, Aaron B iioi 

Hassler Family iioi 

Hastings, Miss Emma R 4S9 

Hastings Family 403 

Hastings, Joto 458 

Hastings, Joseph D 403 

Hastings, L. Rutter 1171 

Hastings, William S 269 

Hatz, Mrs. Harriet 355 

Hatz, John 3S4 

Hatz, Samuel 354 

Hauck, David C 902 

Haupt, Rev. Charles E., D. D.. 1212 

Haverstick, Abraham B ...... . 334 

Haverstick, Mrs. Annde B 946 

Haverstick, David C 596 

Haverstick Families 596, 656 

Haverstick, Johti M 1418 

Haverstick, Levi 656 

Haverstick, Levi H 946 

Hawthorn, George W 1245 

Hayes, Enos P 995 

Hayes Family 995 

Hays, Charles 478 

Hays, John L 809 

Heagy, H. R 852 

Heckler, Franklin J 311 

Heidelbaugh Family 324 

Heidelbaugh, Hon. Milton 324 

Heidlebach, Jacob H 1484 

Heidler Family 795 

Heim, George 790 

Heim, George, Jr 1316 

Heim, John F 1060 

Heine. Paul 468 

Heinitsh, Charles A 208 


Heinitsh, John F 210 

Heinitsh, Sigmund W 209 

Heinitsh, Walter A 209 

Heinitz, Anton Frederick, Bar- 
on von 208 

Heintzelman, Samuel P 206 

Heise, B. Frank 932 

Heisey, Edward L 1208 ■ 

Heisey Family 1138 

Heisey, George R 899 

Heisey, John W 1360 

Heisey, Joseph K 1359 

Heisey, Jacob W 1438 

Heisey, Martin N -I136 

Heisev, Simon C 967 

Heisey, W. Scott I4S9 

Heistand, Franklin Ml 846 

Heitshu, William A 384 

Helfrich, Matthias S 1103 

Heller Family 938 

Heller, Deacon Henry D 938 

Heller, John S 1125 

Helm, Daniel 227 

Helm, D. E 303 

Helm, Frank W 475 

Henderson, Archibald L 667 

Henderson, Jacob M 247 

Henderson, James B 1358 

Henderson, Mrs. Margaret A.. 667 

Henderson, William 1259 

Henderson, Mrs. William 1259 

Henderson, Col. William C. . . . 702 

Hennecke, Mrs. Sarah J 279 

Hennecke, William F 279 

Henninger, N. C i457 

Henry, Benjamin F 1194 

Henry, Judge John J 13 

Hensel Family 1236 

Hensel, N. N 449 

Hensel, Hon. William U 373 

Hensel, William W 1236 

Herchelroth, Norman F 1C09 

Herman, Adam T 1300 

Herman, J. Peter 1171 

Hernley, Abrami 954 

Hernley Family 954 

Herr, Aaron 887 

Herr, Abraham 228 

Herr, Abraham B 448 

Herr, Rev. Abraham B 173 

Herr, Abraham G 1225 

Herr, Abraham H 817 

Herr, Albert M. 802 

Herr, Allan A 205 

Herr, Ambrose J., M. D 185 

Herr, Amos F 783 

Herr, Amos H 393 

Herr, Amos K 699 

Herr, Andrew 649 

Herr, Benjamin B 1425 

Herr, Benjamin G 205 

Herr, Mrs. Charlotte 1335 

Herr, Christian. 817 

Herr, Christian B 176 

Herr, Christian S. B 361 

Herr, Cyrus S 400 

Herr, Daniel ( Pequea) 679 

Herr. Daniel D 582 

Herr, Col. Daniel H 29 

Herr, David E 1204 

Herr, D. Jefferson 857 

Herr, Elias 1089 

Herr, Elias H 709 


Herr, Emanuel H 1327 

Herr. Families 29, 

176, 204, 254, 679, 802, 1041, 1066 

Herr, F. M 1306 

Herr, Francis ' 1335 

Herr, Francis L 807 

Herr, George K 708 

Herr, Harry B loi I 

Herr, Henry B 985 

Herr, Henry M 370 

Herr, Hiram P 964 

Herr, Isaac 798 

Herr, Isaac R 227 

Herr, Jacob 817 

Herr, Jacob K 826 

Herr, J. Aldus. ,. ' 1219 

Herr, Jeremiah 267 

Herr, J. Haldeman 176 

Herr, John 964 

Herr, John B 383 

Herr, John D 1118 

Herr, John L 254 

Herr, John R 1311 

Herr, Martin 173 

Herr, Reuben D 679 

Herr, Rudolph S 652 

Herr, Silas S 1066 

Herr, Solomon R 1041 

Hersh, Benjamin F 1028 

Hersh, E. H ' I45S 

Hershey, Abraham L 1 159 

Hershey, Andrew H 567 

Hershey, Benjamin F 1372 

Hershey, Benjamin H 1326 

Hershey, Benjamin M 997 

Hershey, Benjamin W 726 

Hershey, Christian ml 

Hershey, Clarence B looi 

Hershey, Dianiel M 1504 

Hershey, Elias 142 

Hershey, Elias H 44 

Hershey, Ephraim 63, 677 

Hershey, Ephraim H 1485 

Hershey, Eusebius K 1163 

Hershey Families 62, 

141, 285, 471, 677, 726, 1 163, 1326 

Hershey, George B., M. D 930 

Hershey, Harry L 1083 

Hershey, Henry (Leacock).. . . 981 
Hershey, Henry (Lancaster) . . 190 

Hershey, Henry S 696 

Hershey, Jacob D., M. D 1099 

Hershey, Jacob E 63, 677 

Hershey, Jacob G 292 

Hershey, Jacob H 631 

Hershey, Jacob R 285 

Hershey, Rev. Jacob R 62, 676 

Hershey, Jacob S 671 

Hershey, J. Milton 1302 

Hershey, John E. . . .■ 698' 

Hershey, John E. (Paradise) . . 141 

Hershey, Josiab 649 

Hershey, Landis 1480 

Hershey, Mrs. Magdalena iiii 

Hershey, Peter E 471 

Hershour, .Abraham 470 

Hertgen, Joseph E 1382 

Hertzler Family 674 

Hertzler, John 644 

Hess, Abraham Z 1054 

Hess, B. Z 897 

Hess, Mrs. Catharine 1430 

Hess, Christian H 1472 




Hess, Conrad Z 802 

Hess, Daniel D 1430 

Hess, Daniel T 1139 

Hess, David H 552 

Hess Families 1051, 1054, 1440 

Hess, Mrs. Harriet A 1404 

Hess, Henry L 1461 

Hess, Isaiah F 1440 

Hess, John (Salisbury) 1404 

Hoss, John (Strasiburg) 1051 

Hess., John L 989 

Hess, John W., M. D 532 

Hess, Rev. Jonas H 666 

Hess, Miss Mame B 1462 

Hess, Martin G 863 

Hess, Noah G 1053 

Hess, Noah Z 804 

Hess,, Mrs. Sarah A 533 

Hess, Mts. Sarah J 195 

Hess, William G., M. D 1462 

Ifibshman Family 735 

Hibshmian, George 73S 

Hickey, John W 1295 

Hicks, George W 1502 

Hitstand Family 683 

Hie^Btand, Simon H 683 

Hiester, Isaac E 147 

Higbee; Elnathan E., D. D. 

LL. .D 96 

High, Mrs. Catherine A 700 

High, Samuel S 700 

Hildebrand, Isaac H 1413 

Hildebrand, Isaac N 942 

Hildebrand, Jacob 634 

Hiller, Casper 197 

Hilton, C. H 839 

Himes, Miss Anna C 676 

Himes, Clinton 684 

Himes, Re«s C 676 

Hinkle, Mrs. Anna 431 

Hinkle, Calvin G ion 

Hinkle, Charles H 517 

Hinkle Family 518 

Hinkle, Harry M 998 

Hinkle, Joseph 431, 951 

Hippey, George 379 

Hippie, Charles P 1271 

Hirsh, Abraham 822 

Hirsh, Benjamin W 861 

Hirsh, Leopold 822 

Hirst, Elder Thomas R 1241 

Hoak, Amos D 1433 

Hoak, Mrs. Caroline 1433 

Hoar, William C. 621 

Hocking, John 953 

Hoefel, Mrs. Elizabeth 775 

Hoefel, Frederick 775 

Hoffer Family 590 

Hoffer, Elder Henry B 1108 

Hoffer, Jacob R 590 

Hoffer, Tobias 397 

Hoffman, Abraham L 409 

Hoffman, Amos H 749 

Hoffman, Benjamin 408 

Hoffman, Benjamin F 410 

Hoffman, Christ S 487 

Hoffman, Clayton R 411 

Hoffman Families 409j 1156 

Hoffman, Henry 1160 

Hoffman, Henry B 1061 

Hoffman, Isaac W 1156 

Hoffman, Michael M 409 

Hoffman, Michael R 409 

Hoffman, Niorman R 411 

Hoffman, Paris R 408 

Hoffman, Peter S 1274 

Hoffmeier, Charles S 897 

Hoffmeier, George K 896 

Hogg Family 661 

Hogg, Squire William H 661 

Hpibein, Mirs. Elizabeth 1363 

Hohein, Osoar 1363 

Hoke, Joseph A 1449 

Hollinger, Amos 344 

Holman, John W 1453 

. Homsher Family 1181 

Homsher, Franklin 1466 

Homsher, John 1 181 

Hood, John D 927 

Hood, Thomas S 940 

Hook, John A 323 

Hook, John F 1286 

Hook, John H 1269 

Hook, John H. (Lancaster) . . . 746 

Hook, Mrs. Mary A 324 

Hookey, Benjamin F 644 

Hoopes, Maris 1262 

Hoover, Mrs. A. Lizzie 1284 

Hoover, Christian H 1040 

Hoover, John S 1284 

Hopkins Family 870 

Hopkins, William 870 

Horning, John 448 

Horst, Rev. Abraham 159 

Horst. David S 517 

Horst, John C. S 279 

Horst, Mrs. Louisa 279 

Hoster, Charles J 1523 

Hostetter, Abraham F 167 

Hostetter, Amaziah H 866 

Hostetter, Christian F 757 

Hostetter, Emanuel F 502 

Hostetter, Emanuel P 1094 

Hostetter Family 7S7 

Hostetter, Henry F 530 

Hostetter, John 502 

Hostetter, Jonas E 998 

Hostetter, Tillman N 998 

Hottenstein, Henry S 1027 

Hougendobler, Amos R 130 

Hougendobler, John J 1407 

Houser, Henry M 1337 

Houser, John E 134S 

Houston, Joseph W., M. D 244 

Houston, Robert J 240 

Howard, Mrs. Barbara 1376 

Ho'well, Msijor Charles M 20 

Howett, H. G 1414 

Howry, Walter C 1109 

Huber, Aaron 1439 

Htiber, Amos 559 

Huber, Abraham B 1481 

Huber, Christian 651 

Huber, Christian B 1318 

Huber, David 730 

Huber, David A 835 

Huber, David B 670 

Huber, David H 1300 

Huber, David H. (Martic) 1170 

Huber Families 57i. 730, 1040 

Huber, H. C 884 

Huber, Henry 284 

Huber, J. Miilton S7i 

Huber, Jonas 57° 

Huber, Levi B 925 

Huber, Martin 790 


Huber, Samuel M' i486 

Hufman Family in 

Hull Family 82 

Hull, George W 81 

Humble, William F 271 

Hunter, James 1483 

Hunsecker, Ellis E 890 

Hupper, Albert 1210 

Hurst, Matthias S 4Si 

Hurst, Michael W., M. D 1353 

Husson, Harry K 1274 

Ilyus, A. C 1179 

Immel, Henry S 744 

Ingram, William J 1088 

Irwin Family 243 

Irwin, John E 1315 

Irwin, Lewis W 1437 

Irwin, Plank 643 

Irwin, Samuel 1262 

Irwin, Thaddeus S., M. D 243 

Jackson, Andrew 1002 

Jackson, David W 1392 

Jackson, John 873 

Jackson, John K 394 

Jackson, Joseph 1474 

Jackson, Newton 1460 

Jackson, William L 11 12 

Jacoby, Harry S 419 

Jacoby, Peter 419 

Jacoby, Reuben E 419 

Jamison, J. A 1477 

Jamison, Joseph G 1034 

Jenks, James M 390 

Johnson, Arthur A 1016 

Johnson, Cyrus 957 

Johnson, John 1487 

Johnson, John E 1463 

Johnson, Kirk 928 

Johnson, Mrs. Margaret H.... 1016 

JoneSi Stephen 1 162 

Kaegel, Henry H 966 

Kahl, MSss Sarah L 814 

Kahl. William 813 

Kauffman, Abraham B 1025 

Kauffman, Amos G 1524 

Kauffman, Mrs. Barbara 464 

Kauffman, Benjamin B 1523 

Kauffman, Benjamin C 1124 

Kauffman, Hon. Christian C. . . 256 

Kauft'man, Christian H 1334 

Kauffman, Christian H. (de- 
ceased) 463 

Kauffman Families 256, 1123 

Kauffman, Mrs. Fanny H 474 

Kauffman, Henry M 1124 

Kauffman, Rev. Hiram G 1139 

Kauffman, Isaac 1334 

Kauffman, Isaac H 474 

Kauffman, John H 442 

Kauffman, John M 1281 

Kauffman, Mrs. Mlartha 1281 

Kauffman, Michael Mi 1375 

Kauffman, Reuben G 1320 

Kauffman, Samuel L 469 

Kaaiffman, Winfield S 1089 

Kaufhold, Joseph G 801 

Kaul, Very Rev. Anthony F., 

V. F 616 

Kautz, Jacob F 1187 



Kautz, Mrs. Maria M 232 

Kautz, William S 232 

Kaylor, John H 466 

Keen, Adam 1406 

Keen, Albert M 965 

Keen Family 1406 

Keener, Clayton F 858 

Keener, Henry 864 

Kehler, Henry N 630 

Keller, Charles B 1210 

Keller Families 882, 1210 

Keller, Jacob B 882 

Keller, Jacob K 1314 

Keller, John A 1211 

Keller Thomas H 854 

Keller, William H 1219 

Kelley, Jacob iioo 

Kelly, James 1489 

Kelly, Michael 1488 

Kemmerly, John 1279 

Kemper Family 1050 

Kemper, George A 1050 

Kemrer Family 983 

Kemrer, Phares D 983 

Kendig, Mrs. Annie 609 

Kendig, Miss B. Alice 706 

Kendig, Christian H 609 

Kendig, Miss Elizabeth M 837 

Kendig, Miss Fannie 443 

Kendig, Henry 443 

Kendig, Jacob 1228 

Kendig, John 706 

Kendig, Martin D 360 

Kendig, Willis G., Esq 842 

Keneagy, Samuel, M. D 71 

Kennedy, Horace E iigo 

Kennedy, William' H 915 

Kent, Miahlon B 697 

Kepler, Aaron C 146 

Kerner, John 1481 

Kerner, Joseph B 878 

Kershner, Dr. Jefferson E. . . . 165 

Kessler, Amos 302 

Kesskr, John 1 1 14 

Keylor Family 513 

Keylor, F. S 262 

Keylor, Henry S 261 

Keylor, Milton 513 

Keys, James J 1077 

Kieffer Family 74 

Kieffer, John B., Ph. D 74 

Kinard, John W 70S 

Kindig, Christian, Jr 737 

King Family 1 167 

King, Mrs. Rebecca D 1202 

King, William 1202 

King, William D 806 

King, Williami W 1262 

Kinzer, B. F 355 

Kinzer, George W 1432 

Kinzer, Mrs. Louisa A 1432 

Kinzer, William W 1432 

Kinzler Miss Elizabeth 334 

Kinzler, Frederick 334 

Kirk, Family 74 

Kirk, Lewis J 74 

Kisiner, Theodore 979 

Klaus, John 378 

Klau.s, Mrs. Katherine 378 

Kline, Abram 594 

Kline, Charles R 398 

Kline, Henry H 1232 

Kline, John H. (Columbia).. 1299 


Kline, John H. (Lancaster) .... 1345 

Kline, J. Y., M. D 1463 

Klittg, Isaiah M 1167 

Klugh, Horace H 1168 

Knapp, Joseph 1252 

Knobb, George~L 1138 

Knox, Rev. Charles T 862 

Knox, David S 782 

Knox, Edward J 782 

Knox, Robert J 1137 

Knox, Robert S 561 

Kofroth, P. B 1218 

Kehler, Rev. John 1385 

Kohler, Mrs. Louisa A 1385 

Kohr, Jacob D 821 

Kohr, John 54 

Kohr, Bishop John 54 

Konigmacher Family 424 

Konigmacher, Jacob 424 

Koser, Samuel B., M, D 744 

Krantz, John H 1008 

Kray, Andrew 338 

Kready, Edgar B 856 

Kready, Jacob B 287 

Kready, John E 287 

Kready, Miss Mary 287 

Kreckel, Edward 415 

Kreider, Andrew H 1051 

Kreider, Benjamin R 32 

Kreider, Charles D 626 

Kreider, Christian 443 

Kreider, David L 1329 

Kreider, Eli L 778 

Kreider Families 778, 1291 

Kreider, Franklin N 1369 

Kreider, George 407 

Kreider, John 490 

Kreider, John H 1291 

Kreider, Tobias R 1328 

Kreiter, Diavid H 1428 

Kreiter Family 723 

Kreiter, Jacob C 723 

Kreiter, John S., M. D 769 

Krodel, Peter A iiii 

Kurtz, Daniel 348 

Kurtz. David W 723 

Kurtz Families 348, 1029, 1032 

Kurtz, George 816 

Kurtz, Henry K 1244 

Kurtz, John G 1043 

Kurtz, John S 330 

Kurtz, Joseph 1032 

Kurtz, L. Scott 1029 

Kurtz, Mrs. Maria H 724 

Kurtz Martin 349 

Kurtz, Mrs. Susan 1137 

Lamborn Family 610 

Lamborn, George S 610 

Lamparter, Eberhart J 915 

Lamparter, Jacob J 941 

lamparter. Miss Pauline 528 

Landau, Mrs. Barbara E 310 

Landau, John 310 

Landes, Levi 1052 

Landis, Aaron B 1171 

Landis, Adam 1514 

Landis, Amos N 1009 

Landis, Benjamin B 337 

Landis, Benjamin F 763 

Landis, Benjamin L 1150 

Landis, Hon. Charles 1 183 

Landisi, Christian N 1061 


Landis, Clayton G 1358 

Landis, David B 1357 

Landis, David Bachman 233 

Landis, David H 1212 

Landis, David N 891 

Landis, Eli L 1155 

Landis Families. 233, 452, 1186, 1288 

Landis, Henry B 1 147 

Landis, H. Reisit 454 

Landis, Jacob L 538 

Landis, John B 356 

Landis, Rev. John B 137, 748 

Landis, John F 864 

Landis, John R 1288 

Landis, Lemon S 1098 

Landis, Levi L 1 187 

Landis, Phares K 935 

Landis, Rev. Sanford B 874 

Landis, Solon Z 1355 

Lane, George A 897 

Lanie, Samuel E 49^ 

Lantz, Mrs. Maria 472 

Lantz, Samuel W 471 

Latta, Rev. James 83 

Law, James 604 

Layman, David R 1279 

Learaan, Abraham L 936 

Leaman, Amos 959 

Leaman, B. Frank. . . ., 1259 

Leaman, David 1036 

Leaman, Henry 603 

Leaman, John 886 

Leaman, John L 886 

Leaman, Reuben B 604 

Leaman.. Tobias 1053 

Lebzelter, Philip 524 

Leech, John F 586 

Lefever, Abram A 1253 

Lefever, Adam 450 

Lefever, Christian 337 

Lefever, David 780 

Lefever Families 477, 780 

Lefever, Frank K 1305 

Lefever, George 477 

Lefever, George N 1503 

Lefever, Harry R 1275 

Lefever, Henry K 450 

Lefever, Jacob 1336 

Lefever, John 1342 

Lefever, John H 251 

Lefever, Martin 1304 

LeFevre, Acton A 860 

Lefevre, John S 1240 

Lehman, Amos N 1448 

Lehman Family 777 

Lehman, Henry C 223 

Lehman, John N 777 

Lehman, Mrs. Mary L 223 

Leibley, George 903 

Leisey, James C 1058 

Leman Brothers 1377 

Leman, Herbert D 1377 

Leman, Reuben J 1377 

Lennox, F. M 1506 

Lesher, Pierce 62a 

Le Tort, Jacques 71 

Levan, Edgar H 937 

Levan Family 937 

Levan, George 789 

Levan, Landis 789 

Levenite, David B 140S 

Levergood, John, M. D 694 

Levergood, Mrs. M. Louisa 694 




Lewis, Judge Ellis 14 

Lightner Family 1475 

Lightner, James N 1475 

LiUer, William C 869 

Lindemuth, Mrs. Elizabeth.... 380 

Lindeniuth, Martin Z 380 

Linden Hall Seminary 625 

Line, John 1410 

Lineaweaver, Mrs. Jane S 363 

Linea'weaver, John K., M. D. .. 361 

Lingerfield, Mrs^ Adaline B.... 1397 

Lingerfield, Cyrus 1396 

Lintncr, Daniel H 1494 

Linton, Robert C 766 

Lipp, Christian C 1025 

Lipp Family 1025 

Livingston, Hon. John B., LL. D. i 

Locher, Charles A 911 

Locher, CliJirles H 132 

Locher Family 132 

Locher, Mrs. Margaret 912 

Locher, Robert E 428 

Lockard, Bayard T 1335 

Lockard, Hiram C 1252 

Loder, Joseph 1247 

Long, Adam B 916 

Long, Benjamin K 647 

Long Families 647, 957, 980 

Long, Judge Henry G 14 

Long, Jacob B 411 

Long, James M 1037 

Long, John F 412 

Long, Joseph H 1507 

Long, Joseph J 980 

Long, J. Robert 957 

Longenecker, Addison B 57s 

Longenecker, Christ G 794 

Longenecker, Isaac S 1468 

Lucas, William H 1265 

Lutz, Aaron R 1208 

Lutz Family 1048 

Lutz, Harvey B 1048 

Lutz, John H 959 

Lyie, George L SS6 

Lynch Family 1 105 

Lynch, James A 1 105 

Lyte, Eliphalet O., A. M., Ph. D. 35 

McAnall, Robert 1280 

McBride, John G 1490 

McCall, William H 1273 

McCanna, Henry F 787 

McCarter, Henry G 250 

McCaskey, Capt, Edward W. . . 288 

McCaskey Family 116 

MbCaskey, John 116 

McCaskey, John P .'. 117 

McCaskey, Joseph B., D. D. S. 75 1 

McCaskey, Walter B 127 

McCaskey, Col. William S 122 

McClain, Hon. Francis B 1086 

McClure, David 298 

McClure Family 298 

McClure, Mrs. Mary J 34S 

McClure, Samuel 345 

McCommon, Joseph mo 

McCommon, Miss Maggie E. . iiio 

McComsey Family 366 

McConnell, Jacob C, M. D 643 

MicCoy, James F 1330 

MtDonald, Abraham K 1475 

McDonaW, Joseph R 1475 

'McElbany Family 1144 

McElhany, John W ii43 

McElligott, Dr. Thomas F 1416 

McElwain, Miss Ella R 306 

McElwain, Miss M. Amanda... 306 

McElwain, William 306 

MicEvoy, Patrick 62 

McFalls, Mrs. Susan 1078 

McFalls, William H 1078 

McGinness, George B 846 

MicGinnis, John W 1417 

MicGlaughlin, Joseph H 920 

McGowan, Mrs. Annie E 687 

MicGowan Family . .'. 687 

McGowan, John 687 

McGrann, Bernard J 346 

McGrann, Richard .' 346 

McHose, Clarence N 1228 

Mcllvaine Family 685 

McLane, Breneman S 255 

McLaughlin, J. F I49S 

MtManamy, Mrs. Bridget 1429 

McManamy, Jolui' 1429 

McManus, James R 1287 

McManus, Owen 1479 

McMellen, Capt. Elias 138 

McMichael, James M 1238 

McMichael, Thomas L 1333 

McMullen, Hon. David 651 

McNeal, Samuel 719 

McSparran, Edgar L 1099 

McSparran Family 1099 

McSparran, James G 871 

McSparran, James M 1491 

McSparran, Thomas F 792 

Mable, John 828 

Mable, William 828 

M'ack, Patrick J 1310 

Magee, David F 738 

Malone Family 1339 

Malone, John E i339 

Manlick, Frederick 1257 

Manlick, Jacob F 1256 

Mann Family 641 

Mann, Jacob K I3S6 

Mann, Simon S., M. D 641 

Manning, Albert A 910 

Manning Family 91° 

Manning, George K 113S 

Manning, Harry N 910 

Manuel. Israel 1096 

Markley, Benjamin F 979 

Markley, J. Monroe 1116 

Marsh, James P 731 

Marsh, Thomas J 398 

Miarshall, Charles L 767 

Marshall, James H 1326 

Marshall, William 767 

Martin, Abner H 1007 

Martin, Adam 1217 

Martin, Abraham W 1493 

Martin, Barton B 221 

Martin, Benjamin S 973 

'Martin, Benjamin F i4S6 

Martin, Christian 1203 

Martin, David H ii49 

Martin, David H. (Elizabeth- 
town) 1479 

Martin, David S 1216 

Martin, E. K 220 

Martin Families 220, 1479 

Martin, Henry N 988 

Martin, Isaac 1063 

Martin, Isaac G 1063 

Martin, Mrs. Joanna 507 

Martin, John C 221 

Miartin, John N 1425 

Martin, John P 1363 

Martin, Menno B 1007 

Martin, Peter 171 

Mfeirtin, Samuel 521 

Martin, Samuel D 1007 

Martin, William S 506 

M'atz, Carl 280 

MJaule, J. Comly 461 

Maule, Mrs. S. Emma 461 

Maurer, George M 519 

Mlaxwell, Miss Ellen E 693 

Maxwell, Hugh 33 

Maxwell, William 693 

May, Frederick 147 

May, Samuel C 1220 

May, Tobias H 147 

Mayer, David E 479 

Mayer, Henry M 532 

Mayer, Israel P 733 

Mayling, George A 366 

Mayling, Mrs. Rebecca M 366 

Mearig, William M 927 

Meek, John 589 

Meek. Philip 573 

Meckley, Abraham H 739 

Meckley, David C 489 

Meckley, Isaac 489 

Mfeckley, Jacob B 650 

Mieckley, Jacob H 519 

Meginness, John F 112 

Mehl, William 838 

Meister, Rev. Emil 476 

M'ellinger, Clayton S 1207 

Mellinger. Daniel H 1162 

Mellinger, David F 286 

Mellinger, David H 436 

Mellinger, David H. (1832) 1463 

Mellinger Families 436, 1207 

Mellinger, Henry S 232 

Mellinger, Henry S., M. D 436 

Mellinger, Jacob 564 

Menaugh, John H 1434 

Meshey, Peter G 1225 

Metz, Thornton B 1285 

Metzger Family 164 

Metzger, Henry S 164 

Metzger, Philip A 920 

Metzler, Abraham 1130 

Metzler Family 1 130 

Metzler, John H 1289 

Metzroth, Mrs. Amelie 1443 

Metzroth, Martin 1442 

Meyers, David H 1061 

Michael, Frank 887 

Miesse, D. Walter 1477 

Mifflin, James DeV 1082 

Miller, Amos B., M. D 1356 

Miller, Aaron W 1285 

Miller, Mrs. Bai'bara 1031 

Miller, Benjamin P 832 

Miller, Christian B ; . . 885 

Miller, David L 592 

Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth 1435 

Miller, Franklin P. D 301 

Miller, George H , . 1298 

Miller, Henry C 73;? 

Miller, Henry E S85- 

Miller, Mrs. Hettie E 1399 

Miller, Dr. Israel A 1152 

Miller, John 175 



Miller, John (1811) 1435 

Miller, John L 1030 

Miller, John S 400 

Miller, Joseph 1067 

Miller, Joseph (East Donegal) . 396 

Miller, Joseph E 1268 

Miller; Martin 59° 

Miller, Martin L 878 

Miller, Milton N 1232 

Miller, Oliver B 1084 

Miller, Samuel 1398 

Miller, Samuel K 1020 

Miller, S. Clay : 80 

Miller, Wesley 1039 

Milleysack, Jphn B 1125 

Minich, Mrs. Anna C 224 

M'inich, Benjamin F 951 

Minich, Charles W 1244 

Minich, Henry G 223 . 

Minich, Jacob A 1243 

Minnich, John L 1075 

Minnich, Jonas L 104S 

Minnich, Simon B '. . . . 1344 

Missener, J. R 684 

Mitchell, James, M. D 392 

Mitchell, Rev. James Y., D. D. 391 

Moderwell, S. P 961 

Mioench, Charles L 843 

Mo'bler, David K 1004 

Mohler, Levi 829 

Montgomery, Caleb E 78 

Montgomery, James 441 

Montgomery, Prof. John V. . . . 78 

Montgomery, Washington 141S 

Moore, Mrs. Anna E 28 

Moore Family 809 

Mtoore, Harry H 1378 

Moore, John 183 

Moore, Dr. John G 27 

Moore, John H 270 

Mioore, Michael H 432 

Moore, Dr. Mordecai M 27 

Moore, Phares S S29 

M'oore, William B ' 809 

Moiore, Prof. William W., A. M. 1341 

Morison, George A 1424 

Morrison, Alexander K 510 

Morrison, Robert A 1384 

Mowery Family 239 

Mowery, Henry A., M. D 239 

Mowrer, Amos S 635 

Mowrer, David W 948 

Mowrer Family 948 

Moyer, David L 1048 

Moyer, John G 893 

Mueller, John P 1079 

Muhlenberg, Frederick A 72 

Muhlenberg, Dr. G. Henry E. . 72 

Muhlenberg, Henry E., M. D. . 72 , 

Mumma, Christian N 1418 

Mumma, Frank Ni 278 

Mumma, Jacob S 526 

Murr, Mrs. Catharine ,. . 642 

Murr, Isaac 642 

Murray, Lindley 81 

Musselm'an, Christian 156 

Musselman, Harry 1481 

Musselman, Jacob 485 

Musselman, John 187 

Musselman!, Weaver 1023 

Musser, Andrew J 90 

Musser, Benjamin G 401 

Musser, B. Frank 868 


Musser, Mrs. Caroline 163 

Musser, Daniel 793 

Musser, Eli M 654 

Musser Families 90, 250, 814, 868 

Musser, Harry E 1465 

Musser, Henry E., M. D 814 

Musser, Henry S 1373 

Musser, Henry S. (East Done- 
gal) 1263 

Musser, Isaiah N 401 

Musser, J. Henry, M. D 250 

Musser, John N 955 

Musser, Mrs. M|ary 654 

Musser, Michael B 654 

Musser, Milton B., M. D 163 

Musser, Miss Susan S 1162 ' 

Myer, Miss Anna 862 

Myer, Miss Elizabeth 383 

Myer Family 862 

Myer, Samuel R 382 

Myers, Abraham 898 

Myers, Christian 1444 

Myers, Christian H 1348 

Myers, David 507 

Myers, David B 689 

Myers, Elam S 939 

Myers, Mrs. Ella 1444 

Myers Families 898, 1 181 

Myers, Henry 222 

Myers, Jacob R , 1181 

Myers, John B 1069 

Mjyers, John H 1235 

Myers, Mrs. Mary H 689 

Myers, Michael B 1447 

Myers, Michael G 1447 

Myers, Reuben J 74S 

Myers, Samuel M 504 

Mylin, Aldus C 858 

Mylin, Hon. Amos H 1401 

Mylin, EU K 1467 

Mylin, Frank , 1432 

Mylin, John B iiis 

Mylin, Martin K 369 

Mylin, Samuel M 401 

Nagel, Rev. Charles 466 

Nagle Family 1412 

Nagle, Henry 1411 

Nauman, Mrs. Annie R 761 

Nauman, George 91 

Nauman, John 92 

Nauman, John S 761 

Neff, Aldus F 866 

Neff, Benjamin H I43S 

Neff, Daniel S 919 

Neff, Emanuel 467 

Neff. Levi B 1425 

Nevin, John W., D. D 143 

Newcomer, Abraham 335 

Newcomer, Amos W 339 

Newcomer, Christian K 1222 

Newcomer, Mrs. Elizabeth M. . 1222 

Newcomer, Ezra W., V. M. D. . 1107 

Newcomer, Jacob B 1392 

Newcomer, Rev. Jacob K 756 

Newcomer, Jacob N 339 

Newcomer, Joseph K 503 

Newell, Charles F 1360 

Nislev, Daniel B I3S3 

Nissley, Eli L 74i 

Nissley, Mrs. Elizabeth 39.=; 

Nissley, Gabriel E 1478 

Nissley, Harvey B 1374 


Nissley, Henry B 536 

Nissley, Hiram H 1209 

Nissley, Peter B 395 

Nissley, Peter R 1 148 

Nissly, B. H 1303 

Nissly Family 638 

Nissly, Mrs. Joseph B 235 

Nissly, Joseph B 234 

Nissly, Levi W 1266 

Nissly, Samuel 528, 638 

Noble, Mrs. Martha L 1249 

Noble, William M 1249 

Nolt, Jonas H S97 

Nolt, Rev. Reuben S 1030 

North, Hugh M 32 

Ober, Andrew C 1494 

Ober, Henry K 1370 

Ober, Henry R 1176 

Ober, Michael R 1370 

Oberholtzer, Christian B 1006 

Oberholtzer, Chri'stian H 447 

Oberholtzer, Jacob B '. . . . 991 

Oberholtzer, Samuel L 926 

Oberlin Family 994 

Oberlin, Howard L 994 

Oberlin, W. Shelley 994 

Oldweiler, Cyrus 1361 

Olmsted, John 1467 

Oster, William M 1517 

Ostertag, John H ll6o 

Overdeer, E. Silas 119S 

Owen, Benjamin 673 

Owen, Eliza 673 

Owen, Mrs. Elizabeth L 988 

Owen Family 672 

Owen, George B 672 

Owen, Mary B 673 

Parke, Alexander G. B., M. D. . 195 

Parthemer, John H 645 

Patterson, Alexander 627 

Patterson, Bordley S 481 

Patterson, Mrs. Elizabeth 627 

Patterson Families 326, 481 

Patterson, James A 163 

Patterson, James S 326 

Patterson, Miss Mary W 163 

Patton, Abraham 1224 

Patton, David K 844 

Patton, Henry 338 

Paules, David L 602 

Paules Family 1366 

Paules, Granville W 1365 

Paules, W. Percy 1255 

Paxson, Samuel P 1466 

Paxson',v Rev. William, D. D. . . 167 

Pelen, Abraham 1312 

Pennell, Frank G 582 

Pennell, John J 1422 

Penny Family 491 

Penny, John D 1019 

Penny, Joseph 491 

Penny. William C 691 

Pennypacker, John 1052 

Penrose, Israel 1070 

Penrose, Lukins 534 

Peoples, Abner 637 

Peoples. Hon. -Hiram 755 

Perry, John C 1423 

Pf aeffle, Louis H 1229 

Pfahler, Henry 1192 

Pfahler, Jacob C 811 




Pf autz, Ezra 728 

Pfautz, Matilda R 729 

Phalm, M. H 1464 

Phenegar, Isaac 574 

Pbillip, John W 1438 

Phillip, Mrs. Mary L 1438 

Phillips Family 1441 

Phillips, Hemy 1441 

Pickel, Ellis 854 

Pickel, Jacob 729 

Pickel, Jacob K 1410 

Plank, Edward H., M. D 294 

Poisal, David W. E 1354 

Porter, Thomas 196 

Powdeni, Abraham H 592 

Powl, Eli B 480 

Pownall, Benjamin H 1424 

Pownall Families 318, 1424 

Pownall, Henry 317 

Pownall, Henry (1857) 382 

Pownall, Joseph D. C 693 

Pownall, Mrs. Louissa S 318, 382 

Pownall, Phebe ' 318 

Prangley, James, Jr 853 

Prizer, Elmer T., M. D 884 

Pugh, Samuel J 1175 

Pugh, William T 1351 

Purple, Mirs. Margaret A 359 

Purple, Silas H 399 

Pusey Family 299 

Pusey, William P 299 

Quade, Frederick 327 

Quay, Hon. Matthew S 2 

Ranck, Adam M 1492 

Ranck, Daniel E 1447 

Ranck, David W 447 

Ranck Families 447, 1403 

Ranck, George H 1403 

Ranck, Rev. Jacob D 166 

Ranck, Jacob L 697 

Ranck, John D 1426 

Ranck, Rev. John K 165 

Ranck, John M 1459 

Ranck, Samuel W 1106 

Rankin, Joseph G 934 

Ranjsing, Henry E 1129 

Ransing, Capt. Henry.... 1129 

Ransing, Mrs. Rose 1129 

Rathfon, Jacob 188 

Rathfon, John E 665 

Rathvon, Simon S., Ph. D 139 

Raub, G. J. P 833 

Raub, John P. Mi 950 

Rauch. Lewis A 425 

Rea, Philip D 813 

Ream, George U 1466 

Ream, William W 1308 

Redsecker Family 216 

Redsecker, George 314 

Redsecker, John C 314 

Reed, George K 224 

Reed, G. Harry 1071 

Reed, J. Frank 331 

Reed, John F 292 

Reed, Mansell 672 

Reed, Mrs. Mary 22S 

Reel, Elam 1268 

Reel, Whitell L. 271 

Reemsnyder, Byron J., M!. D... 1421 

Reemsnyder Family 1421 

Reese, Abram 987 


Reese, 'Christian G 941 

Reese Family 1390 

Reese, Harry G 1477 

Reese, Samson D 1390 

Reeser, Peter 892 

Reeser, Plank 713 

Reich, Mrs;. Ella C 201 

Reich, George R., M. D 1316 

Reich, George W., M. D 201 

Reichenbach, John C. W 183 

Reiling, Charles M 1230 

Reilly, Edward D 253, 336 

Reilly, James B 1374 

Reilly, John 252 

Reilly, Michael 1365 

Reilly, Richard M' 252 

Reilly, T. Wallace 253 

Reinhart, George W 1256 

Reinhart, John ' 1256 

Reinhart, Levi 1387 

Reinhold, Edwin B 393 

Reinhold, Edwin L 392 

Reinoehl, Major Adam C 157 

Reisinger, Adam J 1302 

Reist, Aaron E 762 

Reist, Elias E 190 

Reist Family 512 

Reist, Levi S 189 

Reist, Lineas R 1276 

Reist, Peter 1276 

Reitzel. Edward B 1233 

Reitzel, Elias 1205 

Reitzel, Ephraim H., Sr 807 

Reitzel Family 120S 

Rem'sburg, Ointon E 1039 

Resh, Emanuel M 1131 

Resh Family 572 

Resh, Henry B 573 

Resh, Mrs. Susanna 573 

Ressell, John 1469 

Resisler, C. M 439 

Ressler, Henry 750 

Retheiser. Daniel '. 838 

Rettew, Amos M 1037 

Rettew, Samuel 1481 

Rettew, Willis M 1480 

Retzer, James I4S9 

Reynolds Family 340 

Reynolds, George N 340 

Reynolds, James L 261 

Reynolds, John 261 

Reynolds, Gen. John F 261 

Reynolds, Samuel H 192 

Reynolds., Admiral William 261 

Rhoads, Abraham S 761 

Rhoads, Henry Z 320 

Rhoads, Levi S 784 

Rice, Joseph S 1063 

Rice, William R 1417 

Rich Family 198 

Ricke'r, Frederick A 1020 

Ricksecker Family I77 

Ricksecker, Levi 177 

Riddle, William 296 

Rider, Jacob D 1215 

Rieker, Frank A 1033 

Rieker, Mrs. Katharine M, 1238 

Rinier Family 1439 

Rinier. Henry 1439 

Risk Family 1202 

Risk, Robert B 663 

Risk, William R 1202 

Risser, Mrs. Amanda 1 147 


Risser, Amos L 987 

Risser, Joseph N 1034 

Risser, Joseph S 467 

Risser, Levi 1146 

Ritchie, E. R 1469 

Roath, Hon. Emanuel D 673 

Roath, George H 783 

Robinson, Mrs. Annie J 1309 

Robinson Family 1309 

Robinson, George M 1126 

Robinson, John W 1309 

Rochow, Charles 831 

Rochow, Ernest 1 106 

Rochow Family 831 

Rodgers, Augustus 1286 

Rodkey, Mirs. Amelia M 318, 1130 

Rodkey, John 1 130 

Roebuck, Peter J., M. D 113 

Rogers, William R looi 

Rohr, George 283 

Rohrer, Abram K 839 

Rohrer, Amos K 1473 

Rohrer, Christian 493 

Rohrer, Christian H 1426 

Rohrer, David B 1463 

Rohrer Family 213 

Rohrer, George R., M. D 213 

Rohrer, Henry D 839 

Rohrer, Henry 'S 493 

Rohrer, Isaac F 1468 

Rohrer, Jacob 470 

Rohrer, Jacob H 1330 

Rohrer, John K 1146 

Rohrer, John L 196 

Rohrer, John S 1231 

Rohrer, Milton S 1377 

Rohrer, T. M., M. D 1038 

Rohrer, Wayne B 938 

Roland, Cornelius F 34 

Roland, Miss Elizabeth J 628 

Roland, George 627 

Roland, Henry A 333 

Roland, Mrs. Jane W 334 

Roland, John 618 

Roland, Hon. Jonathan H 628 

Romig, S. P 1272 

Roop, Harry B., M. D 849 

Root, Abraham W 1012 

Root Family 1012 

Root, Samuel N 717 

Rosenmiller, Hon. David P 1199 

Rosenmiller, Miss Rebecca 1199 

Rosenstein, Albert 728 

Ross, George 189 

Rost, George 1433 

Rote, Andrew B 1107 

Rote, Henry 1333 

Rotehorn, Frank 1310 

Rowe, C. S 844 

Royer, Abraham 429 

Royer, Cyrus 1497 

Royer, Jacob W., M. D 430, 988 

Royer, Joseph R 848 

Ruby, Harry K 746 

Rudy, Christian 918 

Rudy, David B 1277 

Ruhl, Harry H 1017 

Rupp, Benjamin S 1360 

Rupp, Prof. Isaac D 149 

Rupp, Joseph 1364 

Rupp, Rev. William., A. M., 

D. D 82 

Russel, John R 313 




Russell, Michael F 1198 

Ruth Family 1412 

Ruth, John F 151S 

Ruth, William D 1412 

Rutherford, Albert C 1196 

Rutherford, John D SS4 

Rutt, Samuel M 1458 

Rutter, Amos 704 

Rutter Families 195, 370, 704 

Rutter, Henry S 59i 

Rutter, John M 370 

Rynear, Charles 593 

Rynear, Mrs. Rachel M 594 

Sample, Dr. Nathaniel W 151 

Sample, Samuel R., M. D 151 

Samuels', Charles A 1349 

Sander, Henry .' 754 

Sander, Henry M '. 755 

Sandoe, George 1270 

Sapp, William C 1381 

Sauder, Jacob M 1024 

Sauder, Rev. John M 1229 

Saud«r, Peter H 562 

Saylor, Benjamin F 1157 

Schaeffer, Emanuel 694 

Schaeffer, M'. G 724 

Schaibley, Michael 1094 

Scheetz, Abram 350 

Schenck Family 1127 

Schenck, John H 1127 

Schlegelniilch, Frank X 11 17 

Schleich, George H 1369 

Schleich, John 1369 

Schlott, William 1003 

Schnader Family 692 

Schnader, Reuben K 691 

Schneider (or Snader) Family. 109 

Schneitman, William B 821 

Schock Families 626, 1028 

Schock, John 626 

Schock, John (Manor) 102S 

Schofield. Mrs. Mary M 1322 

Schroeder, Francis I44 

Schroeder, Mrs. Katherine B... 144 

Schroyer Family 460 

Schroyer, Henry A 460 

Schuberth, Charles G 608 

Scott, Mrs. Edith R 350 

Scott, Jesse 542 

Scott, John 542 

Scott, Miss Mary H 350 

Scott, N. Davis 350 

Scott, Robert A 759 

Scott, Winfield 1242 

Seabold, John 1217 

Seachrist. Jacob S II47 

Seiple, Harvey 358 

Seiple, John 358 

Seitz, Charles C 416 

.Seitz, Christian 394 

Seitz, Jacob C 725 

Seitz, Jacob G 725 

Seitz, John C 707 

Seldomridge, Aldus M 1451 

Seldomridge, George 163, 1451 

Seldomridge, Jeremiah 486 

Seldomridge, Robert C , . . 1338 

Seldomridge, Samuel M . .' 364 

Seldomridge, Mrs. Sarah A.... 164 

Seltzer, William K 61 

Sener Family 200 

Sener, J. Frederick 200 


Sener, Levi 1076 

Senger, John B 981 

Sensenich, Franklin W 1063 

Sensenig, George R 468 

Shafer, Adam S 1148 

Shaftner, Casper 85 

Shand, James 228 

Shank, Aaron H 523 

Shank, Jacob I399 

Shank, Jonas E 919 

Shank, Park B 1166 

Sharp, Samuel L 1481 

Shaub, Abraham .. .• 1491 

Shaub, Prof. Benjamin F 335 

Shaub, Ephraim H 843 

Shaub Family 1143 

Shaubach, Amos 771 

Shauhach, Martin 1378 

Shaubach, Reuben 739 

Shaw, Emmor 1234 

Sheaffer, Amos A 895 

Sheaffer, Diller S 632 

Sheaffer, Enos D 1015 

Sheaif er, Martin D 632 

Sheaffer, Mlartin R 518 

Sheaffer, Peter F., M. D 1255 

Shec Family 711 

Shee, Parke E 711 

Sheetz, Rev. Amos M 971 

Sheibly, Abram, Jr 352 

Sheibly, Abram G 35i 

Sheibly Family 633 

Shellenberger, Andrew R 792 

, Shellenberger Family 1207 

Shelley, Samuel A 823 

Shelly, Amos 851 

Shelly, Emanuel 906 

Shelly, Samuel S 857 

Sbenberger, Mrs. Anna J. B 1094 

Sbeniberger, John 1093 

Shenck, Albert F 154 

Sbenck, Henry C 872 

Shenck, Jacob K 1468 

Shenk, Abraham M 1446 

Shenk, Abram L 380 

Shenk, Benj amin M 922 ' 

Shenk, Christian L 445 

Shenk, Christian K 795 

Shenk Families 794, 922 

Shenk, Henry K 794 

Shenk, Oliver H 939 

Sberer, Joseph 95 

Sherk, Christian G 387 

Shero, Rev. William F., A. M. . 818 

Sherts, John J 1097 

Shertzer, Benjamin 381 

Shertzer, Benjamin F 382 

Shetrone, David 329 

Shetrone, Mts. Mary M 329 

Shillott, Frank 768 

Shillow, George A 963 

Shindle, Michael G 671 

Shindle, Peter 236 

Shippen, Edward 93 ' 

Shi reman Mrs. Martha 636 

Shirk, Emanuel R 600 

Shirk, L. W 1282 

Shissler, Simon 901 

Shnavely, Henry 446 

Shoemaker, Abram 1013 

Shoemaker, Leander 985 

ShoemakeT, William L 806 

Shoff, Frederic 568 


Shoflf. Christian 568 

Shomier, J. Edward 943 

Shookers, Tobias S 242 

Showaker, John W S06 

Shreiner, Qiarles E 803 

Shreiner, Henry M 754 

Shreiner, Martin 754 

SliTom, Andrew F 785 

Shue, Ephraim W 1206 

Shuemaker, Christian 423 

Shultz, Benjamin K 1411 

Shultz, John M 1321 

Shultz, Joseph K 1428 

Shultz, Levi 900 

Shultz, Milton K 378 

Shuman, Michael S 1070 

Sides, B. F., M. D 83 

Siebold, Julius P 815 

Siegler, Mrs. Helen P 1244 

Siegler, Lewis F., M. D 785 

Siegler, Nicholas S 1244 

Sigle, Mrs. Barbara 907 

Sigle, Thomas E 906 

Simon, Joseph 90 

Siple, George E 956 

Skiles, John D 52 

SI jck, Harry B 566 

Slaymaker, Amos 52 

Slaymaker Families 50, 93; 882 

Slaymaker, Henry E 93 

Slaymaker, J. Martin, M. D 881 

Slaymaker, Peter E 202 

Sload, John i473 

Slokom Family 721 

Slokom, Isaac W 721 

Slough, Col. Matthias 15 

Smith, Amos P SSO 

Smith, Mrs. Christiana C 397 

Smith, Charles H 624 

Smith, Eugene G 293 

Smith, Filbert .- ■ ■ 692 

Smith, George 1163 

Smith, George J 396 

Smith, Gerritt 1215 

Smith, Gideon H 263 

Smith, Gilbert 929 

Smith, Mrs. Grace C S96 

Smith, Rev. Henry R S9S 

Smith, John 1126 

Smith, John C ii74 

Smith, John R I43i 

Smith, John S 624 

Smith, Mftss Lettie 1127 

Smith, Capt. Martin H 114S 

Smith, Mrs. Mlary E 1 14S 

Smith. Robert 1329 

Smith,; W. J 1S17 

Smoker Family 1332 

Smoker, James M 1332 

Smoker, William H 130S 

Sraucker, EK 1216 

Smucker, John B 1201 

Snader, Aaron W no 

Snader, Abraham P 1021 

Snader (or Schneider) Family. log 

Suavely, Abraham, B 599 

Sriavely, Mrs. Annie 1 143 

Suavely Family 342 

Suavely, Frank B 1205 

Suavely, Henry H 1121 

Snavely, John G 342 

Snavely, Moses 529 

Sneath, Jacob 369 




Snyder, Mrs. Annie 1491 

Snyder, Mrs. Elizabeth 198 

Snyder, Elwood S., M. D 632 

Snyder Family . . . ; 658 

Snyder, Jacob L 859 

Snyder, J. A 826 

• Snyder, John A 197 

Snyder, John E 916 

Snyder, John M 847 

Snyder, John P 1216 

Snyder, John S 1223 

Snyder, Joseph C 1490 

Snyder, Samuel 826 

Snyder^ Samuel S 658 

Snyder, Gov. Simon m 

Snyder, William D 820 

Sommers. Dennis 1073 

Souders, O. N 1236 

Sourbeer, Mrs. Charlotte 1521 

Sourbeer, Joshua 1520 

Spotts, James H 8.S0 

Sprecher Family 484 

Sprecher, George D 484 

Sprecher, John 438 

Sprecher, Capt. Philip L 689 

Sprecher, Samuel 799 

Sprecher, Mirs. Samuel 800 

Sprenger, John A 464 

Spurrier Family , 1193 

Spurrier. Nathaniel A. K 1193 

Stacks, Samuel S 1331 

Stair, Edwin S 1074 

Stair, Mrs. Eunice 1074 

Staman, Edward H 1298 

Stamm, Carl P 1325 

Stamra, Charles P., D.. D, S... 1518 

Stamm, Frederick 1.^25 

Stamm, John 664 

Stamm, Miss Martha E 665 

Stamy, Adam R 462 

Stape, Daniel , . 277 

.Staufifer, Abraham E. . . '. 700 

Stauffer, Abraham Y 1034 

Stauffer, Amos N 804 

Stauffer, Benjamin F 1469 

Stauffer, Benjamin F. (Colum- 
bia) 827 

Stauffer, Charles F S^'O 

Stauffer, Christian R 1470 

Stauffer, Clayton K 1301 

Stauffer, Cyrus D 549 

Stauft'er, Edwin H 1 1 19 

Stauffer Families 840, 1301 

Stauffer, Harry M 1078 

Stauffer, Henry M 1007 

Stauffer, Irvin H 549 

Stauffer, Jacob E 4.57 

Stauffer, Jacob G 83.S 

Stauffer, Jacob M i'034 

Stauffer, John' G I I7S 

Stauffer, Samuel S Q2i 

Steacy, George S 899 

Steele Families 30, 95 

Stehman, Abraham W 311 

Stehman, Christian W 286 

Stehman, Harry J 1504 

Stehman, John S 1 128 

Steigel, Wilhelm H 83 

Steinheiser, Georpre F 1258 

Steinman, A. J., Esq 46 

Steinman Familv 46 

Steinman, John F 47 

Steinmetz. Hon. Jacob L 668 


Steinmetz, Mrs. Mary V. H.... 66g 

Stephan, Cha;rles B 1151 

Stephan, John W 993 

Sterni Family 888 

Stern, Peter M 888 

Stevens, Tbaddeus 36 

Stevenson, Samuel C 338 

Stillinger, Samuel M 1267 

Stively, A. L 1385 

Stively Family 1,386 

Stively, Frederick 417 

Stober Family 7i8 

Stober, Hon. Jeremiah A 718 

Stokes, Daniel .'.... 1292 

Stoll, Harry S 695 

Stoltzfus, Christian B 523 

Stoltzfus, Samuel U : . . . 900 

.Stoner, Christian F 1367 

Stoner, Frederick 680 

Stoner, Jacob 752 

Stoner, John K 456 

Stoneroad, Samuel 584 

StoTb, Theodore M 543 

Stork, Harvey K 1516 

Strauss, William T 969 

Strickler, Calvin R 964 

Strickler, Mai. Michael B 787 

Stroh, John B 712 

Stubbs, Ambrose H., M. D 219 

Stubbs, Charles H., M. D 218 

Stubbs, Clarence T 219 

Stubbs Family 216 

Stubbs, Jeremiah B., M. D 217 

Stump, Michael 1079 

Stumpf, Mrs. Henrietta 1044 

Stumpf, Philip 1044 

Styer, Daniel W., M. D 978 

Styer Family 435 

Styer, Peter 435 

Summy, Hon. Aaron H. ...... . I34 

Summy, Abrarii 657 

Summy, Simeon G 972 

Swarr Family . 1320 

Swarr, Milton L 1380 

Swarr, Phares P 1320 

Swartz, Charles 1076 

S wartz, John H 12QI 

Sweeney, John J 1480 

Swisher, James 1434 

Swisher, James, Sr 473 

Swisher, Simeon W., Esq 774 

Tanger, John G 680 

Taylor, Mrs. Marv L 1019 

Taylor, Samuel W 1019 

Tennis, Samuel 455 

Terry, Henrv 778 

Tboma-s. Michael P.. Tr 914 

Thome, William B,, M. D 816 

Thompson Families 235, 770 

Thompson, Squire Hiram L. .. . 135 

Thompson, John C 710 

Thompson, John W 235 

Thorbahn, Prof. John F. C... I74 

Tomlin, Mrs. Mary 847 

Townsend, Elwood H 1046 

Townsend, Elwood M 1136 

Townsend, Henry P 347 

Townsend, Jacob R 1 140 

Townsend, Miss M,arietta 347 

Townsend, Mrs. Susan M 1141 

Trexler, Jacob F., M. D 865 

Trissler, Benjamin F 990 


Trout Family 265 

Trout, Frank B .. 808 

Trout, Squire Frank M '. . . 264 

Trout, Harry L 741 

Truscott, Mrs. Jemima M 811 

Tschantz, Hans 92 

Tyson, Charles H 539 

Tyson Family 539 

Ulrich, Joseph A 1104 

Umble Family 211 

Umble, Jacob K 211 

Underwood, Dr. Mary A 1165 

Upp, William W 273 

Van Ness, Marie R., M. D 925 

Von Nieda, Daniel S 578 

Wacker, Cha'rles V 1384 

Wacker, Joseph 479 

Wacker, Joseph, Jr 479 

Wade, Amos 1235 

Wade, Miss Effie L 1235 

Wade, John M 732 

Wagner, George F 1496 

Wagner, Samuel 1251 

Walker Families 113, 308 

Walker, James M. . . ; 113 

Walker, Joseph 1242 

Walker, Joseph C 308 

Walker, Josiah 1242 

Walker, William 445 

Walter. Adam V., M. D 1158 

Walter, B. Frank 751 

Walter, .Brinton 230 

Walter Family 230 

Walton, Amos 472 

Walton Family 765 

Walton, George W 763 

Wanner, David 1204 

Wanner Family 1204 

Warfel, EU '. 1456 

Warfel, Elwood C 881 

Warfel. George W 1502 

Warfel, Hiram G 1462 

Warfel, John B 136 

Warfel. John H 1116 

Warfel, Samuel 485 

Warfel, Silas N 185 

Watson, John J 1319 

Watt, P. T 148 

Wayne, Simon P 819 

Weaver. Aaron 472 

Weaver, Aaron (Earl) 1144 

Weaver, Amos 413 

Weaver, Amos A 727 

Weaver, David D 1131 

Weaver, Enos B 931 

Weaver, Ephraim E 516 

Weaver Families .325, 788 

Weaver, Frank J 325 

Weaver, Isaac , 472 

Weaver, Isaac H 842 

Weaver, J. F 1074 

Weaver, Jacob G., M. D 142 

Weaver, John H 528 

Weaver, Jonathan H 207 

Weaver, Joseph B 1120 

Weaver, Rev. Levi H 242 

Weaver, Maris B 701 

Weaver, Martin 788 

Weaver, Milton L 500 

Weaver, Samuel R., Esq. ...... 1346 




Webb, Ezekiel G 1185 

Webb Family 1185 

Weber, John T 946 

Weber, Louis 1013 

Weber, Otto E 1521 

Webster, Cicero S 1281 

■Wehner, Peter I3S7 

Weidler, Jacob G 1409 

Weidler, Walter B., M. D 932 

Weiler, George 363 

Weill, Henry 804 

Weiser, Conrad 178 

Welchans, Mrs. Anna M 1136 

Welchans, Charles H 1283 

Welchans, William 1 13S 

Welk, George 1499 

Welk, George, Jr 1500 

Weiler, David 14S 

Weller, Miss Elizabeth 145 

Welsh Brothers Ii97 

Welsh, Mis'S Carrie 292 

Welsh, David F 291 

Welsh, John T 1198 

Welsh, Michael H 1198 

Welsh, Gen. Thomas 11 

Wendler, John M . . . 1407 

Wenger, Abraham E 182 

Wenger, Miss Anna M 966 

Wenger, Clayton S 1352 

Wenger Families 181, 891 

Wenger, Henry L 1 141 

Wenger, Jacob 182 

Wenger, Michael 966 

Wenger, Monroe B 8gi 

Wentz Families I49, 1085 

Wentz, Thomas H., M. D 1085 

Wentz, William H 524 

Wentz, W. J., M. D I49 

Weseman, ^'irs. Florence M. .. . 259 

Weseman, George T., M. D.... 258 

Westafer, John G 533 

Westerhoff , Henry 1253 ' 

Wetzel, Samuel M 307 

Whiteside, John W 1081 

Whiteside, Samuel P 1209 

Whiteside, William C 904 

Whitson, Jacob T iiS4 

AA'hitteker, Rev. John E., D. D. 205 

Wickersham, James P 25 

VVickersham, J. Harold 26 

Widmyer, David B 269 

Widmyer Family 269 

Wiggins, Samuel 45i 

Wike Families 1103, 1222 

Wike, Milton 1222 

Wike, Nathan E 1103 

Williams Family I94 

Williams, Isaac T I95 

Williams, Zachariah B I94 

Willson, George B 1347 

Wilson Family 129 

Wilson, James jNI 580 

Wilson, John 682 

W«lson, John D 683 

Wilson, Jonathan M 105,6 

Wilson, Mrs. Margaret A 490 

Wilson, Sidwell T 489 

Wil-on William R 129 

Wimer, Michael 419 

Winower, Charles A 1379 

Winower Family 318 

Winower, Peter J 318 

Winter, Ella M 769 

Winters, Barton M., M. D 87 

Winters Family 86 

Winters, Isaac D., M, D 86 

Winters, John L., M. D 87 

Winters, Mrs. Mary 1434 

Winters, Richard N 1434 

Winters. Walter H 1073 

Wise, Christian 552 

Wise, Jacob 389 

Wisler Family 952 

Wisler, Henry 960 

Wisler, Jacob F .' 952 

Wisler, John K 1092 

Wisman, Adam 797 

Wisner, George E 686 

Wissler, Aaron 259 

Wissler, Ezra 665 

Wissler Families 259, 666 

Wissler, Jacob B 501 

Wissler, Tobn B 666 

Withers, Mrs. Anna B 827 

Witman, Barton 114S 

Witman Family 1233 

Witman, William 426 

Witmcr; Aaron 599 

Witmer, Rev. -\braham M 1026 

Witmer, Abraham R 547 

Witmer, Abraham Z 1161 

Witmer, B. Barton 935 

Witmer, Benjamin Z 577 

Witmer, David Z 1463 

Witmer, Elias H., M. D 262 

Witmer Families 226, 235, 

306, 4,38. 544, 601, 727, 1026, 1464 

Witmer, George H 3°^ 

Witmer, Jacob 438 

Witmer, Jacob E 1278 

Witmer, Jacob H 246 

Witmer, Jacob R 601 

Witmer, Mrs. Margaret M 1018 

Witm-er, Martin 712 

Witmer, Martin F 902 

Witmer. Mary K 727 

Witmer, Peter E 494 

Witmer, Samuel 1018 

Witmer. Rev. S, Z 202 

Witmer, Zachariah R 14=2 

Witmeyer, Henry H 763 

Witmeyer. Jeremiah H 768 

Wohlsen, P. Harry 873 

Wohlsen; William ,^48 

Wolf. Elias S^7 

Wolf, E. S 1059 

Wolf, Ezra B 8.36 

Wolf, Henry • 777 

Wolf, John S 1055 

Wolf. Joseph 1043 

Wolf. Lemon C "64 

Wolf. Dr \apoleon B 1461 

Wolf. William H.. 8.37 

Wolgemuth, Rev. Daniel 238 

Wolgemulh. Daniel B 1448 

Wolgemuth, Eli H 957 


Wolgemuth, Henry B I042 

Wolgemuth, Rev. John M 84 

Wood, Alfred 1023 

Wood Families 945, 1132, 1393 

Wood, James 503 

Wood, Jesse 945 

Wood, Lewis 1132 ' 

Wood, Rev. Ottiwell 1393 

Wood, Robert K 945 

Woods, John N 655 

Woolworth, F. W 781 

Worrest, Alfred H 618 

Worst Family 707 

Worst, Henry 707 

Worth, Albert B 1213 

Worth Family 1213 

Worth, William T., M. D 963 

Worthington, Thomas K 239 

Wright, E. W., Al. D 1475 

Wright, Howard .' 423 

Wright, John 50 

Wright, Robert K 423 

Yeager, Charles S 266 

Yergey, H. F 1205 

Yocom, Mrs. Annie K 1167 

Yocum, Joseph W 260 

Yoder, Jo.?eph C, D. D. S 674 

Yohn, William 406 

Yohn, William F 916 

Yost, John F., M. D 171 

Young Family 1250 

Young, Henry A 1364 

Young. Henry Z 1250 

Young, Hiram S i486 

Young, John M mo 

Young, Samuel 1250 

Zcamer. Joseph H 990 

Zell, Edwin M.. D. D. S 166 

Zell, John W., M. D 1389 

Zeller, Charles H 515 

Zeller. John H 515 

Zercher, Andrew J 986 

Zercher, Emanuel H 762 

Zercher, Ezra H 860 

Zercher, Jacob 699 

Zercher, John 688 

Ziegler, Amos 1060 

Ziegler, Francis X 274 

Ziegler, Frank 1251 

Ziegler, Jacob H 581 

Ziegler, Jacob L., M. D 508 

Ziegk-r, Mrs. Mary M 1251 

Zimmerman, Abraham M 944 

Zimmerman, Daniel 549 

Zimmerman (or Carpenter), 

Emanuel 163 

Zimmerman Family 169 

Zimmerman. Rev. John M 169 

Zook Family 180 

Zook, T. Gu^t 180 

Zook, Jolm G 716 

Zook, .tolin S 1452 

Zook, Jr --f r,h 1294 

Zook, S. Kurtz 1336 





INGSTON, LL. D., Presi- 
dent Judge of the Second 
Judicial District of Pennsyl- 
vania, now serving his 
fourth term, was born in 
Salisbury township, Lancas- 
ter county, on Sunday, Oct. 
14, 1 82 1. His father was 
John Livingston, and his 
mother Jane Graham. John Livingston, through 
whom the Judge is of English descent, was a farmer, 
teacher and justice of the peace, and one of the prom- 
inent citizens of Lancaster county. On his mother's 
side Mr. Livingston is descended from Scotch-Irish 

John B. Livingston obtained his primary edu- 
cation under the private instruction of his father, 
whom he assisted in the farm work, for some 
branches of which physical disability had irlcapaci- 
tated the father. Much devolved upon the eldest 
son, who attended school in the winter and improved 
his leisure hours during his summer work by study. 
Matters continued thus until 1842, when, his 
younger brothers being able to assume their share 
of the farm work, John engaged in teaching school, 
which occupation he followed three years, still assist- 
ing his father during the summer. In the mean- 
time, besides receiving instruction from his father 
and in the public schools, he attended the select 
school of Rev. Dr. Timlow, one of the best in the 
county. He early evinced marked ability in the 
prosecution of his studies, making rapid progress, 
and the roughing he experienced on the farm de- 
veloped that naturally vigorous constitution which 
serves him so well in discharging the duties of the 
Bench at the age of over four-score. 

When thinking of choosing a profession the first 
inclination of Mr. Livingston was toward medicine, 
but upon reflection he shrank from the responsibility 
it involved. While if, as a doctor, he made a fatal 
mistake, it would be buried out of the light of the 
world, he feared that the consciousness of it would 
remain as an ever harassing memory. Therefore 
he chose the legal profession, where, if he blundered. 

there would still be opportunity to make amends. 
Having gained the consent of his father, who. had 
been averse to his son encountering the temptations 
of city life, he wrote to Thaddeus Stevens to know 
if he had room for a student, and, if so, what were 
his terms. He received this characteristic reply: 
"Have room. Take students. Terms, $200. Some 
pay, some don't." So he came to Lancaster, accom- 
panied by his father, ' who introduced him to Mr. 
Stevens, who had just concluded an address to a 
jury in the old court-house. Their reception was 
rather discouraging. Assuming that stern look for 
which Mr. Stevens was sometimes noted, he said: 
"You had better take the young man home." Being 
pressed for a reason by the astonished father, who 
had thought the arrangement with the son under- 
stood, Mr.. Stevens repeated his advice with em- 
phasis. Finally, assuming that bland smile which 
he could command with equal facility, he said: 

"Because his face is too honest to be a lawyer." 

The father replied, "If that is the only objection we 
will take the risk," and the "too honest" young 
country lad became a law Student of Thaddeus 
Stevens on the 6th of January, 1846. 

Young Livingston was fortunate in his choice 
of a preceptor. He was noted in his early life, as 
he is to-day, for the legibility and elegance of his 
penmanship, while Mr. Stevens was a close com- 
petitor with Greeley and Forney in tempting clients 
and compositors to indulge in profanity while try- 
ing to decipher their chirography. Stevens there- 
fore was not long in estimating the value of his new 
student as an amanuensis, and the result was that 
young Livingston was domiciled in the private 
office, while the other students studied in the other 
room. Thus he heard the great lawyer's confer- 
ences with clients, and in this way learned more of 
practical law than he could have possibly gained 
from books alone in the same time, although Mr. 
Stevens spoke of him in after life as one of the most 
studious students he ever had. 

After studying law two years Mr. Livingston 
was admitted to the Bar, Jan. 26, 1848; and at once 
opened a law office, pursuing a general practice on 
his own account until, in 1851, he entered the office 


of Nathaniel Ellmaker, Esq., to assist him in his 
extensive orphans' court and general practice. 
The estimate which Mr. Stevens facetiously put 
upon the country lad, as having too honest a face 
to be a lawyer, was soon illustrated by the moderate 
fees he charged his clients, which became proverb- 
ial, and the subject of criticism by some of his less 
conscientious contemporaries; but it by no means 
detracted from his popularity, when, in 1862, he 
became a candidate for District Attorney, to which 
ofEce he was elected, serving a term of three years. 
The energy, ability and conscientious integrity 
with which he discharged the duties of that office 
brought him still more favorably into public notice, 
and he secured one of the largest and most lucrative 
practices in the county. 

Although in a pecuniary sense it was no pro- 
motion to yield such a growing practice for a seat 
on the Bench, Mr. Livingston was induced to stand 
for the nomination for President Judge, and, re- 
ceiving more votes at the primary election than all 
his comipetitors combined, was elected by a large 
majority in the fall of 1871, and entered upon his 
official duties on the 4th of December, following. 
He was re-elected in 1881, and again in 1891, 
triumphing over the most bitter factional opposi- 
tion ever made against any candidate in Lancaster 

A flattering but deserved compliment was vol- 
untarily paid Judge Livingston in 1882, when he 
received the joint endorsement of the Republican 
organization and the Bar of Lancaster County as a 
candidate for Judge of the Supreme court, "in the 
full confidence that the spotless integrity and judi- 
cial attainments, and his untiring industry, that 
have made him the honored head of our court, 
eminent!}' fit him for the discharge of the high 
duties devolving upon a fnember of the Supreme 

But the crowning recognition of an upright 
judge, a Christian gentleman and an exemplary citi- 
zen was achieved in 1901, when John Boyd Living- 
ston received the nomination, by the unanimous vote 
of his party, for a fourth term as President Judge 
of the courts of Lancaster county, while his name 
was placed on the ticket of the opposition party as 
their candidate for the same office. This is a unique 
example of a reward for merit — nlerit recognized 
because it commanded recognition solely upon the 
admitted claims of the beneficiary. It is the first 
instance in the political history of Lancaster county 
when the merits of a candidate have commanded 
recognition irrespective of partisan predilections, 
and Judge Livingston is now rounding out a tenure 
of professional and official life without a parallel in 
the judicial annals of the Commonwealth. 

While devoted to his profession and the scrupu- 
lous discharge of every official duty which devolves 
upon him, Judge Livingston has kept himself in 
touch with the various local interests of his fellow 
citizens, especially with the cause of popular educa- 

tion. He was a school director for many years, 
assisting in organizing the night schools, was prin- 
cipal for a time, and occasionally, when a teacher 
was ill, he assumed his old role of schoolmaster by 
filling the temporary vacancy. He served as presi- 
dent of the Y. M. C. A., and took an active part as a 
member of the library committee in selecting and 
installing the library of that institution ; served as a 
member of the board of trustees of Franklin and 
Marshall College, which, in 1897, conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of LL. D. ; and is an active 
member of the board of trustees of the First State 
Normal School, at Millersville, having been first 
elected by the stockholders and subsequently ap- 
pointed by the State executive. He is a communi- 
cant of St. James Episcopal Church, and a member 
of the vestry. 

Judge Livingston was united in marriage. May 
18, 1853, to Anna M. Swentzell, who died Sept. 24, 
1902, and was buried in Woodward Hill cemetery 
Sept. 27th. She was a sister of Rev. Dr. Frederick 
Swentzell (deceased),' and aunt of Rev. Dr. Henry 
C. Swentzell, rector of St. Luke's Episcopal Church, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

United States Senator from Pennsylvania, was 
born Sept. 30, 1833, at Dillsburg, York Co., this 
State. He comes of honorable American ancestry, 
being a son of Rev. Anderson Beaton and Catherine 
(McCain) Quay, the former a prominent Presby- 
terian divine, who was in the ministry for many 
years, being pastor in charge of flourishing churches 
at Dillsburg, York county; Beaver, Beaver county, 
and Indiana, Indiana county, successively. 

Through his mother Rev. Anderson B. Quay was 
descended from James Anderson, who came from 
Scotland in 1713, and subsequently married Eliza- 
beth Jerman, daughter of Thomas Jerman, a noted 
Quaker preacher. The latter emigrated from Wales 
with his wife, Elizabeth, and about 1700 settled in 
the Chester Valley, where he erected one of the first 
mills in the province. Patrick Anderson, son of 
James, and great-grandfather of the Senator, was 
the first white child born in what is now Schuylkill 
township, in the northern part of Chester county. 
Pa. He was one of the prominent men of his time 
and place, and took an active part in the stirring 
events preceding and during the Revolutionary 
period. He was a captain in the French and Indian 
war, and when the Revolution broke out was a 
member of the Chester County committee, on which 
Anthony Wayne was also serving. In 1776 he en- 
tered the service as captain of the First Company, 
Pennsylvania Musketry Battalion, of which he took 
command after the battle of Long Island, in which. 
Col. Atlee was captured and Lieut. Col. Parry was 
killed. In 1778 and 1770 he was a member of the 
Pennsylvania Assembly, and his son, Isaac Ander- 
son, represented that District in Congress from 
1803 to 1807. Ascenath Anderson, daughter of 


Patrick Anderson, became the wife of Joseph Quay, 
the Senator's grandfather, and they lived near 
Phoenixville, in what is now Schuylkill township, 
Chester county. Senator Quay's great-grand- 
mother, Ann Beaton, was a daughter of Daniel 
Beaton, and a sister of Col. John Beaton, who was 
active in military affairs in Chester county .during 
the Revolutionary war. 

Matthew S. Quay graduated from Jefferson Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, in 1850, took up the study of law 
with Penny & .Sterrett, in Pittsburg, and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar of Beaver county in 1854. In 
1855 he was appointed prothonotary of that county, 
was elected to that office in 1856, and again in 1859. 
In 1861 he resigned to accept a lieutenancy in the 
toth Pennsylvania Reserves. He was subsequently 
made assistant commissary general of the State, 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel; was appointed 
private secretary to Gov. Andrew G. Curtin ; and in 
August, 1862, was commissioned colonel of the 
134th P. V. I. He was mustered out Dec. 7, 1862, 
on account of ill health, but the following week, 
Dec. 13, took part as a vohmteer in the assault on 
Marye's Heights. Having" received the appoint- 
ment of State agent at Washington, he served in 
that Capacity for a time, until recalled by the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature to fill the office of military 
secretary, created by that body. In 1864 he was 
elected to the Legislature, and again in 1865 and 
1866. In the year last mentioned he was secretary 
of the Republican State Committee, of which he 
was chairman in 1878. In 1869 Mr. Quay estab- 
lished the Beaver Radical, which he edited. In 
1:873 he became secretary of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, which incumbency he resigned in 1878 to ac- 
cept the appointment of recorder of Philadelphia, 
resigning the latter office in January, 1879, when he 
was again appointed secretary of the Common- 
wealth; in October, 1882, he again resigned this 
post. In November, 1885, Mr. Quay was elected 
State treasurer by the largest vote ever given a 
candidate for that office. He resigned in Septem- 
ber, 1887. On Jan. 18, of the latter year, he was 
elected United States Senator for the term ending 
March 3, 1893, and immediately took a most active 
part in the deliberations of that body. He was 
member of the committees on Manufactures, Pen- 
sions, Public Buildings and Grounds, Post Offices 
and Post Roads, and Claims, and chairman of the 
committee to examine the various branches of the 
civil service. Mr. Quay has been reelected to this 
high office, continuing to hold a most prominent 
place in that legislative body to the present time 


In 1855 Matthew S. Quay was united m mar- 
riage with Miss Agnes Barclay, daughter of John 
and Elizabeth (Shannon) Barclay, natives of Penn- 
sylvania, of Scotch-Irish descent. Children as fol- 
lows have been born to this union : Richard Rob- 
erts, Andrew Gregg Curtin, Mary Agnew, Coral 
and Susan Willard, all natives of Beaver. The eld- 

est son is a lawyer. The second son graduated from 
West Point June 11, 1888, and is in the United 
States army. The Senator owns one of the hand- 
somest farms in Lancaster county. 

in the social, business, political and military affairs 
of Lancaster county, this gentleman, now located in 
Marietta, is active as becomes the descendant of "so 
worthy an ancestor as Gen. Simon Cameron, who 
was his grandfather. 

Gen. Simon Cameron was one of Lancaster 
county's most distinguished citizens. Born March 
8, 1799, in Maytown, this county, he was descended 
from Donald Cameron, who came from Scotland to 
America in the spring of 1775, in the same vessel 
with Rev. Colin McFarquhar. He was accom- 
panied by his sons, John and Simon, the latter's wife 
and Ann McKenzie, probably a sister of Simon's 
wife, whose maiden name is known to have been Mc- 
Kenzie. Coming from the same neighborhood as 
the reverend gentleman, they were Undoubtedly 
, well acquainted, and having been tenant farmers in 
their native place thev resumed their occupation 
upon the glebe lands of Donegal Church. As none 
of their names appear upon the Donegal assessment 
roll for two or three years, it is probable that after 
Mr. McFarquhar purchased a farm about two 
;niles north of Mount Joy they carried on its culti- 
vation. Simon and John Cameron took the oath of 
, allegiance in June, 1778, before James Bayley, who 
. owned and occupied the "Graybill farm," now the 
property of Abraham N. Cassel. 

Charles Cameron, son of Simon, was married 
about 1794 to Miss Martha Pfoutz, daughter of John 
Pfoutz. She was a woman vigorous in both mind 
; and body, possessed of a cheerful and indomitable 
, spirit, which enabled her to face bravely the many 
I vicissitudes she and her husband experienced in pro- 
viding for the needs of their family. Charles Cam- 
[ eron learned the tailor's trade in Maytown, and for 
a few years carried on the hotel at the southwest 
corner of the square in that village, but with meager 
success. There their eldest son, William, was 
born in 1796, and the others, John, Simon, James 
;and a daughter . (who married a Mr. Boggs), were 
born in a small frame house not far away, to which 
the family moved in 1797. From Maytown the 
family removed to Vinegar's Ferry, and thence, 
about 1809, to Northumberland, Pennsylvania. 

Simon Cameron was about nine years old when 
the family located in Northumberland, and, his 
father dying not long afterward, he was early thrown 
upon his own resources. In 1816 he entered as an 
apprentice to the printing business with Andrew 
Kennedy, of Northumberland, editor of the North- 
\umberland County Gazette, but continued only one 
: year when his employer, because of financial reverses, 
:was obliged to close his establishment. By river- 
boat and on foot the young man made his way to 
Harrisburg, where he obtained a position in the 


printing office of James Peacock, editor of the Re- 
publican, with whom he remained until he attained 
his majority. In January, 1821, at the soHcitation 
of Samuel D. Ingham, he went to Doylestown, where 
he published the Bucks County Messenger, which, in 
March of the same year, was merged with the Doyles- 
town Democrat under the name of the Bucks County 
Democrat. Toward the close of 1821 the plant was 
purchased by Gen. W. T. Rodgers. Mr. Cameron 
was engaged that winter as a journeyman printer 
in the office of Gales & Seaton, publishers of the 
National Intelligencer, at Washington. Returning to 
Harrisburg in 1822, he entered into partnership with 
Charles Mowry in the management of the Pennsyl- 
vania Intelligencer. At the conclusion of his services 
as State printer he was appointed by Gov. Shulze, 
of whom he was an early friend and supporter, to the 
ofEce of adjutant general of Pennsylvania. Thus 
began the career of public service which ended only 
with the close of his life itself, and in which he made 
a record equalled by few. 

Mr. Cameron early became interested in the de- 
velopment of internal improvements. In 1826 he be- 
gan building the section of the Pennsylvania canal 
(then in process of construction) between Harris- 
burg and Sunbury, and not long afterward took con- 
tracts for other sections, on the western division. 
The charter granted by the Commonwealth to the 
State Bank of Louisiana provided that the bank 
build a canal from Lake Pontchartrain to New Or- 
leans, and Mr. Cameron assumed the contract for 
the work, which was considered by engineers the 
greatest undertaking of the day. In Philadelphia 
he engaged twelve hundred men, whom he sent by 
sea to New Orleans, he himself, with his engineers 
and tools, going by river, from Pittsburg. This was 
in 1831. He spent half a year upon the work, and 
demonstrated its feasibility beyond a doubt. When 
the Bank of Middletown received its charter from the 
Legislature, in 1832, Mr. Cameron became cashier, 
and held that position for twenty-five years, the bank 
being a success from the start. The duties of that 
incumbency, however, were too limited to occupy all 
the time of a man possessed of his resources, and he 
interested himself in other fields of usefulness, par- 
ticularly the promotion of railroads, serving at one 
time as president of four corporations, all operating 
lines in the region of his birth place. The establish- 
ment of the railroads from Middletown to Lancaster, 
from Harrisburg to Sunbury, from Harrisburg to 
Lebanon, was due to his efforts, and he also gave his 
influence in favor of the Cumberland Valley road, 
and succeeded in securing to Pennsylvania the own- 
ership of the Northern Central railroad, from Har- 
risburg to Baltimore. 

Mr. Cameron organized the Pennsylvania dele- 
gation to the first National Convention ever held in 
the United States, which met in Baltimore, having 
been recalled from his work in Louisiana for that 
purpose. This delegation supported Van Buren for 
the Vice Presidency. After the Convention ]\Ir. 

Cameron was appointed a visitor to West Point, by 
Gen. Jackson. In 1838 President Van Buren 
tendered him an appointment as commissioner, with 
James Murray, of Maryland, under a treaty with the 
Winnebago Indians, to settle and adjust the claims 
made against the Indians bv the traders. In 1845 
he was. elected to the United States Senate, to fill a 
vacancy caused by the resignation of James Buch- 
anan (who became Secretary of State under Polk), 
and served four years with a fidelity which the most 
exacting of his constituents could not question. In 
the winter of 1857 he was re-elected to that body, 
to succeed Senator Brodhead, and was thus again 
brought prominently to public notice. In the polit- 
ical movements which preceded the campaign of 
i860 he was named as the choice of Pennsylvania 
for the Presidency, and his name was early asso- 
ciated with that of Lincoln for the Republican Na- 
tional ticket. 

Gen. Cameron's influence was strongly felt at, 
the Chicago Convention in i860, and he so won the 
confidence of Mr. Lincoln that when that gentleman 
was elected to the Presidency he voluntarily offered 
the General a cabinet office. From the organization 
of the cabinet it was a recognized fact that of all its 
members Gen. Cameron held the closest personal 
relations with the President, who during his service 
as Secretary of War, consulted him in private as 
well as in the regular cabinet meetings. Gen. Cam- 
eron, anticipating that the Civil war was too serious 
for speedy settlement, set on foot the extensive 
preparations which time justified. On Jan. 11, 1862, 
he resigned from the cabinet, and the same day was 
nominated by Lincoln for the most important diplo- 
matic mission in his gift — ^the minister to Russia be- 
ing intrusted with the transaction of our affairs there- 
at a time when a tact and discretion were never so- 
necessary. He was given an honor never before or 
since accorded a cabinet officer that of naming his- 
successor as Secretary of War. 

The General played a promirient part in nominat- 
ing Lincoln for a second term, and meantime took 
active part in the politics of his native State, winning- 
for the Republican party a standing which defied 
opposition. In 1866 he was again sent to the United 
States Senate, in which body he served longer than 
any other representative from Pennsylvania, and 
made a record also unsurpassed for activity and bril- 
liant service. After his last election he served eleven 
years, resigning in 1877. He was at the time one of 
the foremost members of that body, holding the 
chairmanship of the committee on Foreign Relations, 
appointment to which incumbency was a recognized 
acknowledgment of superior statesmanship. Though 
he made no claims to being an orator, and seldom 
participated in debate, Mr. Cameron's influence in 
National legislation was as great as that of any man 
who ever held a seat in the Senate. He armed him- 
self with facts, his arguments were clear and charac- 
terized by common sense, his propositions eminently 
practical, and his judgment in matters of finance,. 


commerce, manufacturing, internal improvements, 
etc., was always accepted as correct, and consequently 
reliable. He encouraged every project looking to- 
ward the development and-opening up of the Western 
States, and his work was never without visible re- 

Gen. Cameron married Margaret Brua, daughter 
of Peter Brua, of Harrisburg. The children born 
to this union were Rachel, who married Judge Burn- 
side, of Belief onte ; Brua, who is mentioned below ; 
Margaret, wife of Richard J. Haldeman ; James 
Donald; and Virginia, who married Wayne Mac- 

Brua Cameron was a Civil engineer by profes- 
sion. He was cashier of the Bank of Middletown, 
founded by his father, and in May, 1861, commis- 
sioned paymaster in the regular army, serving as 
such until his death, which occurred in 1864, at 
Lochiel, Pa., when he was thirty-eight years of age. 
He married Elizabeth Bastedo, daughter of Gilbert 
and Marian Bastedo, of Nelson, Ontario, Canada, 
the former of whom was a farmer by occupation. 
Mrs. Cameron survived her husband several years, 
passing away Dec. 31, 1 871, at the age of forty-eight 
years, near Nelson, Ontario. The remains of both 
Test in the cemetery at Middletown. They were 
members of the Presbyterian Church at that place, 
and socially he was a Mason and Odd Fellow. Mr. 
and Mrs. Brua Cameron had the following named 
children: Simon B., whose name introduces this 
sketch , Marian Bastedo, widow of David Watts, of 
Harrisburg, who was an ironmaster; Margaret B., 
who died when eight years old ; Janet R., who mar- 
ried Dr. George Husband, a physician of Philadel- 
phia ; and James, who died in infancy. 

Simon B. Cameron was born May 11, 1855, in 
Middletown, Dauphin Co., Pa., where he passed the 
■first twelve years of his life, and the next three were 
spent in Lititz, Lancaster county, where he attended 
the Academy. He was subsequently a student at 
Williston Setninary, Easthampton, Mass., and Upson 
Seminary, New Preston, Conn., and took the exam- 
ination for entrance to Sheffield Scientific School, 
Yale. Being offered a position on the Wheeler ex- 
ploring expedition, he accepted, and was thus occu- 
pied two years, after which he was engaged two years 
as instructor in Upson Seminary. In May, 1881, 
Mr. Cameron came to East Donegal township, Lan- 
caster county, to take charge of the Donegal farms 
for his grandfather, and he continued there until 
his marriage. He then moved to a farm two and a 
half miles from the Donegal farms, which was given 
him by his grandfather, residing on that place until 
his removal to Marietta in 1894. Here he has car- 
ried on a real-estate and insurance business, and in 
1898 was, elected justice of the peace, in which ca- 
pacity he is still officiating. Like his honored fore- 
fathers, he is a Republican in political sentiment, and 
has been quite active in party affairs, serving as dele- 
gate from Lancaster county to the State Convention 
in 1894. He has not sought office, however, though 

he has been a member of the school board one year 
since locating in Marietta. 

Since January, 1890, Mr. Cameron has been a 
member of the Pennsylvania National Guard, and 
he served as quartermaster of the 4th Regiment until 
May, 1897, when he was promoted to his present 
position, in the 3d Brigade, on the staff of Gen. J. 
P. S. Gobin, as commissary of subsistence ; he ranks 
as major. During the riot at Hazleton, Pa., he pro- 
vided the food for the troops in service. He accom- 
panied the National Guard to the coal fields in the 
troublesome times in 1902. The Major is a member 
of the Loyal Legion, and fraternally of the Masonic 
Order, in which he has attained the thirty-second 
degree. He is also an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church and assistant superintendent of the Presby- 
terian Sunday School in the town in which he re- 

On Feb. 15, 1887, Simon B. Cameron was united 
in marriage, at Harrisburg, with Miss HePen Mark- 
ley, and two children have blessed their union: 
Simon B., born May 20, 1888, died June 18, 1901 ; 
and Elva M., born Aug. 4, 1890. In religious con- 
nection our subject is a Presbyterian. 

Dr. George H. Markley, father of Mrs. Cameron, 
was born in Lancaster, and was a member of the old 
Markley family which has long been prominent in 
this county. In 1863 he removed to Harrisburg, 
where he passed the remainder of his days, dying 
May II, 1900. He was a physician, and also con- 
ducted a pharmacy. Dr. Markley married Miss 
Emma Snyder, of Harrisburg, daughter of Charles 
and Emma Snyder, the former of whom was a 
justice of the peace for many years. Mrs. Markley 
now makes her home in Harrisburg. Of the chil- 
dren born to Dr. and Mrs. Markley, Helen, Mrs. 
Cameron, ' was born in Lancaster ; Elva married 
Ralph Shaw, a lawyer of Paterson, N. J., where he 
is now assistant district attorney; and Miss Kath- 
erine lives with her mother. 

DAVID HAYES AGNEW was born at Noble- ■ 
ville, now the borough of Christiana, in Lancaster 
county, Nov. 24, 1818, only child of Robert and 
Agnes (Noble) Agnew. The latter had been pre- 
viously married to Rev. Eleazer Henderson, by whom 
she had two children, James N. ; and Mary Hender- 
son, who married Davies Wallace, of Lancaster 
county, and had a son, E. D. Wallace, who now re- 
sides at Blue Ball. 

The Agnew family, which has been prominent in 
this country for nearly two centuries, can be traced 
through many generations of North of Ireland and 
Scotch ancestry to Norman progenitors. The earli- 
est authentic record of the family comes from Ag- 
jieaux, a quaint village in northern France, from 
which the family derives its name — this being the 
leverse of the process in this country where the fam- 
ily has invariably given the name to the place. The 
little town of Agnew, Lancaster Co., Neb., named 
in honor of Dr. Agnew, is a typical example of this 


method, and shows the space of time and changes 
in living and civilization between the Agneaux of 
the Old World, and the Agnew of the New. 

Tames Agnew, the great-grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, with two brothers, emigrated from 
Ireland about the year 1717. He was a typical Scotch- 
Irishman. In an old graveyard near Gettysburg 
lie a number of the earlier members of the Agnew 
family. On one of the grave-stones is the coat of 
arms of the Agnews of Lochnar, and on another a 
rude carving of Weights and Measures, with the 
inscription, "The Weights and Measures of Scot- 
land." His biographer. Dr. J. Howe Adams, says 
Dr. Agnew evinced a pathetic interest in this little 
deserted spot, where so many of his lineage were laid 
to rest, and always spent much of his time when he 
visited Gettysburg taking tracings of the various 

Robert Agnew, the father of David Hayes, was 
born in Adams county, Pa., and received his general 
education at Dickinson college, studied medicine and 
became a surgeon in the United States Navv. On 
his first voyage the vessel was wrecked oflf Cape 
Hatteras, and he narrowly escaped with his life. 
This incident changed his plans. He settled at 
Nobleville, where he soon acquired a large general 
practice, which finally made inroads upon his health, 
and he determined to retire. His popularity, how- 
ever, was such that he concluded the only way to 
do this was to remove from the neighborhood. He, 
therefore, after a practice of a quarter of a century, 
removed to Baltimore county, Md., where he pur- 
chased a handsome countrv seat. While a citizen 
of Lancaster county he was prominently identified 
with the Octoraro United Presbyterian Church as 
a leading member of the Sessions. He died Oct. 
10, 1858, aged seventy-three years. The farm house 
in which his distinguished son was born is still stand- 
ing and in good repair. The old flouring mill, built 
by Dr. Robert Agnew in 1816, on a branch of the 
Octoraro at Christiana, is now a ruin. For many 
' years the driveway leading from the public road to 
the farm buildings, led over the embankment of the 
mill pond. 

After receiving his primary education in the 
country school David Hayes Agnew was sent to the 
Moscow Academy, at that time a flourishing school, 
of which the Rev. Francis Latta was the principal. 
It derived its name from this incident: Soon after 
the war of 1812 there was a mania in this State for 
laying out new towns. ' The proprietor of the "Gen- 
eral Wayne Tavern," on the Lancaster turnpike, sold 
his property, including fifty acres of land, to a party 
of speculators for the fancy price of $16,000, who 
laid out a town (on paper), to which they gave the 
name of Moscow, after the Russian town of that 
name which had been recently destroyed by fire to 
prevent its occupation by Napoleon Bonaparte. The 
speculation failed, and "Cossack Street" again be- 
came the Lancaster turnpike and the others with 
Russian names were lost in the bosom of the farm. 

It was on this property that Mr. Latta built the 
Moscow Academy in 1826, and there that young 
Agnew received the foundation of a good classical 
education. From there he was sent to Jefferson 
College at Canonsburg, Pa., an institution then the 
centre of Presbyterian influence in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, and as such influenced his parents in choos- 
ing a school to complete the education of their son, 
together with the fact that the Rev. James Ramsay, 
a relative, was a trustee. He did not stay to graduate 
as had been intended, but left to enter Newark Col- 
lege, which had just been opened at Newark, Del. 
(now Delaware College), under the auspices of the 
State, and of which his cousin, Rev. John Holmes 
Agnew, had been elected Professor of Languages. 
He resigned his position when he discovered that 
the College was supported in part by the proceeds 
of a lottery, and there being no special inducement 
for his young cousin to stay, he left before graduat- 
ing. He now felt that he had reached the age when 
he could prepare for the profession which had been 
the dream of his boyhood. After studying some time 
with his father, he entered the Medical Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania in 1836, being one 
of the youngest members of the class. He graduated, 
in 1838, among his classmates being Surgeon Gen- 
eral Barnes and Dr. Henry E. Muhlenberg. 

After graduating Dr. Agnew returned to Noble- 
ville in order to assist his father in his extensive 
practice. He remained with his father two years, 
until the latter removed to Maryland in 1840. The 
younger Agnew lived in the old homestead, where his 
parents had resided Tor many years, and his mother's 
family had long dwelt in that locality, the village 
having been named after them, and when the name 
was changed in 1847 to Christiana it was in honor of 
Christiana, wife of Wm. Noble, Dr. Agnew's uncle. 
While living here he met his future wife, Margaret 
Creighton Irwin. Their parents had been friends 
for many years, Dr. Robert Agnew having been their 
family physician. After he went South the son was 
called in to attend a member of the family. An at- 
tachment was formed between Miss Irwin and him- 
self which culminated in their marriage at the Irwin 
homestead, Pleasant Garden, on Nov. 21, 1841, in 
Dr. Agnew's twenty-third year. The life-long friend 
of his father and himself. Rev. Dr. Easton, performed 
the ceremony. 

Dr. Agnew had been in practice nearly five years, 
and was quite successful as a country practitioner, 
when he unexpectedly drifted in another direction^ 
His father-in-law was extensively engaged in the 
iron business. At his death his sons assumed con- 
trol of his extensive business, and Dr. Agnew was 
urged to enter the firm to represent his wife's in- 
terest. This looked like a promising opportunity, 
and he joined the firm of Irwin & Agnew in the man- 
agement of the iron works at Spring Garden, Chester 
county. But this seemingly auspicious move was 
made on the eve of the great revolution in industrial 
methods, when railroads, the telegraph and improved 


machinery were working new conditions. The Irwin 
iron works had been erected and fitted for making 
charcoal iron, and had been located with a view to 
convenience to water powers and abundance of wood. 
They were not adapted to the new conditions, and 
the panic of 1837 made matters worse. The firm 
made a determined struggle against unequal forces, 
but three years after the admission of Dr. Agnew to 
the firm they were obliged to make an assignment, 
and Dr. Agnew returned to his first love worse off 
financially than when h& began, being heavily in 
debt. He felt keenly the failure of his firm, and 
determined to make up to the creditors all they 
had lost, and through his future success he was 
able to pay every cent pf indebtedness of the 
firm, even claims that had been outlawed by lapse 
of time. 

About the time Dr. Agnew was making up his 
mind to locate in Philadelphia, where he would have 
better facilities to pursue his favorite studies of 
Practical Anatomy and Operative Surgery, Dr. Na- 
thaniel Sample, then the most eminent physician in 
Lancaster county, invited him to take temporary 
charge of the practice of his son, who had been sick 
for some time ; but while thus engaged he was in- 
jured in a runaway accident which confined him to 
his bed for nine weeks, and the effect of which he 
carried to his grave, in a slight limp in his gait, his 
hip having been severely injured. As soon as he 
was well enough he went to Philadelphia, where he 
entered upon that career as a surgeon which gave 
him more than a national reputation. Some years 
afterward, when meeting a citizen of Soudersburg, 
Dr. Agnew said, "I located at Soudersburg when a 
young man; I stayed long enough to know all the 
roads in that district ; but I found that the people 
around there wanted a better doctor than I was 
likely to prove, so I moved." How limited is human 
foresight ! 

Dr. Agnew located in Philadelphia, in 1848, when 
he was thirty years of age, with seven years of 
country practice and two years of business ex- 
perience, and soon attained a fair practice. In 1852 
he began his teaching of Practical Anatomy and 
Operative Surgery in the Philadelphia School of 
Anatomy, and his name is still the most distinguished 
in the long list of able men who have been connected 
with that institution. In 1854 he was elected a sur- 
geon in the Philadelphia Hospital, which was his 
first opportunity to perfect himself in the teaching 
of Clinical Surgery; and in speaking of it to his 
friend and professional associate, Dr. J. William 
White, he said he "might as well attempt to be a 
gardener without a garden as a surgeon without a 
hospital." During the Civil war he had large oppor- 
tunities; principally in the Hestonville General Hos- 
pital, for operative work. In 1863 he was elected 
surgeon to Wills' Eye Hospital ; in 1867 surgeon to 
the Orthopedic Hospital ; in 1870 pr(ffessor of Clin- 
ical Surgery, and in 1871 Professor of Surgery in 
the University of Pennsylvania, retaining the latter 
positions until 1889, when he resigned them to be 

created Emeritus Professor of Surgery and Honor- 
ary Professor of Clinical Surgery. During all these 
years he grew steadily in professional strength ; his 
clinics were crowded; his office was filled; his ser- 
vices were in daily demand in all parts of the Middle 
States, and the University of Pennsylvania was send- 
ing out, year after year, hundreds of young men who 
justly regarded him as the best possible adviser in 
all cases of surgical disease or injury. He was one 
of the surgeons employed in the Garfield case, spend- 
ing many days and nights with the President during 
a period of three months, involving a loss of weeks 
from his practice, then the largest of any American 
surgeon, for which he refused to make a charge, and 
for which Congress appropriated a sum which gave 
him only $5,000. 

Dr. J. William White, who attended to his sur- 
gical cases when Dr. Agnew's health began to fail in 
1888, and who was a constant attendant in his last 
illness, in his memoir read before the College of 
Physicians, thus spoke of the closing days of his 
active career : "After his retirement from the chair 
of Surgery he gave each year, at my urgent solicita- 
tion, backed by that of the class, a clinic at the Uni- 
versity Hospital. It was always known in advance 
and the amphitheatre was packed from floor to ceil- 
mg . . . He never lost his hold on the love and 
respect of the students, and until the day of his death 
was the most popular member of the University 

Dr. Agnew entered into rest on March 22, 1892. 
The immediate cause of death was uremia. His re- 
mams repose in West Laurel Hill. — |J. ■ M. W. 

COL. JAMES DUFFY was for many years one 
of the prominent residents of Marietta, but his repu- 
tation was not by any means confined to that locality. 
He was active in many lines before connecting him- 
self with the Marietta Hollow Ware & Enameling 
Co., with which he was identified from 1877 to the 
close of his long life. 

Col. Duffy was a grandson of John Duffy, a na- 
tive of Newtown Cunningham, County Donegal, 
Ireland, who was a leather dresser by trade. He 
married Ann Bradley, and their son, James, the 
father of our subject, was also born in Newtown. 
The latter came to America in 1800, locating first 
in Lancaster and later in Marietta, in the organiza- 
tion of which borough he took an active part. He 
was engaged in many undertakings which proved 
of great benefit to the county, and being a man of 
good business ability carried on the contracting busi- 
ness profitably. He constructed the Marietta and 
Lancaster turnpike, the turnpike from the Elizabeth- 
town to the Susquehanna river, and the road frorri 
Carlisle to Baltimore, through York Springs and 
Gettysburg. Mr. Duffy died in 1836, aged sixty- 
five years, in the faith of the Catholic Church. He 
was a Democrat politically. Previous to his emi- 
gration to this country he was a member of the 
famous Light Horse Cavalry, of Ireland. James 


Duffy married Catherine Sheriden, like himself a 
native of County Donegal, who died in 1820. Twelve 
children were born to them. 

Col. James Duffy, our subject, was born in Mari- 
etta Sept. 16, 1818, and in his boyhood engaged in 
rafting on the Susquehanna, rising in time to the rank 
of pilot. He was thus employed until 1846, and the 
following year made a trip to Europe. In 1848 he 
established, a line of boats for transporting coal from 
Pottsville to New York, in the interests of the 
Schuylkill Navigation Co. In connection with 
James Mehaffy he began the lumber business, in 
which he continued until 1865. Meantime, in 1861, 
he began transporting supplies for the Government 
to forts in New Mexico and the West, among other 
places to Salt Lake City. The magnitude of these 
contracts can be estimated from the facts that mil- 
lions of dollars were, employed, and over thirty 
thousand oxen were used. After seven years spent 
in this line Mr. Duffy retired from active business, 
devoting his attention to his landed interests and 
he won the reputation of being the largest tobacco 
grower in the State. In 1877 he became interested 
in the Marietta Hollow Ware & Enameling Co., in 
which he controlled one-half the stock. He was one 
of the directors of the Bald Eagle Valley Railway 
Co.,> and was active in the support of many enter- 
prises. He was a Democrat, and in i875_he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Board of Fish Commission- 
ers for Pennsylvania. In religion, like his fore- 
fathers, he was a Roman Catholic. His death oc- 
curred in November, 1886. 

Col. James Duffy was married, Sept. 8, 1863, to 
Martha, daughter of John Park, of Marietta, and to 
them were born the following named children : 
Josephine ; Catherine, deceased : James, who married 
Miss Malone, and has three children, James, Joseph- 
ine and Richard ; Donald Cameron ; Thomas Bayard ; 
John Park, deceased ; Martha Park; John Park (2), 
who also passed away ; and Mary Agnes, who died in 

CAPT. SAMUEL EVANS, now one of the 
ivenerable residents ,of Columbia, has long been one 
of the best known citizens of- Lancaster county, 
where he is looked upon as the most reliable author- 
ity in matters pertaining to local history. His efforts 
in gathering and preserving data of interest and 
consequence have been both laborious and success- 
ful — all the more so that he has ever aimed at ac- 
curacy in every particular, a fact which invests his 
articles with especial value. Capt. Evans was born 
Jan. 20, 1823, near Marietta, this county, in the 
stone mansion on what is now Col. James Duffy's 
park farm. 

Major Samuel Evans, his grandfather, was born 
near Landenburg, Chester Co., Pa., of Welsh and 
Irish extraction, and became a man of importance 
in his time and place. He was captain of the 8th 
Company, in the Chester Countv Battalion, com- 
manded by his father, Col. Evan Evans, and he par- 

ticipated in the battles of Trenton, Princeton and 
Brandywine. He was mustered out of the service 
holding the rank of major, having been but twenty- 
one years old when given that rank. He was one of 
the judges of the Chester court, and served several 
years as a member of the State Legislature. Major 
Evans married Frances Lowrey, youngest child of 
Col. Alexander and Ann Lowrey, the former of 
whom owned and lived upon the present Duffy 
farm. Mrs. Lowrey was of English extractiop. 

Alexander Lowrey Evans, father of Capt. Satn- 
uel, was given advantages for education such as but 
few young men of his day received. He was a col- 
lege graduate, and became a fine classical scholar. 
Possessed of rare abilities, he displayed in his writ- 
ings literary attainments of a high order. Like his 
father, he had a taste for military life, but had no 
opportunity for seeing active service. He was an 
ardent Federalist, but he never sought politicar 
honors. His death occurred in July, 1839. In 1822 
he married Hannah Slaymaker, youngest daughter 
of Hon. Amos and Isabella (Fleming) Slaymaker, 
of Salisbury, the former of whom was an ensign in 
the Revolutionary war, and a member of Congress 
in 181 1 and 1812. Mr. Slaymaker was a charter 
member and one of the promoters of the Philadel- 
phia and Lancaster turnpike, which was built in 
1792, and which was one the first built in the coun- 
try. He was also one of the proprietors of the Phil- 
adelphia and Pittsburg stage line, which was estab-, 
lished in 1800. Mrs. Slaymaker's father, James 
Fleming, who was of Scotch-Irish extraction, in- 
herited the military ardor of his race, and served in 
Capt. David Buyer's company ; he was at the battle 
of Long Island. 

Capt. Samuel Evans remained at the place of his 
birth until he was fifteen years old, and during his 
boyhood attended regularly the best schools of the 
neighborhood. In April, 1838, he was apprenticed 
to Israel Cooper, a Quaker, one of the prominent 
builders of Columbia, with whom he remained six 
years. For one year after reaching his majority 
he continued in that locality, and then for eighteen 
months he followed his trade successively in New 
York, Pittsburg, St. Louis and New Orleans. Re- 
turning to Columbia, he engaged in building there 
and in Lancaster, and also followed the lumber busi- 
ness along the river. 

Although his business received the attention its 
successful conduct required, it was hardly to be ex- 
pected that a man of Capt. Evans' active and pro- 
gressive disposition should be satisfied with only a 
commercial outlet for his intelligence and energy. 
He earl}' took an active part in the political affairs 
of his locality, attaching himself to the Whig party, 
in time becoming an aggressive advocate of anti- 
slavery principles. He was a liberal and welcome 
contributor to ^ the editorial and local columns of 
the newspapers' of his party, and he showed himself 
apt at giving and parrying the blows which were 
so freely exchanged at a time when party feeling ran 



high. He always attended the primaries, and fre- 
quently represented his District in the county con- 
ventions, where he took a prominent part in fram- 
ing the platforms of his party. In 1856 he had the 
honor of being a delegate to the Republican State 
Convention held at Philadelphia. In 1853 Capt, 
Evans was elected a justice of the peace for the 
lower ward of Columbia, and in 1857 was nominated 
by the Republicans for clerk of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions, and Oyer and Terminer, and was elected. 
During his term, though the business in court was 
quite large, there was not a single adjourned court 
■of Quarter Sessions. In the spring of 1861 he re- 
turned to Columbia, and was again elected a justice 
of the peace of the lower ward. 

When Sumter was fired upon, and a company of 
volunteers was raised in Columbia by Col. Fisher, 
Mr. Evans enrolled himself as a private, and marched 
with the organization to Camp Curtin, about May 
I, 1 86 1. He was appointed orderly sergeant of 
Company K, 5th Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserves, 
and on June 21, 1861, was promoted to a second 
lieutenancy. On the following day he marched with 
his regiment to Cumberland, Md., via Hopewell and 
Bedford, part of the way by rail. From Cumber- 
land the regiment proceeded to New Creek, and 
made a forced march by night from the latter place 
to Ridgeville, a distance of ten miles, to relieve Col. 
Kane. From West Virginia the regiment returned 
to Harrisburg, thence to Washington and Tennally- 
town, about Aug. 20, 1861. From there they 
marched to Camp Pierpont, south of the Potomac, 
on the Drainesville turnpike. On Oct. i, 1861, Sam- 
uel Evans was appointed quartermaster of the regi- 
ment, with the rank of first lieutenant, and was given 
charge of the brigade quartermaster's department 
for some months, and was also assigned as assistant 
commissary of subsistence of the brigade and di- 
vision, which responsible position he held for a year 
or more. At Culpeper he was appointed on Gen. 
\^'^arren's staff, and was assigned to the duty of 
issuing commissary supplies to detached troops at 
Warren's and Grant's headquarters, to the destitute, 
to loyal citizens, and to contrabands who followed in 
the wake of the army. He also had charge of the 
cattle of the 5th Corps, numbering a thousand head, 
and during battle issued fresh beef to the soldiers, 
and supplied the wounded in the hospitals on the bat- 
tlefield. On May 11, 1864, at the battle of Todd's 
Tavern, he issued twenty thousand rations to the 
wounded. When this battle was pending he was 
ordered to issue fresh beef to some of the troops at 
the front. A detail of men was sent from the in- 
trenchments, a hundred yards away, to take the beef 
and divide it. They were compelled to crawl along 
the ground, and could neither go back nor forward. 
Those in the intrenchments were compelled to lie 
down, and the beef of several cattle had to be aban- 
doned. During his three years as a soldier Capt. 
Evans was not absent from a single battle in which 
the troops to which he was attached were engaged ; 

this included Drainesville, the seven days fighting 
on the Peninsula, Fredericksburg, South Mountain, 
Antietam and the Wilderness. While not seeking 
danger, he always obeyed the orders of his superiors, 
and never required a subordinate to do an onerous 
or responsible duty while a battle was pending, but 
went himself and saw that his orders were executed. 
For meritorious conduct in the Wilderness cam- 
paign President Johnson commissioned him a brevet 
captain. With his regiment he returned to Harris- 
burg, and was mustered out of the service in July, 
1864. In addition to his own service to his country, 
Capt. Evans and his wife each sent a substitute to 
the army, both of whom remained until the close of 
the war. 

In 1866 the Captain was again elected justice of 
the peace in Columbia, and he was re-elected to the 
office in 1872, 1877, 1884, 1889 and 1894, continuing 
to serve until 1900, since when he has been a notary 
public. In political affairs his interest is as keen as 
ever, but with advancing years he has been less ac- 
tive and more inclined to conservatism, though he 
has remained a stanch Republican. Capt. Evans is a 
member of Col. Welsh Post, No. 118, G. A. R.,- De- 
partment of Pennsylvania, and also affiliates with the 
following societies : Colonial Society,- Sons of the 
Revolution, Scotch-Irish Society, Maryland His- 
torical Society (corresponding member, with head- 
quarters at Baltimore), Harford County (Md.) 
Historical Society, Virginia Historical Society, and 
Lancaster Historical Society, of which latter he is 

Industry and good management in his earlier 
years brought Capt. Evans a well deserved com- 
petency, in the expenditure of which he and his 
family have shown both judgment and common 
sense, as well as a keen appreciation of what is best 
in life. In 1852 the Captain married Miss Elizabeth 
Anderson, who died in the summer of 1855. In 
1857 he was married to Miss Mary Shoch, a lady of 
German and Scotch-Irish stock. Mrs. Evans 
taught school for a number of years, and has always 
taken a deep interest in literary subjects and mat- 
ters of education generally. She is highly cultured, 
and is the author of many poetical writings of high 
merit. Like her husband, she has a decidedly pro- 
gressive disposition, and both occupy a high place 
among the citizens' of Columbia. Mr. and Mrs. 
Evans have but one surviving child. Miss Lilian 
Slaymaker Evans, who was born in Columbia, and 
now resides with her parents. She belongs to and 
takes a deep interest in the Society of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution. She was the first mem- 
ber of the Society from Pennsylvania, and stands 
No. 4T in the roll, which now contains forty thou- 
sand names. She organized the chapter of Donegal, 
and was its first regent, as she was of Witness Tree 
Chapter,, which she also organized. At the first 
meeting of the Continental Congress of the Society, 
which was held in Washington, D. C, Feb. 22, 1892, 
she was the youngest regent present. As ex-officio 



regent Miss Evans has attended nearly all the meet- 
ings of the Continental Congress of the Society. 
She is also a member of the Society of Colonial 
Dames, and takes a deep interest in its meetings and 
projects. She is proud, as well she may be, of her 
Scotch-Irish lineage, and is a member of the Na- 
tional Scotch-Irish Society. 

geon General of the United States Navy, was born 
in Lancaster, Pa., April 25, 1810, being the youngest 
son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Foltz of this city. His 
ancestors came from Prussia in 1755, and settled in 
Lancaster county. Pa. Receiving a thorough acad- 
emic education, he studied medicine with Dr. Wil- 
liam Thompson, and graduated from the Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1830. On April 
4, 1831, though not yet twenty-one years of age, he 
was commissioned an assistant surgeon in the navy, 
and soon after embarked upon the frigate "Potomac," 
for an expedition against the pirates of Sumatra, 
and a three years' cruise around the world. This 
expedition, under command of Commodore John 
Downs, attracted much attention at the time, and was 
completely successful, the fortified towns of the Mo- 
hammedan pirates being bombarded and taken by 
storm. Surgeon Foltz landed with the storming col- 
umn, and was warmlv commended in the report of 
Captain Shubrick as "active and zealous in the dis- 
charge of his duties, binding up and dressing the 
wounded under the fire of the enemy." Soon after 
his return from this cruise he published the medical 
statistics and observations upon it. Being stationed 
at the Washington navy yard from 1834 until 1838, 
he formed friendships with many of the noted men of 
the day, and was present at the memorable duel be- 
tween William C. Graves of Kentucky, and Jonathan 
Cilley of Maine, when the latter was killed. Dr. 
Foltz had tried to adjust the differences between the 
duelists, and only remained upon the scene from con- 
siderations of humanity, and in the hope that he 
might save life. In 1837 Yale College conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts, 
then seldom granted. 

In 1838 Dr. Foltz was commissioned past as- 
sistant surgeon, and appointed to the charge of the 
naval hospital then maintained at Port Mahon, on 
the island of Minorca, in the Mediterranean. Visit- 
ing Algiers enroute to his post, he met the French 
expedition against Abdel Kader, under the Duke of 
Orleans and the noted Captains Pelissier and Mc- 
Mahon, the latter afterward Marshal McMahon. He 
made a study of the "pernicious fever" as he found 
it in the French military hospitals, and published 
a notable monograph upon that disease, but his most 
successful literary and professional work was an 
essay published in 1843 after his return to America, 
and entitled "The Endemic Influence of Evil Gov- 
ernment, Illustrated in a View of the Climate, To- 
pography and Disease of the Island of Minorca." 

His next service was in the frigate "Raritan," 

as fleet surgeon in South American waters, and on 
the outbreak of the war with Mexico, when his vessel 
was ordered to the Gulf Coast, he applied for shore 
service, and was present at the battle of Palo Alto, 
assisting in the treatment of the wounded. At the 
battle of Resaca de la Palma, he cared for Major 
Ringgold when that gallant officer received his mortal' 
wound, and at the battles of Alverado and Tobasco- 
and the siege of Vera Cruz, he rendered efficient 
service. He published "A Report on Scorbutus," 
as it occurred in our fleet. He had written in 1842- 
a series of articles "On the Employment of Steam 
Ships of War in the United States Navy." These- 
articles were embodied in the report of the Secretary 
of the Navy, and they led directly to the building of 
our first steam war ships, the "Princeton," and the 
"Union." He next served in the "Jamestown" on the 
coast of Brazil, and at the Philadelphia Naval Asy- 
lum. During the administration of James Buchanan, 
he was stationed at the navv yard and naval hospital 
in Washington, and, having long been the intimate 
friend as well as medical adviser of the President, 
was in closest touch with the stirring events of the 
day. He was one of the partv which accompanied 
Buchanan to Washington shortly before his in- 
auguration, when they were all attacked by the 
mysterious "National Hotel disease," believed to 
have been an attempt to poison the president-elect. , 

On the breaking out of the Civil war he served 
first in the "Santee" and then in the "Niagara" of 
the Gulf squadron at the bombardment of Forts 
McCrea and Barancas, and was then appointed fleet 
surgeon of the Western Gulf squadron under Ad- 
miral Farragut. He established a hospital at Pilot 
Town, on board the "Hartford," took part in the 
bombardment of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, the 
capture of the Chalmette Fort, the fight at Vicks- 
burg, and all the naval battles of Admiral Farragut 
on the Mississippi, remaining attached to the "Hart- 
ford" as fleet surgeon for more than a year, and 
rendering valuable service in advising and directing 
measures for keeping yellow fever out of New Or- 
leans, and away from our naval and military forces. 
On May 8, 1862, when off Baton Rouge, Surgeon 
Foltz went in an open boat under fire to attend 
wounded, and on July 15th, during the fight with 
the ram "Arkansas," he performed a like service. He 
was freqriently commended in general orders and 
reports. He became a member of the Naval Med- 
ical Board in 1863, and in 1866 president of the 
Board. In 1867 he was chosen by Admiral Farra- 
gut to be fleet surgeon of the European squadron, 
with which that officer visited the great harbors of 
the Old World, and he accompanied the Admiral 
to the many audiences granted, and the splendid re- 
ceptions tendered by monarchs and potentates, in- 
cluding the Emperors of France and Russia. Re- 
turning to America in 1870, he again became presi- 
dent of the Medical Board, and on Oct. 25, 1871, 
was appointed by President Grant chief of the Bu- 
reau of Medicine and Surgery, and Surgeon General 



of the Navy, with the relative rank of Commodore. 
He held these positions until April 25, 1872, when 
he reached the age fixed by law for retirement. In 
1874 he was elected a vice-president of the Jefferson 
Medical College. His death occurred at his home 
in Philadelphia, April 12, 1877, and he is buried in 
the. Lancaster cemetery. 

Dr. Foltz married in 1854, Rebecca Steinman, 
daughter of John Frederick Steinman, of Lancastef, 
Pa., and had three sons, all of whom were living in 
1902: Frederick Steinman, a captain in the 2d 
U. S. Cav., late captain of the port of Havana, Cuba, 
supervisor of police and chief of the Cuban secret 
service ; Charles Steinman, one of the editors of the 
Lancaster Intelligencer, treasurer of the Penn. Iron 
Co. ; and Dr. Jonathan Clinton, a practicing physi- 
cian of Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. 

GEN. THOMAS WELSH (deceased). One of 
the military heroes whom the city of Columbia de- 
lights to honor is Gen. Thomas Welsh, whose bril- 
liant career during the Civil war was cut short by 
an untimely death. His name is perpetuated in G. A. 
R. post, No. 118, at Columbia, and the affectionate 
remembrance in which his name is held by his old 
comrades in arms is undimmed by lengthening years. 
He did valiant service in the Mexican war, and had 
participated gallantly for more than two years in 
the great national struggle of 1861-65 when death 
overtook him. 

Gen. Welsh was a native of Columbia. He was 
born in 1824, son of Charles and Nancy (Dougherty) 
Welsh, old residents of Columbia. He was a young 
man of twenty-three at the breaking out of the Mexi- 
can war. He entered as a private, and was assigned 
to Co. C, of the 2d Kentucky Foot Regiment. He 
, was promoted to first sergeant Feb. 23, 1847, ^^ the 
battle of Buena Vista he was severely wounded in 
the leg, and the preservation of both life and limb 
was due to the care of Dr. Blanton, surgeon in the 
regular army. On account of disability from wounds 
he was discharged as first sergeant June 11, 1847. 
Returning home for complete recovery, he was com- 
missioned in December, of the same year, second 
lieutenant of the nth United States Infantry, then 
in Mexico. He marched to Vera Cruz, and partici- 
pated in the sharp campaign under Gen. Scott. At 
the close of the war Lieut. Welsh resigned his com- 
mission and returned to civil life. He became a 
merchant at the Basin, and the owner of several 
canal boats. Pie was elected justice of the peace in 
1856, and during Gov. Bigler's administration was 
appointed superintendent of the lock. 

When Fort Sumter was fired upon in April, i86r, 
a company of seventy-eight men was recruited at 
Columbia in one night for the three months' service, 
and on April 17, i86r, Lieut. Thorrias Welsh was 
elected captain of this company. Two days later it 
reported at Harrisburg for duty, and became a part 
of the I ith P. v. I. Capt. Welsh was commissioned 
lieutenant colonel. At the expiration of the three 

months' service Lieut. Col. Welsh assisted in the 
organization of the 4Sth P. V. I., for three years' 
service, of which he was commissioned colonel July 
22, 1861. He participated in all the campaigns of 
the 9th Army Corps, and was a model and brilliant 
soldier. The regiment lost 145 men at the battle of 
South Mountain, Sept. 16, 1862, and thirty at An- 
tietam. Col. Welsh was promoted to brigadier- 
general March 13, 1863, and in that capacity partici- 
pated in the Mississippi campaigns. After the sur- 
render of Gen. Pemberton, and while his command 
was being transferred to the East, Gen. Welsh died 
at Cincinnati, Aug. 14, 1863, of disease contracted 
during the investment of Vicksburg. His death 
was a shock not only to his own brigade and to his 
many friends at home, but to innumerable friends of 
the Union cause, to whom his brilliant and patriotic 
career had become a pride and inspiration. 

A family of five, a son and four daughters, re- 
mained to mourn him. Gen. Welsh had married at 
Columbia, Oct. 25, 1850, Miss Annis F. Young, who 
was born at Wrightsville, Lancaster county, in 1831, 
daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Kline) Young, 
of New England ancestry. She was a charter mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church of Columbia, and died 
Feb. 23, 1894. Both are buried in Mount Bethel 
cemetery. The children born to Gen. and Mrs. 
Welsh are as follows : Alice ; Mary Y., principal of 
the Columbia high school ; Effie ; Addie, who died at 
the age of two years; Lilian, a physician of Balti- 
more, Md. ; and Lieut. Blanton C, who graduated 
from West Point, m 1882, and in October, 1885, 
married Miss Emily Benson, of New York. He is 
now a retired army officer at Montclair, N. J., and has 
a son named for the distinguished and honored 

dent Judge of the Second Judicial District of Penn- 
sylvania, came of ancient and honorable lineage. He 
was one of three (some accounts say five) children 
born to William Atlee, of Fordhook House, England, 
who, contrary to the wishes of his family, married 
Jane Alcock, a cousin of William Pitt, and maid of 
honor to the Queen of England. The match was 
a clandestine one, and the j'oung couple sailed for 
America (he in the capacity of secretary to Lord 
Howe), landing at Philadelphia, in July, 1734. 

Judge Atlee, the oldest child of his father, was 
born in Philadelphia July i, 1735. His father died 
in that city in 1744. His mother, acting under the 
advice of her husband's friend, Edward Shippen, 
Esq., removed to Lancaster with her young family! 
and when of a suitable age, William Augustus read 
law in the office of Mr. Shippen. In 1758 he was 
admitted to the Bar, and his abilities were such that 
he rose rapidly in his profession, and in a few years 
was one of the foremost lawyers in the State. He 
also took an active part in local affairs, and on Sept. 
IS, 1770, was elected chief burgess of the borough 
of Lancaster, and he was elected three times subse- 



quently to the same position. While acting in that 
capacity, so important and valuable were his services 
esteemed by his associates, that at a meeting of the 
burgesses held March i6, 1774, "was taken into con- 
sideration the many services Mr. Atlee had done 
for the corporation in penning and preparing the 
above law to be laid before the Assembly, drawing 
the draught of the borough, waiting on the Assembly 
with the bill, and other services, and he refusing to 
accept a draught on the treasurer, or any other satis- 
faction for the same, it is therefore unanimously 
agreed (he having retired at the request of the other 
gentlemen present), that Messrs. Henry, Lowman 
and Hopson have some piece of plate made such as 
agreeable to Mrs. Atlee, genteel and not too expen- 
sive, and present the same to her as a testimony of 
their approbation of Mr. Atlee's conduct in serving 
the borough." 

The act of the Assembly to which reference has 
just been rhade was "for regulating the buildings, 
keeping in repair the streets, lanes and alleys, high- 
ways, etc., in the borough of Lancaster." The com- 
mittee appointed to procure the testimonial attended 
to the duty assigned them, and in the report of the 
borough treasurer, presented on June 29, 1776, the 
following item occurs :. "May 16, by cash to Charles 
Hall for a silver tea Sett as a present to Mr. Atlee, 
for his trouble relative to the Borough Law, 
ii4, 5s.. od." 

The first demonstration in the Revolutionary 
struggle made in this county was at a meeting held 
at the court house on' Wednesday, June 15, 1774, in 
pursuance to a call received from Philadelphia by 
Mr. Atlee, and published by him. Strong sentiments 
against further imports from and exports to Britain 
•were expressed, and he with a number of other 
prominent citizens were constituted a committee to 
further these aims. He was one of the deputies sent 
from Lancaster countv to the convention called at 
Philadelphia on July 15th, and he was one of the 
members of the committee appointed by that con- 
vention to prepare a long and elaborate draft of in- 
structions to the Representatives, which were soon 
to meet in General Assemblv to appoint persons to 
attend a congress of deputies from all the Colonies. 
The Continental Congress assembled soon thereafter 
in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, and among other 
things recommended the election of "Committees 
of Observation." Mr. Atlee was one of the members 
of the Committee elected to represent Lancaster 

During the stirring times that followed, no man 
was more active in the good cause than he. He had 
been chosen as chairman of the local committee of 
safety, and as such his duties were both arduous and 
incessant. He was in constant communication with 
President Reed and other State officials. The dan- 
gerous number of prisoners kept here, their plans for 
escape, the condition of the' barracks, were fruitful 
themes, and required unremitting care and attention. 
But Mr. Atlee seems to have been the right man in 

the right place, and to have discharged the duties 
of his position in a way to deserve the approbation of 
those at the head of affairs. 

In May, 1777, he was one of the committee of 
thirteen appointed by the war office to supply the 
army with blankets and other supplies, for Lancaster 
county. On Aug. 16, 1777, he received from the 
Supreme Executive Council of the State, the ap- 
pointment of second Judge of the Supreme Court o£ 
Pennsylvania, his associates being Thomas McKean, 
who later was thrice elected Governor of the Com- 
monwealth, and John Evans. During the years 1777 
and 1778 he also held the position of Commissary 
of the British prisoners confined at Lancaster, an 
office that was attended with many cares and annoy- 
ances, and required unremitting attention. 

But the State and county had still further need 
of his services after the struggle for independence 
was over. On Aug. 19, 1784, he was reappointed as 
a Judge of the Supreme Court. In November, 1789, 
he was sent from this county as a delegate to the 
convention held in Philadelphia, to amend the State 
Constitution framed in 1776. On Aug. 17, 1791, he 
was appointed the President Judge of the newly es- 
tablished Second Judicial District, composed of the 
counties of Chester, Lancaster, York and Dauphin, 
a position he held imtil the day of his death, Sept. 9, 
1793. P'ew names in our local history stand forth 
more conspicuously or more deservedly than that of 
Judge William Augustus Atlee. He was equally 
distinguished as a citizen, a lawyer, a patriot and a 
Judge. Like his illustrious brother. Colonel Samuel 
J. Atlee, he was an ardent advocate of the inde- 
pendence of the Colonies, and his services to the 
cause were many and continuous throughout the 
entire war. The numerous public positions to which 
he was elected and appointed show the confidence and 
esteem in which he was held by his fellow citizens. 
He deserved tliat confidence for he was a man of 
the highest integrity. His career on the Bench was 
both able and successful. He appears to have been 
endowed with many of the requirements for that 
exalted position, integrity, legal learning and sound 
judgment. In his capacity as a member of the Su- 
preme Court of the State during the formative period 
of our jtidicial history, he rendered most efficient 
service in laying its foundations deep and strong, 
and it has been noted that the opinions pronounced 
during his term of service on the Bench show a 
v/onderful unanimity on the part of the incumbents ; 
so much so that Lord Mansfield, one of the most 
eminent of English Judges, in referring to the Courts' 
decisions as recorded in the official reports of that 
period, remarked that "They do credit to the Court, 
the Bar and the Reporter. They show readiness in 
practice, liberality in principle, strong reason and 
legal learning." Judge Atlee is said to have been 
a man of great affability, of an attractive and win- 
ning personality, in whom the sense of right and 
duty was strongly developed, and of unquestioned 
integrity. He also appears to have escaped the carp- 



ing censure of political enemies and critics to a de- 
gree quite unusual in those days. From his first 
entrance into public life in 1770, until his death, a 
period of almost a quarter of a century, he possessed 
the respect and confidence of his fellow citizens, in 
an unusual degree. It is highly gratifying to reflect 
that the same confidence has in a long measure been 
enjoyed by his successors. 

of the President Judges of this district, was born in 
Lancaster Nov. 4, 1758. His father, William Henry, 
was a celebrated inventor and a gunsmith by profes- 
sion, holding a number of important positions on the 
patriot side during the Revolutionary war. Young 
Henry was early brought into close relations with 
men eminent in that struggle, and his military ardor 
was so aroused at being denied the privilege of en- 
listing as a soldier, that while still a youth of seven- 
teen, he ran away and made his way to Boston, where 
the first Continental Army was assembling. Here 
he joined the fatal expedition of General Arnold 
against Quebec, and went through all the sufiEerings 
and horrors of that campaign, and here were sown 
the seeds of disease which later made him an invalid 
for life. He wrote a very full history of that expe- 
dition, which was published the year after his death. 
Being exchanged he returned home, after a long im- 
prisonment, still longing to be a soldier, but his health 
would not permit. He bound himself as a clerk in 
the oflice of John Hubley, Esq., prothonotary, mean- 
while reading law and improving a defective edu- 
cation. In 1785 he was admitted to the Bar, and at 
once began the practice of his profession. In 1793, 
upon the death of Judge Atlee, he was appointed 
President Judge of this district, being only thirty- 
five years old. But while bright prospects opened 
•for him professionally, disease laid its hand heavily 
upon him, and sometimes rendered him incapable 
of holding the regular terms of his Court. He, how- 
ever, continued to hold his commission until 18 10, 
when he resigned it, after having been on the Bench 
seventeen years. He died April 15, 181 1. 

WALTER FRANKLIN, third President Judge 
of this district, although born a few years prior to the 
outbreak of the struggle with the mother country, 
was still too young to share in the war of independ- 
ence. He was born in the city of New York, at which 
place his father was living at the time, in February, 
1773. His father having removed to Philadelphia 
while Walter was still in his minority, he began his 
career in the latter place by entering a law office, and 
was admitted to practice in 1794, at the early age of 
twenty-one years. He must have attracted attention 
from the beginning, as in 1809 he received the ap- 
pointment of Attorney General of Pennsylvania from 
Gov. Simon Snyder. He held that office two years, 
until 181 1, when. Judge Henry having died, he was 
raised to the Bench by an appointment as President 
Judge of the Second Judicial District of Pennsyl- 

vania, consisting at that time of the counties of Lan- 
caster, York and Dauphin, and to which Cumberland 
and Lebanon were subsequently added. He held this 
position until his death, Feb. 7, 1838, after a con- 
tinuous service of twenty-seven years. 

Judge Franklin was thoroughly identified with 
all the interests of his adopted city He did not con- 
fine his attention to the affairs of his office only, but 
took part in all that was going on around him. He 
was an early advocate of the liberation of slaves, 
and presided at an anti-slavery meeting held in this 
city in November, 1819. His rank among his judi- 
cial brethren in the State was high. As a citizen he 
was correct in his deportment, courteous and digni- 
fied in his bearing, and a favorite with the people 
among whom his lot was cast. He was the founder 
of a family of lawyers, and some of them, are with 
us still. 

little is known or remembered, became President 
Judge of the District by the appointment of Governor 
Joseph Ritner, Aug. 8, 1836. He resigned on Dec. 
26, 1838, and was re-commissioned on Dec. 27th of 
the same year, and was removed by a decision of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in July, 1839. 

the President Judges of the Second Judicial District 
of this State, was a native of Bridgeton, Cumberland 
Co., N. J., born in 1800. His ancestors emigrated 
from England to New Jersey along with John Fen- 
wick, the grantee of that province, in 1675, and played 
an important part in its early history. Judge Champ- 
neys's father removed to this State, was educated at 
the University of Pennsylvania, and was a surgeon, 
on the frigate "Philadelphia," while that vessel was 
commanded by Commodore Decatur. 

Benjamin Champneys was prepared for college 
by private tutors, and ent ed the Sophomore class 
at Princeton, passing through the Junior year, and 
leaving upon his father's death. Upon leaving col- 
lege he entered upon the sttidy of the law in the office 
oi Chief Justice Ewing, of New Jersey, but subse- 
quently came to Lancaster, where he entered the law 
office of George B. Porter, Esq., who afterward be- 
came Governor of the Territory of Michigan. At 
the conclusion of his student days he was admitted 
to the Lancaster Bar April 2, 1818, at the early age 
of eighteen years. Owing to several important cases 
conducted by him, he at once assumed an important 
position at the Bar. Being then a stanch Democrat, 
he was nominated by that party for the State Legis- 
lature in 1825 and elected, and re-elected in 1828. 

Governor David R. Porter appointed him Presi- 
dent Judge of the Courts of this county July 8, 
1839, ^nd he remained on the Bench three and a half 
years, when, having been nominated by the Demo- 
cratic County Convention for the place of State 
Senator, he resigned in order to enter upon his can- 
vass. Pie was elected in 1842, and served the full 



period of three years. In 1846 Governor Shenk ap- 
pointed him Attorney General of the State, and he 
discharged the duties of the office until 1848. 

Judge Champneys continued his affiliations with 
the Democratic party until the outbreak of the Civil 
war, when his patriotism led him to range himself 
with the friends of the Union, and thereafter he 
was a sturdy Republican. His new political friends 
sent him to the State Legislature in 1863, and to the 
State Senate in 1864, 1865 and 1866. That was the 
last public positon held by him. Judge Champneys 
is the earliest of our President Judges remembered 
by the present generation. His well known face 
and figure, his genial personality and his courtly 
manners are well remembered by men of middle age. 
As an advocate he was eloquent, as a Judge, able and 
upright, and as a citizen, everything that is best in 

JUDGE ELLIS LEWIS, sixth in the regular or- 
der of succession of the President Judges of this dis- 
trict, was a native Pennsylvanian, born in Lewisber- 
ry, York county. May 16, 1798. He was of Welsh 
descent, his ancestors having come from Wales in 
1 708. Although at one time in affluent circumstances, 
his father lost his estate, and young Ellis 
was thrown on his own resources. He became a 
printer's apprentice, and studied law while learning 
his trade. At the age of twenty-four he was admitted 
to practice, and rose rapidly in his profession. He 
was twice elected to the State Legislature, in 1828 
and 1832. In 1833 he received the appointment of 
Attorney General of the Commonwealth from Gov- 
ernor Wolf, and in the same year was tendered and 
accepted the positon of President Judge of the Eighth 
Judicial District (Northumberland county). In 1843 
he was appointed to the same office in the Second 
District, which place he held until 1851, when he 
was elected a Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
State, and was Chief Justice from 1854 to 1857. He 
was renominated by the Democratic party, but de- 
clined the honor. Judge Lewis was a sound lawyer, 
noted for his knowledge of Medical Jurisprudence, 
which won for him the degree of M. D., from the 
University of Pennsylvania, and the degree of LL. D. 
from several other institutions. He was the author 
of a legal treatise, and his decisions while on the 
Bench have won for him a high standing among 
our Judges. He died at Philadelphia March 19, 

first President Judge of pure German ancestry. His 
paternal grandfather, Nicholas Long, was born at 
Levenbrucken, Bavaria, and came to America in 
1754, settling in Lancaster. His father was Jacob 
Long, an officer in the Revolutionary war, and a suc- 
cessful business man of this city. Judge Long was 
born Aug. 23, 1804, and his literary education was 
that of the schools of the day. He read law with 
George B. Porter, who was one of the leading mem- 

bers of the Bar of the State, and was admitted to the 
practice of his profession in 1827. He was elected 
county solicitor soon after he began his career at the 
Bar, and was re-elected to that position for a period 
of twenty years. Almost at the same time he was ap- 
pointed by the prothonotary of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, assistant prothonotary for the Sec- 
ond Judicial District, then comprising the counties 
of Lancaster, York, Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and 
Schuylkill counties. In the fall of 1838 he was elected 
a member of the State Legislature. 

In 1857 the Judiciary of the State became elective, 
having previously been selected by the Governors. 
Mr. Long had been suggested as a candidate, con- 
trary to his desire, by his friends, but he desired his 
name not to be considered. At the Whig convention 
in 185 1 he was unanimously nominated without his 
consent. He served the ten years of his term' most 
acceptably, and in i86r, political changes having oc- 
curred, he was nominated a second time by the Peo- 
ple's party, and again elected, and served the full 
term, retiring from the Bench Dec. 4, 1871. 

Judge Long by his legal earnings and by inher- 
itance acquired a large estate. By his will he made 
provisions in certain contingencies for the erection 
of a Home for Needy Women, and also for a public 
park for the city of Lancaster, devoting more than 
$500,000 to these purposes. The death of his only 
daughter, Catharine H. Long, a few years ago, has 
made the sum left to these public benefactions avail- 
able, and both projects are at present moving for- 
ward to their consummation. Judge Long died 
March 5, 1889. 

HENRY GEIST was born in Bart township, 
Lancaster county, Nov. 13, 1782, son of Simon 
Geist, who emigrated from Germany in 1750, and he 
died June 29, 1858, in the seventy-sixth year of his 
age. He was united in marriage to Agnes Mc- 
Cready, who died in 1832. In early life he assisted 
his father in managing his large farm, and becoming 
overheated in the harvest field, he sat down in the 
barn "to cool off," during a shower, contracted a cold 
which settled in his eyes, resulting in total blindness. 
His case was a remarkable illustration of how nature 
compensates for the loss of one sense in the more 
exquisite development of the others. When this 
misfortune overtook him he had a wife and five 
small children depending upon him for support. 
Thus thrown upon his own resources his future 
looked discouraging indeed, but he did not despair. 
His Christian training had taught him to believe, 
with Laurence Sterne, that "God tempers the wind 
to the shorn lamb." His parents deeded him a small 
farm "in consideration of the natural love and af- 
fection they have and bear unto the said Henrv Geist, 
their son," on which they built a modest home, the 
same being now in the possession, by inheritance, of 
his grandson, Henry Martin Geist. 

Nature had endowed the afflicted man with rare 
musical and mechanical instincts, and these he in- 



dustriously cultivated. He was an expert performer 
on the violin, and after he lost his sight that which 
had been indulged in merely as a pleasure became one 
of the means of supporting his family. In those 
days big annual fairs were held in "the shire town" 
of Lancaster, at which the prominent feature was 
dancing, continuing for several days, and in which 
every section of the county was represented. Mr. 
Geist became the leading violinist on those occasions, 
and his services were also in demand at dancing 
parties held in other sections in connection with 
sleighing carnivals, then more common than now. 
The musician was then "paid by the tune," the cur- 
rency being "fips," "levies" and "quarters." His 
sense of touch had become so acute that it was im- 
possible to impose a spurious coin upon him, although 
it was often tried, sometimes by friends as a test, but 
in some instances by those mean enough to try to 
cheat a blind man. These he invariably detected and 
exposed, and they were generally summarily ejected 
from the room. On one occasion the Farmers' Bank 
of Lancaster received a counterfeit half-dollar which 
the oii&cers declared was calculated to deceive the 
best judges. The late Joseph McCIure, who chanced 
to be present, said, "We have a blind man in our 
neighborhood upon whom you couldn't pass that 
coin !" The bankers were incredulous and a wager 
was the result. Mr. McClure was to bring his 
blind expert to town, and the party losing was to 
bear the expenses of the trip. Several genuine coins 
were placed on the counter with the counterfeit. 
Passing several as genuine he detected the counter- 
feit as soon as he got it in his fingers. This sensitive 
touch also served him in judging the quality of 
textile goods, and in the various mechanical occu- 
pations he followed. It enabled him to plane a board 
as level and smooth as one with his sight, his fingers 
following the rriovement of the plane each backward 

In those days thatched roofs were in vogue. Mr. 
Geist took up this trade, and there were few straw 
roofs in the neighborhood that had not been made or 
lepaired by him. The late Jacob Eshleman, passing by 
one day when he was working on the roof of a large 
barn, begged Eim to come down, fearing he might 
fall, and finally offered to pay him the price of the 
job if he would do so. But he assured his friend that 
he was not so liable to fall as one with his sight, be- 
cause, conscious of his danger, he was more cautious 
in his movements and was not liable to vertigo from 
looking down. He never met with an accident in 
this, or in any of the occupations in which he had oc- 
casion to handle all kinds of edge tools. 

Another occupation he took up was dressing flax 
and weaving it into cloth. All the farmers raised 
flax and had it converted into cloth for everyday 
wear. Mr. Geist built for himself a little shop in front 
of the barn, invented a rotarv machine, operated by 
treadle, for "scutching" the flax after it had been 
■"broken," by means of which he could do as much 
work in a dav as three men could do bv the old hand 

process. He also, with the aid of his brothers-in- 
law, Mark Brooke (wagonmaker) and George Fogle 
(cabinet-maker), erected a loom for weaving carpets, 
and, subsequently, another for tow-cloth and linen 
and taught his daughters to operate them, doing 
much of the weaving of the neighborhood. Every- 
body then wore "tow" or "flax" cloth for summer 
wear. In the winter season he took up shoemaking, 
a trade he had learned in his youth. When he had 
difficulty, in consequence of nervousness, in inserting 
the "wax-ends" in sewed shoe-work, he had his 
youngest son sit beside him with his lesson book in 
hand, and it was in this way that the editor of The 
New Era got most of his primary education. He 
also worked at carpentry, and built a frame addition 
to his house on a novel plan of his own designing, 
which attracted much attention at the time. While 
framing this building under the shade of the cherry 
trees, his son pursued his studies and helped his 
father in handing him the tools as needed. He could 
build as good a post-and-rail fence, when given the 
starting and terminal points, as most men having 
the use of their eyes, and when a two or three rail 
fence was to be supplemented with a base of dry stone 
masonry he was equal to the task. One of his spe- 
cialties was making wheelbarrows, which, though 
not as highly finished, were more durable than those 
turned out of the modern shops. He did all the 
work on them except the ironing. He was handy in 
all domestic affairs. Being an early riser, he made 
the fire, fed the cow and pigs, pared the apples at 
the annual "butter bee" (on a machine of his own 
construction), dressed the sausage skins at butcher- 
ing time, and did many other chores required about 
a country home in those days. Those who saw him 
about his work, or traveling through the neighbor- 
hood, would not infer that he was blind, so natural 
were his movements. 

The Rev. Dr. Easton, who had been his pastor 
for over thirty years, wrote of him that "in the loss 
of one of the noblest sources of earthly enjoyment 
he ever justified God. All acquainted with him were 
constrained to bear witness to his meekness and pa- 
tience. And those who witnessed will never forget 
his emotions when, the day before he died, the pre- 
cious words of his own covenant with God were re- 
peated, how feelingly he manifested his acquiescence 
in their truth." 

COL. MATTHIAS SLOUGH, like so many of 
the influential men of Lancaster county, came of 
German ancestry. Whether born in this country 
or abroad is not known. He came to this place with- 
his father in 1747, a lad of fourteen years of age. 
The father, J-acob Slough, bought several lots in the 
southeast angle of Center Square, and on them is 
thought to have built the "Swan Tavern," so fa- 
mous in the after history of the city. 

As early as 1761 young Slough became the land- 
lord of the "Swan." It was the beginning of a pub- 
lic career that lasted during the succeeding forty 



years, making Col. Slough one of the most prom- 
inent men in the county and well known abroad. 
The first office of public trust held by him was that 
of County Coroner, in 1755, and he retained it un- 
til 1768. In 1757 he was elected as assistant bur- 
gess of the town, and was re-elected to the same 
position in 1758, 1760 and 1761. That he was an 
intelligent man, and a patron of education, is shown 
by his having been a charter member of the Lancas- 
ter Library Co., in 1759. Strange as it may seem, 
he was also treasurer of the county from 1763 to 
1769, holding the office of coroner and treasurer at 
the same time. It was in 1763, while he was cor- 
oner, that the massacre of the friendly Indians took 
place in the public workhouse by the "Paxton 
Boys," who rode into the town, put up their horses 
in the "Swan" stables, and then carried out their 
infernal work. It was also at the "Swan" that the 
unfortunate fracas between Capt. Chambers and Dr. 
Reiger occurred, which resulted in a duel and the 
death of the former. 

Col. Slough was an early member of the Union 
Fire Co., in 1764. In 1773 he was elected to the 
State Legislature; he was re-elected in 1774, 1775, 
■ "^777 > 1780, 1 78 1, 1782 and 1783. A man of his 
local prominence was certain to be found at the 
front when the Revolutionary war began. He was 
a prominent member of the first public meeting 
called in the county, in June, 1774, to protest against 
the offensive acts of the mother country, and was 
one of the committee on public correspondence. He 
was one of the eight deputies chosen from Lancas- 
ter county to represent her in the State convention 
at Philadelphia July 15, 1775. In the same ySar he 
placed his entire stock of powder— four quarter 
casks and 200 pounds of lead — at the service of the 
State. He was present at the military convention 
held in Lancaster July 4, 1776, to vote for general 
officers to command the military forces of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was elected colonel of the Seventh Lan- 
caster County Battalion, one of the thirteen raised 
in this county. He joined the Flying Camp in New 
Jersey with his troops in the summer of 1776. His 
command took part in the battle of Long Island, on 
August 27th, of the same year. Later it was on 
duty guarding Hessian prisoners confined at Lan- 
caster and Lebanon. In 1777 he was appointed by 
the War Office one of the commissioners to supply 
the State troops with shoes, blankets and other sup- 

At the close of the war for Independence, he re- 
sumed his former occupations, of innkeeper and 
general merchant. He became a member of Lodge 
No. 43, F. & A. M., of Lancaster, in 1794. He was 
also largely interested in stage lines about this time, 
running coaches from Lancaster to Philadelphia 
three times weekly, and westward to Shippensburg. 
In 1797 he is found exercising the office of deputy 
postmaster in the borough of Lancaster. In 1782 
he along with several other prominent citizens, was 

elected a curator of an academy which had been es- 
tablished two years previously. 

Col. Slough was a man of considerable wealth. 
In addition to being the owner of the "Swan Tav- 
ern," he held much other real estate. His lands be- 
gan at Witmer's Bridge over the Conestoga, and 
extended along that river a considerable distance 
toward Graeff's landing. He had a mill on the site 
of the old water works, southeast of the city. In 
1799 he sold to the directors of the Poor of the 
County what is today known as the Poor House 
Farm, for £3,129, 7s, i6d. During the Revolution- 
ary war he was the agent for the purchase of horses 
for the French atjxiliary forces serving in this 
country. He was also one of the projectors of the 
Philadelphia & Lancaster turnpike, the first turn- 
pike built in this country, and superintended the 
construction of the most western section. 

Col. Slough was the father of a large family, 
seven sons and four daughters. His wife was Mary 
Gibson, daughter of Col. George Gibson. This 
George Gibson was the son of the Gibson who kept 
the first public tavern in Lancaster, with the noted 
hickory tree before the door. One of Col. Slough's 
daughters, Mary, became the wife of Gov. Simon 
Snyder, of Pennsylvania. Most of his children 
having removed to Harrisburg he joined them there 
in 1806. He died in that city Sept. 12, 1812, in 
the seventy-ninth year of his age.— [F. R. D. 

born in Colerain township, Lancaster county, March 
7, 1843, on the western bank of the East Branch of 
the Octoraro. The old homestead yet retains the 
dignity of the farmhouse and is now a place of his- 
toric interest, where 

By sylvan dell, through meadows green, 
The flood of the East Branch is seen, 
Around the brae, through painted lea, 
Seeking a passage to the sea, 
The swelling tide flows ever on. 
By glen and brake till race is won; 
Where, mingling with the salted wave, 
Returns unto the springs which gave. 

There, in one of the richest agricultural districts 
in southern Lancaster county, in a community com- 
posed largely of Friends and Free Presbyterians, 
all of whom were intensely anti-slavery in sentiment, 
the boyhood days of Mr. Brosius were passed. 
During these years he acquired the habit of industry 
and developed a love for knowledge which continued 
with him during his entire life, often burning the 
midnight oil when preparing for some great effort. 

Henry Brosius, his paternal great-grandfather, 
came from England and settled near Philadelphia 
in 1780. He was a member of the Society of Friends. 
His son Mahlon, the paternal grandfather of Mar-_ 
riott Brosius, settled on the east bank of the East' 
Branch of the Octoraro and established a pottery. 
He was an upright, conscientious gentleman, and 




exemplified the. teachings of Georg'e Fox in his -daily 
walk and life. 

Clarkson Brosius, father of the late Congressf 
man Marriott Brosius, was a leader in his com- 
munity, and although for years incapacitated phy- 
sically yet he was foremost in every good work for 
the elevation of his fellowmen. He was a thorough 
gentleman, and devoted to his calling, that of farm- 
ing. He was methodical, scientific and enterprising, 
and ranked high as a model farmer. He was largely 
instrumental, in 1856, in organizing the Octoraro 
Farmers' Club, which gaye an impetus to higher 
farming in soutbern Lancaster and Chester counties. 
Clarkson Brosius died Oct. 8, 1863. His last 
thoughts were of his boy far away on the firing line. 
The entire community was grief stricken at his un- 
timely death. 

On the matarnal side Mr. Brosius's great-grand- 
father was Samojel Hambleton, a consistent reforma- 
tory Friend. His sons were Samuel, Charles, Eli 
and Thomas. Samuel was the father of Rachel, the 
mother of Mr. Brosius. Each of the other sons of 
Samuel, Sr., offered their only sons to their country's 
cause. Gerrit Smith, son of Thomas, died in the 
service. Charles Burleigh, son of Charles, was seri- 
ously wounded ; he now resides in Atglen, Chester 
Co., Pa. Benjamin Kent, uncle of Mr. Brosius, 
tendered three sons that our nation might live. 
Mahlon G. Brosius, yoimger brother of Clarkson 
Brosius, was also in the service ; he is now one of the 
most enterprising citizens of Chester county. From 
the above we may learn that Mr. Brosius's patriot- 
ism was not only cultivated but hereditary. 

The mother of Mr. Brosius died when he was 
seven years old, and two years afterward Mary Ann 
Brinton became his stepmother, and how well she 
performed a mother's part is attested on every side. 
Her testimony is that Marriott was ever dutiful and 
self-denying for the happiness of the other members 
of the family. Mr. Brosius's early school days were 
passed in Octoraro and Chestnut Hill Academies, 
under the tutorage of the veteran teacher, Thomas 
Baker, who early predicted him a glorious future. 
His summers were passed in manual farm labor, 
and under his father's direction superintending the 
hands employed. With a dictionary in his pocket and 
some favorite classical author in his hand, his time 
for rest was spent in study. The study of political 
economy had a decided fascination for him, and he 
was authority on all national issues. When the war 
of the Rebellion was inaugurated then our young 
student farmer became restless. A conflict raged 
within his bosom, between his duty to his in-, 
valid parents and his duty to his country. The su- 
premacy was won by his unqualified patriotism, and 
he obtained his parents' permission to enlist at a 
heart-breaking cost. He was enrolled in Co. K, 
97th Regiment Pa. Vols., recruited by Capt. Wayne, 
grandson of "Mad Anthony" Wayne, the celebrated 
major general in the Revolutionary army. He was 
of Irish-Quaker ancestry. Mr. Brosius's history in 

the service is summed up by his colonel, Henry R.- 
Guss, afterward Gen. Guss, who says : "Mr. Bros- 
ius's record is linked and written with the 97th Regt.,. 
in whose rolls his name was inscribed in 1861. Its- 
history is his history and its fame is his fame and its- 
glorious deeds are the sum of the faithful brave deeds 
of the men who with him went forth at the call of 
this country to do battle for the preservation of the 
life of the nation. Among the most earnest yet quiet 
and unobtrusive in all his actions was Marriott 
Brosius. From the day of his enlistment in the ser- 
vice until stricken down by the bullet of the enemy he 
was ever at his post of duty, active and vigilant as 
a sentinel, brave and courageous in line of battle. 
He was regarded as a model soldier as well from 
the force of culture that indicated the perfect gentle-: 
man as from the exact fulfillment of duty that indi- 
cated the trained veteran soldier." In the above few 
lines his war record is summed up. Aside from 
special acts it is complete. During the terrible charge 
on May 20, 1864, at Bermuda Hundred, which 
rivaled Pickett's charge at Gettysburg, the 97th 
Regiment, 300 strong, charged across the wheat- 
fields upon 2,000 Confederates, Pickett's Division, 
protected by rilie pits. Mr. Brosius was struck in 
the breast by a rifle ball which imbedded itself in his 
diary. After charging up to within twenty-five yards 
of the rifle pits and losing 237 men, killed, wounded 
and missing, the recall was sounded. In the retreat 
Mr. Brosius stooped to assist a fallen comrade from 
the field, when a minie ball entered near the spine, 
and, passing between the ribs and shoulder blade, 
crashed through the right shoulder joint. Sergt. 
Brosius was confined to the hospital for eight months, 
three months of which time he could not be moved 
in bed. After the removal of the shoulder joint and 
a portion of the arm bone the wound healed but his 
arm ever after was comparatively useless. During 
all these months he bore his sufi^'erings with Chris- 
tian fortitude — no murmuring, no repining, he was 
ever cheerful and resigned. In February, 1865, 
Sergt. Brosius was promoted to a lieutenancy, al- 
though he had been mustered out of service for dis- 
ability the previous December. 

After his return to civil life Lieut. Brosius en- 
tered Millersville State Normal School, where he re- 
mained two sessions. After teaching a short time in 
Chester county, he entered the office of the late Hon. 
Thomas E. Franklin to study law. He also matricu- 
lated in the Law Department of Ann Arbor, and 
graduated therefrom m April, 1868, and was imme- 
diately admitted to the Lancaster County Bar. For 
two years he was State lecturer for the I. O. G. T., 
after which term he devoted his time exclusively to 
the practice of law. When attending the Millers- 
ville Normal School he became acquainted with Miss 
Elizabeth Jackson Coates, a daughter of Simmons 
Coates, of West Grove, Chester county. Mr. Coates 
was of the distinguished Coates family of Chester 
county ; he was a man of high standing in his com- 
munity, educated and cultivated and prominent in 



the Society of Friends. The acquaintance of Mr. 
Brosius and Miss Coates soon ripened into the 
strongest mutual attachment, with the usual result, 
and shortly after he was admitted to the Lancaster 
Bar she became his wife, and no more congenial 
union was ever formed. Four daughters blessed 
their union, two of whom are living: Gertrude, 
wife of Herbert B. Coho, of New York (they have 
two children, Gertrude and Helen Elisabeth) ; and 
Grace, who married Clement Biddle, Jr., of the 
Carnegie Iron Works, Pittsburg, Pa. Luretta R. 
died aged six years, and Florence died aged nineteen 
months. Mrs. Brosius contributed largely to her 
husband's successful career. His modest, retiring, 
unassuming nature required some one to lean upon 
m his many trials and tribulations, and at these times 
she cheered and comforted him and he learned to' 
rely upon her wise counsel. She never doubted her 
husband's ability to distinguish himself. She knew 
his capabilities better than anyone else, and had 
fondly hoped for the realization of her waking- 
dreams.. The home life of the Brosius family at No. 
419 West Orange street, Lancaster, was happiness 
personified, each member of the household contrib- 
uting to the happiness of the others ; gentleness and 
love permeated the entire atmosphere. The love 
for the good and beautiful was promoted by the 
esthetic surroundings. Mr. Brosius once said to a 
friend of his youth that the highest encomium 
ever paid to him was by his daughter, who said, 
"Papa, we never saw you angry." 

Mr. Brosius's career at the Bar, and the high 
esteem in vv^hich he was held by his associates, has 
been so beautifully portrayed in authoritative classic 
language that we introduce in this place the address 
of W. F. Beyer, Esq., at a meeting of the Lancaster 
Bar to adopt memorial resolutions regarding the 
death of Mr. Brosius, which occurred on the 17th of 
March, 1901. Mr. Beyer in part said: 

Mr. Chairman : In common with other of hia as- 
sociates, I desire to add the testi.tnony of my appreciation 
of the life and manly qualities of our late associate, the 
Hon. Marriott Brosius. 

We were born on adjoining farms that our respective 
fathers owned, in Colerain township, and, although he was 
a dozen years my senior, I knew him' and his family from 
earliest childhood. When I camie to Lancaster, leaving the 
Laiw School, he took me into his office for the few weeks 
preceding my examination and admission to the Bar, and 
afterward aided me in my early practice. For twenty 
years our 'homes have been on the same side of the same 
square in this city, where our families have met and grown 
up together. Never once during these more than forty 
years has a single unpleasant incident strained the chain 
of early friendship, but its links have rather grown brighter 
with the constant social intercourse of recurring years. 

I will not rehearse the story of his army life, which 
has frequently been printed, and is a matter of history. 
Let us pass to his career at this Bar, where his industry 
and ability, the thoroughness with which he prepared his 
cases, his uniform courtesy and fairness, will long be re- 
miembered. He loved public questions^, but 'he was not a 
politician in the miodern sense. Those of us who were 
with him in his first campaign for Congress at the primary 
election in 1888 know that he had no combination back of 
him, as we now understand the word, but that he went 

before the people, and the people of this great county chose 
him gladly, and they have chosen him ever since. There 
have been many vile stories of our local politics, some true 
and some false, in the past thirteen years, but none of 
them' in the remotest degree has ever been associated with, 
his good name. The bitterness of defeat often moves the 
tongue to slander, but in this case no sound has 'been heard. 
As a member of Congress, he rapidly rose to promi- 
nence, and it may truly be said that this county never had 
a more industrious, careful and conscientious representa- 
tive. For some years he has held the chairmanship of the 
Committee on Banking and Currency, one of the most 
important commuttees in the House, and there, as at home, 
he has proven himself a thoroughly honest man. It fell 
to his lot to shape the legislation affecting the money of a 
nation of 70,000,000 people, under which a large portion of 
the Government bonds were refunded at a lower rate and 
the National banking system practically reorganized, the 
■whole involving hundreds of millions', yet not a dishonest 
dollar stuck to his fingers. And now the end has come in 
the miidst of his usefulness. He was one of the people, 
and the whole people mourn him, while we, his intimate 
associates, will dherish his memory as that of the noblest 
type of man. 

Justice J. Hay Brown, of the Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania, said : 

The virtues of our dead friend and brother have 
been justly extolled by those who have spoken and it 
is not needful that I should longer dwell upon them. But 
if I do not speak of them it is not because any other man's, 
appreciation of them' was higher. In every relation of life 
he was exemplary and from the beginning to the end he 
was pure and his hands were clean. His good qualities 
ought to be remembered here and recalled from time to 
time in order that they may be emulated. As a citizen, 
soldier, lawyer, statesman, husband and father he was pure, 
brave, successful, able, affectionate and God fearing. More 
than this cannot 'be said of mortal being, and though he fell 
at his work w'hen the rays of the day's sun were still 
shining upon him and before the shades of eventide had 
gathered about him, his life was not lived in vain. 

In 1882 Mr. Brosius, a delegate in the Republican 
State Convention, in the midst of a factional con- 
test, made a speech in favor of harmony in which he 
said : "I love my party better than any wing or 
faction of it and only less than my country," which 
so carried the convention that he was by acclaim 
nominated for a Congressman at large, but was de- 
feated, although he ran seventy-six hundred ahead 
of the others on the Republican ticket. In 1888, after 
an exciting contest, he was elected as the Republican 
candidate to represent the Tenth District in Con- 
gress : almost without opposition he was nominated 
and elected in 1890, 1892, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1900. 
His death left a vacancy in the LVIIth Congress, 
where he had only entered upon his term a few days 

It was no easy task to follow Stevens and Smith 
as the representatives of Lancaster county in the 
National Congress — the grandest district in our na- 
tion, and whose representatives had always taken a 
leading part in shaping National legislation, yet Mr. 
Brosius soon secured respectful consideration 
from that body and was frequently selected by his 
party members to lead the discussion in the House 
of Representatives in consequence of his clear con- 
ception, persuasive rhetoric and faultless diction in 



presenting the subject under consideration. His 
fame as an orator was not confined to Congressional 
halls, it was only bounded by our National confines, 
and he was eagerly sought for to deliver memorial 
addresses in our National cemeteries and other 
places. In 1876 he delivered the Centennial address 
in Lancaster. On Sept. 18, 1888, he delivered the 
oration at the unveiling of the monument on the 
Antietam battlefield. He also delivered the oration 
on the dedication of the Ross monument, in Lancas- 
ter City ; the address on the occasion of the dedica- 
tion of the monument in memory of the Revolution- 
ary patriots who lie buried at Donegal, Pa. ; on the 
battlefield of Gettysburg, 1896; and many others, 
but space will not permit the enumeration. On two 
occasions he delivered the memorial addresses at Ar- 
lington — a compliment never as yet paid to any other 
orator. As a political speaker, Mr. Brosius was sent 
by the National Republican committee, at solicitation 
of candidates in closely contested districts — the in- 
spiration of his presence, his fluent, convincing reas- 
oning, M'inning many to his party standard. But 
his great ability to sway people consisted not alone 
in his eloquence. His sterling integrity, unimpeach- 
able honesty and unqualified veracity were important 
factors in directing the general consensus of public 
opinion. In consequence of Mr. Brosius's diversi- 
fied learning Ursinus College conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 

During his Congressional career Mr. Brosius 
served on a number of important House committees, 
including Agriculture, Civil Service (of which he 
was chairman), Pension Bureau and Banking and 
Currency (of which he was chief). He was an 
acknowledged authority on National financial legis- 
lation. At the last meeting of the committee on 
Banking and Currency resolutions strongly com- 
mending Mr. Brosius's impartial and courteous rul- 
ings were adopted, and the members of the commit- 
tee, regardless of party affiliations, paid him high 
complirrients for efficiency, little thinking they 
should never on earth meet him again. 

Mr. Brosius was a member of the Society of 
Friends, of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, trustee of Lan- 
caster General Hospital, member of Lancaster Coun- 
ty Historical Society, of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, and of other organizations. 

Mr. Brosius died on the morning of the 17th of 
March, 1901. The arrangements for the interment 
were made by Col. E. F. Pierce, Sergeant at Arms 
of the House of Representatives, and Mr. Fishback, 
Mr. Brosius's orivate secretary, the time appointed 
being 2 p. m., March 20. Mr. Brosius's body lay in 
state at his home on the above date, and for hours a 
constant procession passed the casket, all anxious, 
through their tear-dimmed eyes, to have a last fond 
look on their beloved friend. The Congressional 
committee, composed of senators and members of 
the House of Representatives, arrived in Lancaster 
the morning of the funeral to take part in the funeral 

obsequies. Rev. Dr. Alleman delivered an eloquent 
sermon, after which the body was borne to Green- 
wood cemetery, where the interment took place, in 
the midst of a large concourse of friends. 

REV. WILLIAM EASTON, D. D., for over 
fifty years pastor of the Octoraro United Presby- 
terian Church, was born in Ancrum, Parish of Max- 
ton, County of Roxburgh, Scotland, Oct. 2, 1804. 
His parents emigrated to this country in 1816, and 
settled in Washington county, N. Y. He was edu- 
cated at the Cambridge Academy, New York, 
taught by Dr. Alexander Bullions, and afterwards 
at Union College, same State, whence he gradu- 
ated in 1822. He received his theological training 
under Dr. Banks in the Associate Theological Sem- 
inary, Philadelphia, was licensed by the Associ- 
ate Presbytery, June 7, 1826, and ordained and in- 
stalled pastor of the United congregations of Octo- 
raro, East Nottingham (now Oxford), and Muddy 
Run, June 7, 1827, preaching one-half the time in 
Octoraro, one-fourth in Oxford and the other 
fourth in Muddy Run. He resigned the Oxford 
portion of his charge in 1854, "on account of the dis- 
tance and his own disability fully to attend to all 
the duties as he could wish," but continued to 
preach in Octoraro until 1878, when the infirmities 
of age compelled him to ask for a dissolution of the 
pastoral relation, which was granted Oct. 22nd, of 
the same year. On June 12, 1879, the life which 
began in Scotland three-quarters of a century be- 
fore, which had continued for over half a century 
in the congregation of Octoraro, through the vigor 
of youth, the prime of manhood, and the maturity 
of years, had drawn to a close, and the weary body 
laid down to rest in Jesus. His mortal remains re- 
pose in the cemetery adjoining the church where 
his lifework had been performed, and where also 
repose the dust of the sainted Gellatley and Cuth- 
'bert, the founders of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church in America. 

The semi-centennial of Dr. Easton's pastorate, 
June 7, 1877, was a notable occasion. It was largely 
attended by those who had been brought up under 
his faithful ministry, and by citizens of the sur- 
rounding country who had learned to respect and 
love him; and at his funeral, two years later, the 
Rev. Dr. Cooper paid this just tribute to his mem- 
ory: "As a man, Dr. Easton was distinguished 
for the great gentleness of his disposition. His 
heart was overflowing with kindness. Sometimes, 
it is true, he rebuked sin in a manner calculated to 
give ofi^ense, but he was prompted to do so by such 
a deep conviction of divine truth that no consider- 
ation of expediency seemed to him to justify sur- 
rendering its claims. He was unflinching in his 
fidelity to the cause of his Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. He was a man of remarkable candor, de- 
spised time-serving, and lived in open antagonism 
to all phases of sham, duplicity and darkness. He 
could say with the Apostle, that 'in simplicity and 



godly sincerity,' he had his conversation in the 

When Dr. Easton came to Lancaster county it 
was the prevailing custom among farmers to furnish 
liquor to their help in harvest time. There was a 
small farm attached to his residence in Smyrna. At 
his first harvest, when the men asked for their 
"morning bitters" and were refused, they laid down 
their scythes, declaring they would not work with- 
out it, uitimating that his refusal was prompted by 
meanness. Ascertaining the cost of the liquor they 
were accustomed to receive, he said he would gladly 
add double its cost to their daily wages, rather than 
place temptation in the path of his fellow men. His 
offer was accepted by some, but others preferred 
whiskey and left. The following harvest Dr. Easton 
had his pick of harvest hands, and in a few years 
the custom was entirely abolished, while the in- 
creased wages he paid had become the standard in 
that neighborhood. At that period the prevailing 
sentiment was decidedly pro-slavery. One Sunday 
Dr. Easton created quite a sensation by preaching 
what his critics denounced as an "abolition lec- 
ture." It was, however, a vindication of the Bible 
against those who claimed that it justified slavery, 
which he indignantly repudiated. He lived to see 
the public sentiment of the nation reversed on the 
slavery question, from what he found it when he 
came to Pennsylvania fifty years before. 

retired from the active pursuits of a marble manu- 
facturer in March, 1901, the Major finds plenty to 
do, for he still serves as secretary to the board of. 
trustees of the "Home for Friendless Children" for 
the city and county of Lancaster, Pa., a position he 
has held continuously since May, 1876, besides be- 
ing interested in other affairs. Major Howell is of 
Welsh-Scotch extraction. His paternal great-grand- 
father, the progenitor of the family in New Jersey, 
was a native of Wales, Great Britain. He settled in 
Lambertville, N. J., where he married Miss Julia Ann 
Holcombe, daughter of John Holcombe, about the 
year 1740. An old relic, a cane with ivory top and 
brass ferrule, owned by Prince Howell the Good, of 
Wales, in the ninth century, was owned by his 
descendant in 1883 ; and this relic of "High-born 
Howell" was exhibited at the centennial at Phila- 
delphia in 1876. 

Amos Howell, Sr., grandfather of Charles M. 
Howell, was born near Trenton, N. J., May 22, 
1754, and died Dec. 14, 181 1, aged fifty-seven years, 
six months, and twenty-three days. He married 
Martha Jones, who died at Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 
19, 1821, aged about sixty-eight years. It has been 
handed down as an incident in the life of Amos 
Howell, Sr., that at the crossing of the Delaware 
river by Gen. Washington and his army on the night 
of Dec. 25, T776, he was the owner of the "Howell's 
ferry" (now called "Stockton"), where the crossing 
was made, on the New Jersey side, and the services 

and assistance rendered by him on this occasion were 
of such a nature as to call forth the acknowledg- 
ments of Gen. Washington, who in token of his ap- 
preciation presented him with a horse. 

Amos Howell, Jr., father of Charles M. Howell, 
was born at Lambertville, N. J., July 31, 1792. He 
removed to Philadelphia when a young boy, and 
learned the trade of coachmaking, which he after- 
ward carried on extensively in all its various branches 
until his death, at the southeast corner of Arch and 
Eighth streets. He served in the war of 1812-14, 
and died in Philadelphia April 11, 1832. His wife, 
Sarah (Provost), was born in Philadelphia Jan. 21, 
1799, and died at Buckingham C. H., Va., Aug. 30, 
1863. Her mother, Hannah Provost, grandmother 
of Charles M. Howell, was born at Inverness, Scot- 
land, and died at Philadelphia, Pa., March 13, 1820. 
By his marriage with Sarah Provost Amos Howell 
had eight children, of whom Charles Miller was the 
eldest; the others were Henry Provost, Elizabeth 
Prentice, Martha Jones, Emeline Margaretta, George 
Hocker, John Martin and Paul Alexander. 

Charles Miller Howell was born at Philadelphia, 
Pa., at 8 :30 a. m., Sunday morning, April 24, 1814, 
and obtained his early education in the private schools 
of his native city, which he attended until he was 
twelve years old. He was then sent to the academy 
in Plainfield, Conn., where he remained two years. 
Upon his return to Philadelphia he was indentured 
an apprentice with Gen. Peter Fritz, a marble manu- 
facturer, in that city. After his term of apprentice- 
ship he worked several years for Mr. Fritz as . a 
journeyman. In the spring of 1838 he began busi- 
ness for himself, and carried on the trade until Sep- 
tember, 1843, when he moved to Lancaster, and estab- 
lished his business on the south side of East King 
street, three doors east of Christian street. In 1850 
he purchased the Gompf property, on the east side 
of North Queen street, between Chestnut and Orange 
streets, in Lancaster, where he continued to do a 
flourishing trade for a period of fifty-eight years. 
In 1864 he built the two handsome brick houses at 
Nos. 133 and 135 North Queen street, this being the 
first notable modern building improvement on North • 
Queen street; the three story back-building at No. 
135, where he resides, he erected in 1850. Mr. Howell 
has been one of Lancaster's most active business- 
men, closely identified with the material interests 
and worthy local enterprises of the city, and as a 
member of both branches of city council, as a member 
of the city school board, and as city treasurer, he did 
efficient service for the public. In 1856 he was elected 
county treasurer on the Democratic ticket, and dis- 
charged the duties of that office with entire satisfac- 

Mr. Howell was noted in his boyhood days as 
a lad of refined tastes and accomplishments, and as 
an apt scholar. He was especially gifted as a pen- 
man, and became famed for his chirography, as well 
as for his skill in making pens, those being the days 
when pens were made of the gray-goose quill, and 

r^_ dn./^^^ 



copy-books of plain white paper sewed together. He 
became so skilled with the pen-knife, as well as pen. 
that the school master imposed on him the duty of 
making- pens for the school, and of setting the copy 
at the head of the page. These duties, requiring so 
delicate manipulation of touch, no doubt had much 
to do with the Major's subsequerit proficiency with 
the mallet and the chisel. Although now in his eighty- 
ninth year, he still writes visiting cards for his friends 
and no professional pen-writer ever wrote a steadier 
or more graceful hand, and he is grateful that this 
faculty is retained. As a marble manufacturer and 
monument builder Mr. Howell was at the head of 
his profession. Many of the finest works in granite 
and marble that adorn the local cemeteries were de- 
signed, executed and erected by him, or under his 
immediate supervision; 

As a Free and Accepted Mason Mr. Howell has 
attained exalted positions. As soon as his apprentice- 
ship under Gen. Fritz had closed, the old veteran, who 
was P. G. M. of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, 
and who took a natural pride in the skill and ability of 
his apprentice in marble-masonry, proposed him for 
membership in Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 155, F. & 
A. M., in June, 1839. In due course he was made a 
Mason in that lodge, and remained a member until 
1843, when he withdrew, came to Lancaster, and 
was for a few years a regular visitor at the meetings 
■of Lodge No. 43. He was admitted to membership 
June 14, 1848, and filled several positions during that 
year. At the December meeting he was 'elected 
Junior Warden, in 1849 Senior Warden, and in 1852 
Worshipful Master. In 1854 he was again elected 
Worshipful Master. On Dec. 27, 1856, he was ap- 
pointed District Deputy Grand Master for Masonic 
District No. i, composed of the counties of Chester, 
Lancaster, Lebanon and York, and was continuously 
re-appointed for twenty years, when he declined a 
re-appointment. Upon the establishment of the rep- 
resentative system he was appointed Representative 
■of I,odge No. 43, to the Grand Lodge, and continued 
in that position until 1879. He is Past High Priest 
of Chapter No. 43, Royal Arch Masons, was ap- 
pointed District Deputy Grand High Priest in 1856, 
and filled that office for twenty years. He is P. T. 
T. G. M. of Goodwin Council, No. 19, and was Dis- 
trict Deputy M. P. G. M. for several years. He is 
a member of Harrisburg Lodge of Perfection, and 
of Harrisburg Consistory, 32d degree, A. A. S.- R. 
He was one of the charter members of Lancaster 
Commandery, No. 13, M. K. T., was its first Eminent 
Commander^ and was continuously elected to that 
office for eight years. He was appointed Division 
Commander of his Templar district in 1865, and 
served until 1884. He served in all of the 
elective ofiices and was elected R. E. Grand 
Commander in 1871. In honor of his valu- 
able Masonic services the following Masonic 
lodges and chapters have been named after him: 
Howell Lodge, No. 405, Honeybrook, Chester 
county ; Charles M. Howell Lodge, No. 496, Millers- 

ville, Lancaster county; Howell Chapter, No. 499, 
York, York county; and Howell Chapter, No. 202, 
West Chester, Chester county. In appreciation of 
his services his Masonic brethren in difiFerent parts 
of the State have presented him with testimonials 
and many elegant, costly presents. 

Although Major Howell was not a soldier in ac- 
tive service in the field, he has a military record of 
which he may well be proud. His grandfather, Amos 
Howell, Sr., as before stated, owned the Howell's 
ferry, on the New Jersey side of the Delaware river, 
and greatly assisted Gen. Washington with his arrny, 
in crossing on the night of Dec. 25, 1776, and his 
father, Amos Howell, Jr., was a soldier in the war 
'of 1812-14. With these patriotic examples it is not 
to be wondered that young Howell also should feel 
some military aspirations, even during the piping 
times of peace. In the twenty-third year of his age 
lie was elected captain of the 8th Company, 74th Regi- 
ment, Militia of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
in the 1st Brigade, composed of the militia of the 
city and county of Philadelphia; he was duly com- 
missioned by Gov. Joseph Ritner, his commission 
bearing date April 17, 1837. In 1838, when the 
Buckshot war broke out in Harrisburg, Major 
Howell was a sergeant in Capt. Fritz's Company of 
National Grays of Philadelphia. That company, with 
other troops, were sent to the State capital to sup- 
press the insurrection. The troops left Philadelphia 
about 8 130 A. M. , during a snowstorm, on a very cold 
day, and reaching Lancaster at night were quartered 
at the "Franklin House" for the night. The next 
morning they took the cars for Harrisburg, formed 
a line on the bank of the Susquehanna river and 
marched to the capitol with colors flying and drurns 
beating. During this trip and bloodless campaign 
Major Howell was chosen sergeant of Major Gen. 
Robert Patterson's bodyguard — the General being in 
command of the entire forces. At the Encampment 
of Volunteers at Camp Wayne, Paoli, Sept. 10, 1840, 
of which Col. John K. Murphy, of Philadelphia, was 
commandant of the right wing and Gen. Frederick 
Hambright, of Lancaster, of the left wing, Major 
Howell was sergeant-major of the right wing. In 
1842 Major Howell was elected major of the ist Reg- 
iment, Volunteer Artillery, ist Brigade, ist Division, 
composed of the militia of the city and county of 
Philadelphia, and was duly commissioned by Gov. 
David R. Porter, his commission bearing date Aug. 3, 
1842, and running for seven years. 

Major Howell was also an active fireman under 
the volunteer service, and was a member of the Col- 
umbia Hose Company, of Philadelphia, when he was 
but eighteen years old, serving seven years. He was 
then placed on the Honorary Roll, which constituted 
him a life member. He then became an active mem- 
ber of the Phoenix Hose Company, to which his 
father belonged, and remained with them until the 
volunteer service gave place to the paid department. 
After coming to Lancaster he continued to take ac- 
tive interest in fire matters, and his long service in 



Philadelphia made him a safe worker and wise coun- 
selor. He was one of the chief organizers of the 
Empire Hook and Ladder Co., and its president from 
185S to 1884, when it was disbanded to give place 
to the paid department. In 1872 he was appointed, by 
Hon. F. S. Pyfer, mayor of Lancaster, chief engineer 
of the fire department, and subsequently elected by 
the firemen themselves to the same office, and served 
with great diligence and efficiency. 

Major Howell declares, jokingly, that he sup- 
poses he has been a church and Sunday school worker 
for so many years because he was born at 8 :30 a. m., 
on a certain Sunday. His connection with and at- 
tendance upon the First Presbyterian Church and its 
Sunday-school, of Lancaster, commenced in Septem- 
ber, 1S43. He was elected a trustee of the church at 
that time, and served for twenty-five years. He is 
still an elder in the church. He was elected secretary 
and treasurer of the Sunday-school and served in 
both offices until 1888 — a period of forty-five years, 
when he resigned these offices for the purpose of 
separating them, and placing younger persons in 
the two positions. He then became a teacher of 
Class No. 15, composed of young ladies. He served 
as teacher until Jan. 6, 1896, and then resigned the 
position and became a scholar in the same class, per- 
forming the duties of secretary up to Jan. 5, 1902, 
making a continuous membership of fifty-nine years. 
During the first fifty-six years he was absent from 
Simday-school but fourteen times, and can give rea- 
sons for the absent days, and since then has attended 
quite regularly. Twice in succession he was absent 
but once during terms of thirteen years each. His 
atendance upon the church services will compare with 
the school attendance. 

On Dec. 28, 1841, Major Howell was married 
to Miss Elizabeth Michael, daughter of John and 
Elizabeth Michael, who for half a century owned and 
controlled "Michael's Hotel" (or the "Grapes," as it 
was called), now known as the "American House," 
in North Queen street. Mrs. Howell died Oct. 22, 
1877. Their children were Sarah Provost, wife of 
Rev. William D. LeFevre; Elizabeth Michael, de- 
ceased ; Charles May, deceased ; Henry N., ex-chief 
of the Lancaster Fire Department, who married Anna 
M. Burger; and they reside with his father at No. 
13s North Queen street, where he conducts a very 
successful fire insurance business, representing six 
of the best companies in the world ; and Frank Roder- 
ick, a marble mason, who married Miss Susan Ann 
Baumgardner, and died Jan. 9, 1899. Major Howell 
has nine grandchildren and eight great-grandchil- 
dren, whose voices gladden his heart and make 
merry music in his home. 

It would be like the play of "Hamlet" with Ham- 
let out if we closed this sketch without reference to 
a matter with which — even more than with his prom- 
inence in Masonic affairs, his remarkable record in 
church and Sunday-school work, and his long and 
successful career as a monument builder — the people 
of Lancaster are familiar, and that is Major Howell's 

reputation as a skater on the ice, for the entire com- 
munity of Lancaster knows of this. For an ordinary 
lifetime he was not only the champion skater of this 
section, but had no superior in the State, if indeed, 
in the country. Time and again have the papers of 
Lancaster made complimentary notes of his per- 
formances on the ice, and the last of these notices 
was written and published when he was eighty years 
old. His last appearance on the ice was three years 
ago, when he was eighty-five years old, and the only 
reason he has not indulged in the sport since was 
because there was not ice on the Conestoga river fit 
to skate on. He still feels anxious to skate, and the 
wish and hope of the entire community is that he may 
be spared to skate and gladden many with his smiles 
until he has rounded out a full century nf time. 

[Smce the above was written Major Howell has 
died, passing away April 10, 1903.] 

teacher, and minister, was born April 30, 1823, 
within the present limits of the borough of Easton, 
Pa., on the west side, along the Bushkill. He was 
one of the thirteen children of Andrew and Eliza- 
beth (Gilmore) Appel. His ancestors on his fa- 
ther's side were of German stock, while from his 
mother he derived a mixture of Irish and Quaker 
blood. Andrew Appel was ambitious for his chil- 
dren, and gave them the best education his limited 
means and the times allowed. 

WRen Theodore Appel was eight years old he 
was sent to school, where he pursued his studies 
for four years, becoming then a clerk in a store at 
Easton. However, he kept up his mathematical 
studies, of which he was very fond, and also pur- 
sued other branches, with a view of somehow ob- 
taining a college course, and of eventually fitting 
himself for the ministry. His zeal and persever- 
ance met with gratifying success. After two years 
spent in Dr. John Vandevere's Academy, he was in 
1839 admitted to the Sophomore class at Marshall 
College, in Mercersburg. Under the influence of 
Drs. Nevin and Rauch" his tendencies toward the 
ministry were strengthened, and he became thor- 
oughly permeated with religious thought. On grad- 
uating, in the class of 1842, when he delivered the 
Latin Salutatory, he immediately entered the Sem- 
inary of the Reformed Church, where Drs. Nevin 
and Schaff became his mentors. During his sem- 
inary course he acted as tutor in Greek in the col- 
lege. In 1845 he graduated from the Seminary, 
and received a call to Cavetown, Md., which he ac- 
cepted, and had charge of four congregations em- 
bracing the country along the South Mountain 
from Cavetown to Waynesboro. During his pas- 
torate he organized a fifth congregation, which be- 
came the Harbaugh Church. In 1847 the charge 
was divided, and he remained oastor of the Cave- 
town section. 

In 1851 Rev. Mr. Appel removed to Mercers- 
burg, to become pastor of the Mercersburg Church 



and professor of mathematics in his Alma Mater. 
When Marshall College was removed to Lancas- 
ter, in 1853, Rev. Mr. Appel came with it, and con- 
tinued in his professorship in the college under its 
combined name until 1877. Dr. Appel was ever a 
man of energy and untiring industry. In addition 
to his educational and pastoral work, from 1873 
to 1888 he delivered several series of popular lec- 
tures on astronomy throughout the Reformed 
Church, and during the same period he became sec- 
retary of the Board of Home and Foreign Missions, 
and also secretary of the board of visitors of the 
Theological Seminary. In 1872 he was honored 
with the degree of D. D., conferred by the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

Dr, Appel is also an author of more than com- 
mon note. During 1886 he published three books : 
"College Recollections," "The Beginnings of the 
Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church" (a 
comprehensive doctrinal work of the greatest re- 
ligious and historical value) and "Letters to Boys 
and Girls about the First Christmas at Bethlehem." 
In i88q appeared "The Life and Work of Dr. John 
W. Nevin," and in 1895 he edited "Lectures on 
English Literature of Dr. W. M. Nevin." From 
1878 to 1886 Dr. Appel was missionary superin- 
tendent and edited the Reformed Missionary Her- 
ald, and from 1889 to 1893 he had charge of the edi- 
torial department of the Reformed Church Messen- 
ger. In addition to these labors Dr. Appel still 
found opportunity to contribute frequently to the 
Mercersburg Review, his articles covering the per- 
iod from 1849 until 1895. Since 1897 he has lived 
quietly at his 'home in Lancaster. Although the 
vigor of youth is gone, he is still interested in the 
Reformed Church. 

In 1854 Rev. Dr. Appel was united in marriage 
with Miss Susan Burton Wolff, daughter of Rev. 
Dr. B. C. Wolff, professor in the Reformed Theo- 
logical Seminary. They had a family of four chil- 
dren, namely : Miss Charlotte, at home ; Elizabeth, 
wife of Theodore W. Nevin, of Pittsburg; Ber- 
nard W., now deceased ; and Theodore B., a prac- 
ticing physician of Lancaster. 

THEODORE B. APPEL, M. D., one of the 
younger physicians of Lancaster, was born in that 
city Sept. 8, 1871, son of Rev. Dr. Theodore Appel 
and his wife Susan Burton Wolff. 

After completing the course of study in the com- 
mon schools, Theodore B. Appel graduated from 
the Lancaster High School, in 1885. He then en- 
tered Franklin and Marshall College, and received 
the degree of A. B. there with the class of 1889. 
Immediately following his graduation he was 
elected vice-principal of the Berwick High School, 
but after one year entered the office of Dr. M. L. 
Herr to prepare for his professional career. In 
1894 he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the University of Pennsylvania. For the two 
years following he was resident physician at the 

Presbyterian Plospital in Philadelphia, where he 
pursued a practical course of great value in his la- 
ter work, and in 1896 he entered upon the private 
practice of his profession in Lancaster, where he has 
practiced successfully since. He is now senior sur- 
geon at the Lancaster General Hospital, and is as- 
sistant surgeon of the Pennsylvania National Guard, 
being attached to Battery C, at Phoenixville, Pa. 
Dr. Appel has paid especial attention to surgery, 
and has won a reputation in that line not bounded 
by the confines of his own county. 

Professionally Dr. Appel is a member of the 
Lancaster City and County Medical Society, the 
Lancaster Pathological Society, the Columbia Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, the Medical So- 
ciety of the State of Pennsylvania, and the Ameri- 
can Medical Association. He also belongs to the 
Hamilton Club of Lancaster, and to the University 
Club of Philadelphia. 

On June 18, 1900, Dr. Appel was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Mary Calder, a daughter of the late 
George Calder, of Lancaster. Two daughters have 
been born of this union. In religious belief Dr. 
Appel follows the faith of his fathers, and is affili- 
ated with the First Reformed Church. 

JOSEPH WALKER FAWKES, inventor, was 
born in the village of Christiana Sept. 25, 1815. He 
was the youngest son of Joseph and Eliza Walker 
Fawkes, who purchased and removed to the old 
McKnight farm, near Georgetown, in the spring 
of 1835. The farm had been neglected, and was 
overgrown with sumach, thistles and mulleins, but 
Mr. Fawkes was a progressive farmer, and with his 
three sons in a few years made it the most fertile 
tract in the district. He erected a new dwelling, 
barn and other outbuildings, and sold a portion of 
the original for more than he originally paid for the 

Joseph W. Fawkes in boyhood developed a taste 
for mechanics, his principal amusements being the 
construction of waterwheels, tilt-hammers, boats and 
other devices, operated on the small stream which 
flowed through the farm. He served an appren- 
ticeship to Benjamin Simmons, of Sadsbury town- 
ship, and when free took contracts on his own ac- 
count. He built the new house and barn for his 
father, and erected a machine shop in order to. in- 
dulge his taste for mechanics. One of his earliest 
inventions was a rotary lime spreader, the pioneer 
in that line. But his most important essay was the 
designing and construction of the traction steam 
plow, in which the engine derived its traction from 
a large driving" drum instead of wheels, driving a 
gang of half a dozen plows. This was exhibited 
at the agricultural fair in Lancaster in 1858, attract- 
ing much attention, and the inventor was awarded 
a medal of honor. . In 1861 it was exhibited at the 
"United States Fair" in Chicaeo, in competition 
with another steam plow, which derived its traction 
from two immense driving-wheels, ten or twelve 



feet in diameter. The practical test in the prairie 
soil demonstrated the superiority of Fawkes drum 
cylinder device, as it rode on the surface while the 
big drivers sank and stalled the machine, and 
Fawkes was awarded the premium. Lack of capital 
prevented him from profiting by his invention. He 
moved on a farm at Moline, 111., and subsequently 
to Spring Lake, Iowa. Returning to Chicago, he 
turned his inventive genius to account in the manu- 
facturing of rotary electric goods, formed a com- 
pany, and was doing a prosperous business when the 
factory was destroyed by fire, and the failure of 
some of the insurance companies and litigation re- 
sulting therefrom greatly depleted his savings. In 
1887 he moved to Burbank, Cal., where he engaged 
in fruit culture, in which he was quite successful, 
continuing in that occupation until his death, which 
occurred March 14, 1892, in the seventy-seventh 
year of his age. 

Before leaving .Lancaster county Mr. Fawkes 
married Anna Eliza Baughman, born Oct. 25, 1825, 
who survives, with seven children, all married and 
living in Los Angeles and vicinity. 

was the fourth son of Samuel Bowman, an officer 
of the Revolutionary army, who took an active part 
in the battle of Lexington, and at the close of the 
war settled at Wilkesbarre. Samuel Bowman was 
born there May 21, 1800. The judicious and en- 
lightened views of his patriotic father, supplemented 
with the refined tastes and Christian virtues of his 
mother, nurtured under the influence of the Episco- 
pal Church, were the environments which surrounded 
his early Hfe and molded his subsequent distinguished 
career. He received his early education at the Wilkes- 
barre Academy, at that time an institution of high 
repute. He was destined for the legal profession, 
and pursued his studies in that line for some time 
tmder the late Charles Chauncey, Esq., of Philadel- 
phia : but the sudden death of his father, by accident, 
inipressed him with an invincible desire to devote 
his life to the ministrv of the Gospel. Going home 
from the funeral, the young man took up the family 
Bible and conducted family prayer in the afflicted 
household, where he then felt a large weight of 
responsibility. He applied for holy Orders, and was 
admitted to the Diaconate by Bishop White, Aug. 
25, 182.^, and to the Priesthood by the same bishop. 
Dec. 19, 1824. In 182.^ be began his ministrv as 
deacon in the parishes at Peuuea'and Leacock, where 
he remained two years. After a brief residence at 
Easton, Pa., where he had the charge of Trinity 
Church, and where he met Miss Sitgreaves, who 
became his wife, he returned to his first cures in 
Lancaster counti'. which he held until September. 
1827, when he was invited to become co-rector with 
Rev. Dr. Clarkson. of St. James' Church, Lancaster. 
After the death of Mr. Clarkson, in 1830, Dr. Bow- 
man became sole rector and filled that positon until 
his death ; for on his elevation to the Episcopate his 

parishioners, dreading to sever the relations so long 
and so happily sustained, prevailed upon him to 
retain his residence in the old parish, electing Rev. 
J. Isidor Mombert co-rector. In 1843 Dr; Bowman 
received from Geneva (now Hobart) College the 
degree of S. T. D. In 1845 the Diocesan Convention 
of Pennsylvania, against his own protest, placed him 
in nomination for the Episcopate. The conservative 
clergy elected him in preference to Dr. Tyng, but 
the laity refusing to concur he cordially supported 
the nomination of Dr. Alonzo Potter, who was 
eventually chosen. In 1847 he was elected Bishop 
of the Diocese of Indiana, but his strong attach- 
ment to Lancaster controlled his decision to decline. 
In 1858 he was elected Assistant Bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania over Dr. Alexander H. Vinton. Dr. Bowman, 
who in no way sought the office, made an eloquent 
appeal to the convention to elect Dr. Vinton. This 
appeal, so full of sincere humility and fervent zeal, 
completely disarmed the opposition and strikingly 
showed his own fitness for the office. He was con- 
secrated the same year in Christ Church, Philadel- 

Dr. Bowman was distinguished for purity of life, 
dignity of bearing, with suavity of manner, and 
eloquence of speech. The church service when read 
by him, in his silvery yet resonant voice, never failed 
to hold his auditors spellbound, and when he arose 
to speak in a miscellaneous audience he commanded 
the closest attention and held it to the close. He was 
a central figure in all meetings for the public welfare, 
and his logical presentation of facts and argument de- 
termined the convictions of his hearers. He was 
deeply interested in education, for niany years was 
an active member of the Public School Board and a 
Trustee and Secretarv of the Board of Franklin and 
Marshall College. Dr. Gerhart, President of the Col- 
lege, at the semi-centennial of the Bishop Bowman 
Church Home, said of him, "I knew him only to 
respect, to honor and revere him, for his abilities, the 
nobleness of his Christian character, the soundness 
of his judgment and his fidelity to every trust. Dr. 
Bowman stood for several decades as one of the 
pillars of truth and righteousness in this community. 
The distinguishing characteristic of his hfe was 
Christian faith, a faith that was firm and unshaken 
amid all trials, a faith that was active in good deeds, 
of which this 'Home' is one of many illustrations." 

The St. James' Orphan Asylum, the Church 
Home, the Yeates Institute, and St. John's Free 
Church, bear testimony to his liberality and zeal in 
educational, Christian and charitable works. It was 
through his influence that Miss Yeates endowed 
the Institute in honor of her father, Hon. Jasper 
Yeates, Judge of the Supreme Court and warden of 
St. James' Church ; and he organized St. John's, the 
pioneer free church of the diocese, to vindicate the 
practicability of his long-cherished ideal of a church 
where the Gospel should be as free as any other gift 
of God. He started the enterprise bv pledging one- 
tenth of the whole cost ($15,000) out of his limited 




income, and supplemented this after he became 
Bishop by pledging one-tenth of the cost of a rectory 
which he urged the vestry to build. The last sermon 
he ever preached was in this church, on Sunday even- 
ing, July 28, i86t, from the text, "For I determined 
not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ 
and Him crucified." On the following Tuesday he 
left on an Episcopal visit to the oil regions. On his 
way to Butler, over the Allegheny railroad, owing 
to a landslide, the passengers were compelled to 
walk some distance, and, being unable to keep up with 
the others, he was found lying by the roadside, his 
face buried in his hat, stretched out at full length, 
"a corpse without signs of bruise or struggle, his 
watch and papers untouched." It is an interesting 
coincidence, that Eranklin Wright, then superintend- 
ent of the Allegheny railroad, was the one who identi- 
fied the remains of the Bishop. He had spent his boy- 
hood days in Lancaster and was presented for con- 
firmation in St. James' Church. He escorted the 
remains to Pittsburg, whence thev were brought to 
Lancaster, where they repose in the shadow of the 
church he served so well. St. James' Church, Titus- 
ville, was built as a memorial to this saintly' man 
and named in honor of his old parish. 

Bishop Bowman was married the second time 
to Harriet R., daughter of Rev. Joseph Clarkson, a 
former rector of St. James.' His first wife, Susan 
Sitgreaves, bore him three children, one of whom, 
Ellen, became the wife of Bishop Vail, of Kansas. 
Her daughter, Mrs. Dr. Hotter, survives, and resides 
in Washington, D. C. 

5, 182.S, in Newlin township, Chester county, died 
at his home in Lancaster City March 25, 1891, after 
having achieved the very highest distinction in the 
work to which he devoted the best years of his long 
and useful life. 

Born of an honorable ancestry, brought up un- 
der the influence of the best type of Friends, he laid 
early the foundations of a strong character and a 
great career. From the country school he passed 
to Unionville Academy, where Bayard Taylor was 
one of his fellow-studdnts. At fifteen he took charge 
of a school, and in 1845 became principal of Mari- 
etta Academy, giving up his intention of reading 
law upon advice of his family. From twenty pupils 
in a rented room, under his management the school 
had grown by 1852 to over a hundred pupils in 
a fine building owned by the principal. Meanwhile 
he had been married in 1847, to Emerine I. Taylor, 
a former schoolmate, a woman of rare intelligence 
and character. In 1853 he was one of the organ- 
izers of the State Teachers' Association, and was 
prominent in the agitation for the establishment of 
the County and State Superintendency. In 1854 he 
was active in the first county institute, and was del- 
egate from Lancaster county to the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Education. Also 
in 1854. the county superintendency was created and 

he was chosen for the place. In July of the same 
year we find him active in the first meeting of the 
county superintendents. In 1855 he held a Normal 
Institute at Millersville, which made such an im- 
pression that it was determined to make it a per- 
manent institution, and Mr. Wickersham was called 
to be its head. Resigning the superintendency in 
the fall of 1856, he devoted his great energies to de- 
veloping the great school which now distinguishes 
the First Normal District of Pennsylvania, and is 
perhaps his most significant monument. When the 
war surged northward in 1863, he led a company 
(mostly Millersville students) into service, and was 
chosen colonel of the 47th Regiment. During these 
years of activity he filled with ability the Presi- 
dency of the State Teachers' Association, and other 
similar places in the line of his work. He had also 
found time to write several books, notably his 
"School Economy" and "Methods of Instruction," 
which were for a long period the standard, and they 
have been translated into French, Spanish and Jap- 

In 1866 Governor Curtin appointed Dr. Wick- 
ersham (having meanwhile been recognized by a 
degree from Lafayette College) to be State Super- 
intendent of Schools, which place he filled continu- 
ously for the next fourteen years, being successively 
reappointed by the series of Governors, all agree- 
ing that he was pre-eminently the man for the place, 
and the Senate confirming him by unanimous vote. 
In the educational history of the State, these years 
were the period of construction. Receiving from 
Dr. Eurrowes the outlines of a great scheme "in 
the rough," he adapted, adjusted, reconstructed and 
perfected it in every part, making of it an organ- 
ism which his successor said "could almost run 
itself." There was no legislation in school matters, 
but bore the impress of his hand, accepting and 
improving all helpful ideas, and preventing errors 
and retrograde steps. The value of this service can 
only be estimated fully by the future; but, mean- 
while, it has not been forgotten by those best qual- 
ified to judge. William T. Harris, first of American 
educators and philosophers, said at the Brooklyn 
meeting of the N. E. A. : "If I were asked to name 
the five leading educators of America, I would 
name James P. Wickersham, of Pennsylvania, as 
one." And in Winship's "Great American Educa- 
tor," that keen observer and critic accompanies his 
portrait with such words as these : "All the schools 
of the State were better because he was State Su-, 
perintendent. Good laws were made and bad prac- 
tices abolished by him. A million children have 
better school houses, better school books, better 
teachers than before. Teachers have many advant- 
ages because of him. ... No State Superintend- 
ent has had clearer or higher ideals of what the Su- 
perintendent, the teacher, the directors and the peo- 
ple ought to do for the schools. . . . Wickersham 
was a natural leader, and to the people of the United 
States he was the best known of the educators of 



Pennsylvania for forty years." It is not too much 
to say that Dr. Wickersham found the school sys- 
tem a brilliant idea in the experimental stage and 
left it a successful and permanent organism. His 
little "Digest" became the foundation of the body 
of school law of the State, and none of his de- 
cisions have been reversed. 
. In addition to the onerous duties of the School 
Department, the Soldiers' Orphan work, crippled 
and discredited by the ■ mismanagement of others, 
was placed in his hands, and at once reduced to or- 
der, and so remained until the close of his service, 
when instead of the old history of deficit, he turned 
over an unexpended balance to his successor. 

From 1870 until his retirement from the State 
Superintendency, Dr. Wickersham was editor and 
part owner of the Pennsylvania School Journal, and 
his work upon it added greatly to its circulation and 
influence. In the framing of the Constitution of 
1874, his carefully prepared statements before the 
committees of the convention were most useful in 
adopting the educational provisions. In 1876, he 
earned wide credit for his unique presentation of 
the educational interest of his State at the Centen- 
nial Exhibition. After the close of the exhibition, 
he visited Europe* to study their systems of educa- 
tion, making official report thereupon in 1878. 
Along with official duties, his face was known all 
over the State by reason of frequerit attendance at 
educational conventions and institutes, where his 
ringing speeches were a source of inspiration and 

Soon after the close of his fourteen years serv- 
ice. President Arthur appointed Dr. Wickersham 
Minister to Denmark, but after some time spent 
there he resigned on account of the ill health of his 

In 1886 was issued his "History of Education 
in Pennsylvania" (printed in a oublishing house es- 
tablished by himself), which every year becomes 
more and more valuable as a reference work, quoted 
by all writers on its subject. His voice and pen 
were actively influential in securing the adoption 
of the free text-book system, which has been so val- 
uable an aid in school work. He was also a trus- 
tee of Franklin and Marshall College, in his home 

His membership and activity in Post 84, G. A. 
R., were worthy of special mention. The soldiers' 
burial place in Lancaster cemetery was secured by 
his advocacy, and many an old soldier profited by 
his generous help. After more than fifty years of 
intense activity, this useful man, honest and capable 
public oilficer, model citizen, passed away at his 
home in Lancaster, after a brief illness. March 25, 

J. Harold Wickersham, son of the late dis- 
tinguished educator, Dr. James P. Wickersham, was 
born at Marietta, Pa., Feb. 24, 1856. His boyhood 
was passed at MillersviJle and Lancaster, where he 
received his early education in the public schools. 

Graduating from the Lancaster High School in 
1872, he spent three years at Franklin and Marshall 
College, and two years at Yale, graduating there 
with the degree of B. Ph. Returning to Lancaster, 
he entered the printing house of the Inquirer Print- 
ing and Publishing Co., in a subordinate position, 
and by diligence and good judgment advanced 
to general manager, which position he still holds. 
After his father's death the name of the company 
was changed to the Wickersham Printing Co., and 
our subject was elected its president. The plant is 
of high grade, and does a large and successful busi- 

Mr. Wickersham was married in 1880 to Miss 
Jessie, daughter of John Hough, of Fort Wayne, 
Ind. He is prominent in the business and social 
life of Lancaster. 

scended from an old family of Lancaster county, his 
grandmother on his father's side having been a di- 
rect descendant of Hans Herr, the progenitor of the 
numerous and influential Herrs of this section ; and 
his paternal grandfather was a native of Lancaster 
county. George Diffenbach, the latter, was a farm- 
er and tanner. He married Maria Herr, sister of 
Rev. Christian Herr, of Pequea. George Diffen- 
bach, Jr., son of George and Maria, was also a 
farmer and tanner. He married Barbara Rohrer, a 
sister of Squire Rohrer, and an aunt of Dr. Amos 
K. Rohrer, deceased, a prominent physician of 
Mountville, whose ancestors came to America in 
1732. To this union were born seven children, two 
of whom are now living: Adam, a farmer in Min- 
nesota, now eighty years old ; and John Rohrer, of 
Lancaster, now in his eighty-ninth year. A daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Connellv, made her home with her son 
John, and died at the age' of ninety-two years. In 
Strasburg, in association with Alexander Hood and 
Squire Hofifman, George Diffenbach, Jr., held the 
first meeting for and took the first steps toward the 
establishment of the free school system in Penn- 

John Rohrer Diffenbach was born in Strasburg 
Sept. 13, 1813, and was educated in his native town. 
He left school at the age of eighteen years to enter 
a store, and afterward he spent a year in Lancaster, 
where he served as in the store of P. K. 
Brenerman. In 1833, before he attained his ma- 
jority, Mr. Diffenbach began a career as a merchant 
at the Buck, where he was engaged for two years, 
removing thence to New Holland, where he was a 
merchant two years, and then to Silver Spring, 
finally locating at Marietta, where he was in busi- 
ness from 1839 to 1868, enjoying a fine and profita- 
ble patronage. In t868 he came to Lancaster, 
where he bought the splendid property, at the cor- 
ner of Lime and Orange streets, which is now occu- 
pied by Mrs. Louise Brenerman ; and in 1882 he 
purchased the ground and built the elegant dwell- 
ing on North Duke street, into which he moved his 



home and family the following year, and where he 
is still found. After coming to Lancaster Mr. Dif- 
fenbach still retained an interest in two stores, one 
at Lebanon, and the other at Lykens Valley, but in 
1875 h^ sold them, and has since confined himself 
to looking after his properties and investments. Dur- 
ing his long and useful life, Mr. Diffenbach has 
spent at least $100,000 in building and improving 
his properties, and since his advent in Lancaster 
he has disbursed as large a sum in taxes, living ex- 
penses, and in assisting worthy objects — a most 
creditable record. 

At first a Whig in politics, Mr. Diffenbach be- 
came a Republican upon the formation of that party. 
While a resident of Silver Spring he was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace by Gov. Ritner, but 
resigned the office on the occasion of his removal 
from the district. He has never sought official 
honors of any kind, and, though often solicited, has 
uniformly declined to take any position of responsi- 
bility, and it is to his credit that while justice of the 
peace he never returned a case to court, always bring- 
ing the parties together and effecting a settlement 
between them. At one period of his life Mr. Diflfen- 
bach was a surveyor, making the draft and helping 
to make the survey to avoid the inclined plane on 
the Pennsylvania railroad between Mountville and 
Columbia. Mr. Diffenbach has been interested fin- 
ancially in almost every bank in Lancaster, as well 
as in the Marietta banks and the trust companies 
of Lancaster. 

On Sept. 2g, 1840, Mr. Diffenbach was married 
to Miss Martha Brenerman, who was born in Co- 
lumbia, Pa., May 7, 1818, daughter of Capt. Bren- 
erman. Like her husband, she, too, enjoys a serene 
old age. 

DR. JOHN GAINER MOORE, whose death 
at his home in New Holland, Pa., Jan. 18, 1883, 
removed from Lancaster county one of her most 
skillful and successful practitioners of dentistry, was 
one of the county's most esteemed public-spirited 
and useful citizens. 

The ancestral line of the Moore family goes far 
back in the world's history to the time when An- 
drew Moore, a native of Glasgow, Scotland, emi- 
grated to County Antrim, Ireland, in 1612, when 
James I ruled over the united countries known as 
the British Isles. 

Dr. Moore was peculiarly fortunate in his par- 
entage. His distinguished father. Dr. Mordecai 
M. Moore, was for many years known not only in 
his native State, but through a large section of coun- 
try. Dr. Moore's mother belonged to one of the old 
and honorable families of Lancaster county. 

In a record of representative men of this kind, 
it would not be fitting to omit extended notice of 
Dr. Mordecai M. Moore. He was born near Chris- 
tiana, in Sadsbury township, Lancaster county, 
April 19, 1807, a son of Gainer Moore, a well- 
known member of the Societv of Friends, who was 

a descendant of one of the earliest settlers in that 
section of Pennsylvania. Dr. Moore obtained a 
limited education in the common schools, but spent 
much of his leisure time in study. After teaching 
school in Lancaster county for several years he 
studied dentistry and surgery with Dr. Van Pat- 
ton as a preceptor. Dr. Moore practiced dentistry 
in Lancaster City until 1849, when he went to Cal- 
ifornia. On his arrival there he became interested 
in gold mining, and was elected the first president 
of the Keystone Mining Co. He also practiced both 
dentistry and medicine in California. In 1853 he 
returned to Lancaster, where he became intimately 
acquainted with ex-President Buchanan. Three 
years later he returned to California, and remained 
until 1859. The exposure that he was subjected to 
while in the mountain regions of that State caused 
him to have erysipelas, which so affected his eyes 
that he became totally blind. This affliction was 
borne with remarkable fortitude by Dr.' Moore, who 
devoted his time to religious thought. Being a mem- 
ber of the M. E. Church, he was made an exhorter, 
. and afterward a local preacher, and, notwithstand- 
ing his blindness, he traveled extensively in the 
West, preaching the Gospel. Dr. Moore would 
have a friend take him to a railroad station, and 
would engage the services of a trustworthy boy to 
take him to places he wished to visit. In this way 
he visited his brother George, in Iowa, and from 
there traveled to California, where he conducted 
a series of religious meetings. On his return to 
Lancaster, Dr. Moore prepared a lecture on "What 
a Blind Man Saw in California," which he delivered 
in a number of places. 

It is recorded of Dr. Moore that at one time, 
while suffering from a tumor on his left side, he re- 
tired to his room, took an ordinary pocket knife, and 
with coolness and skill, removed the offender and 
bandaged the wound without assistance. 

On May 8, 1885, Dr. Moore became a resident 
of the Masonic Home, Philadelphia, and was the 
fourth to be admitted to that institution. There 
his death occurred in his ninety-first year, after liv- 
ing in darkness almost half a century. In 1885 he 
united with the Tioga M. E. Church and had the 
honor in 1892, of breaking the ground for the new 
edifice. He was a member of Christiana Lodge, 
No. 417, A. F. & A. M., for nearly sixty years and 
at the time of his death was one of the oldest Ma- 
sons in Pennsylvania. 

In 1827 Dr. Mordecai Moore was united in mar- 
riage to Elizabeth Bomberger, of Lancaster, who 
died two weeks after the couple had celebrated their 
Golden Wedding, in 1877. Of their eight children, 
but two are living. Rev. vSamuel B. Moore, a clergy- 
man of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and Mrs. 
Harriet Pownall, of Chester, Delaware county. 

Dr. John Gainer Moore, son of Dr. Mordecai,. 
was born in Lancaster, Lancaster county, March 
10, 1830, and died Jan. 18, 1883, in New Holland, 
where he was buried. He acquired his primary edu- 



cation in the common schools in Lancaster and later 
pursued a higher course in Franklin and Marshall 
college. His profession was learned under his 
father, and he entered upon its active duties in 1849, 
taking up the practice of his father, who went to 
CaHfornia. In 1857 he went to New Holland, and 
from that time until his death practiced between 
Lancaster and New Holland alternately, being very 
successful in his profession, and gaining a wide 
celebrity for his skill. The last years of his life 
were spent as a semi-invalid, an aggravated form of 
dyspepsia refusing to yield to treatment. In many 
lines aside from his profession was Dr. Moore 
known and admired. He was a strong and vig- 
orous writer, and an eloquent and forceful orator, 
while his intense interest in liis section's advance- 
ment and progress made him an interested and ear- 
nest advocate of every enterprise looking in that 
direction. He was intellectually strong, and all 
educational measures were sure of finding a warm 
supporter in him. In religious work he was zealous 
and consistent, and took an active part in the aflfairs 
t)f the Lutheran Church and the work of the Sun- • 
day school. His benefactions were large, both in 
the church and the community. In politics he pre- 
ferred to be independent. 

On Nov. 17, 1859, Dr. Moore was united in 
marriage by Rev. Dr. Kohler, in the Lutheran 
Church, in New Holland (it being the first marriage 
held in the church), to Miss Anna E. Wilson, who 
was born in Harrisburg, Pa., daughter of Morris 
and Catherine (Diller) Wilson, the former of near 
Bridgeport, Conn., and the latter of New Holland, 
Pa. Morris Wilson was born March 31, 1797, and 
died Nov. 10, 1826, in EHzabethtown, Pa. He 
studied law with Judge Elder, of Harrisburg, re- 
moving then to EHzabethtown, but practicing both 
in the Harrisburg and the Lancaster courts. He 
was a man of brilliant parts, and came from a family 
of culture, refinement and wealth. The mother of 
Mrs. Moore died March 12, 1882, at the age of 
€ighty-six years. She was interred in New Hol- 
land, where she was a beloved member of the com- 
munity, an active worker in the Sundav school, a 
consistent member of the Lutheran Church, and 
a woman who was noted for her charities. The 
onlv child of this marriage was Mrs. Moore. 

Rolland Diller Moore, the only child of Dr. 
John and Anna (Wilson") Moore, was born April 
5, 1863, and on Jan. 19, 1901, was united in mar- 
riage, in Camden, N. J., to Miss Helen Dugan, 
daughter of Michael Dugan, of Shamokin, Pa. 
Mr. Moore is the very efficient and capable 
manager of his mother's estate, consisting of 
some of the most valuable property in the 
city, and he Is one of the most public-spirited and 
progressive of the younger business men. His im- 
provements have been permanent, substantial and 
attractive, while he is also engaged in other lines of 
endeavor, ever keeping in mind the advancement 
of the interests of his city as well as his personal 

preferment. Fraternally he is connected with the 
B. P. O. E. and is very popular. 

Mrs. Moore is one of the most highly esteemed 
ladies in Lancaster. Her beautiful home in New 
Holland was erected by her uncle, the late Roland 
Diller. She has many friends not only on account 
of her well-known and highly appreciated husband, 
but for herself, her personal attributes winning 
them and retaining them. 

Roland Diller was one of Lancaster county's 
oldest citizens at the time of his death, in 1882, in 
his eighty-fifth year, in his old home in New Hol- 
land. His burial was in the old cemetery at that 
point. Early in life he was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, but later became a skilled conveyancer and 
surveyor, continuing to perform these duties al- 
most to the time of his death. His mind was of a 
legal turn, and had he given it to the law he would 
doubtless have become distinguished in that pro- 
fession. His tastes, however, were of a quieter na- 
ture although on occasion he could fight for what 
he believed to be right. For over forty years he was 
justice of the peace in Earl township, and it is 
known that during this time he wrote more mort- 
gages, deeds, releases and similar documents than 
any man who ever lived in Lancaster county. His 
reliability was such that his services were in con- 
stant demand, and it is estimated that his name ap- 
pears on more than half the legal documents is- 
sued during his official life in eastern Lancaster 

In his convictions of right and justice, Mr. Diller 
stood as a rock. This was notably manifested during 
the period known as Anti-Masonic, in 1828. It is 
not possible to recount in this limited space the details 
of the controversy in this locality, but Mr. Diller 
was one of the founders of the Anti-Masonic Herald,- 
in New Holland, and during its existence was a lib- 
eral and consistent contributor to its support. As a 
politician he was a strong Whig, and later a stanch 
Republican. Although prominent and active in his 
party, he would never accept any public recognition, 
although frequently urged to do so by his fellow-citi- 
zens who would gladly have shown him honors. 

Mr. Diller was' long the secretary and treasurer 
of the New Holland Turnpike Co., retaining the 
office until a short time prior to his death. Perhaps 
though Mr. Diller was best known for his deep 
knowledge on every subject. For twenty years he 
was known as the largest book buyer in Lancaster 
county, and it was his greatest delight to bury him- 
self among the thousands of volumes in his compre- 
hensive library, and to there enjoy the best thought 
of the world. Singularly unselfish, this great store- 
house of wisdom and pleasure was at the service of 
his friends, it seeming to be a gratification to him to 
have his "book friends" appreciated. 

Roland Diller was a son of Peter and Elizabeth 
Diller, of New Holland, the former of whom was a 
man of prominence in his time and one of the large 
landowners of this county. For many years Peter 



Diller operated a hotel in New Holland, and he was 
well known as one of the county's substantial men. 
He owned live, well-improved farms at the time of 
his death. The children born to Peter and Elizabeth 
Diller were : Roland, who never married ; SolomOn, 
who married Margaret A. James ; Lydia, who mar- 
ried Rev. Peter Filbert; Catherine, who married 
Morris Wilson, and became the mother of Mrs. 
Moore; Mary, who married Henry Shirk; Samuel, 
who married Eliza Ringwalt ; and Elizabeth, who 
married Dr. John Luther, an eminent physician of 
New Holland. 

COL. DANIEL H. HERR. One of the most 
striking characters of Lancaster, a man whose life 
has closely touched the history of his native county 
durmg the past half century, who, as educator, citi- 
zen, patriot, soldier, professional man, merchant and 
attorney, has been identified with the rapidly grow- 
ing interests of Lancaster, and who to-day is most 
highly esteemed for his unique and eminently suc- 
cessful career is Col. Daniel H. Herr, mechanical 
engineer and patent attorney. 

Col. Herr is a worthy descendant of Hans Herr, 
the venerable pastor of the persecuted and faithful 
band of Mennonites, who, in 1709, upon the invita- 
tion of William Penn, settled in the fertile but primi- 
tively wild valley of the Conestoga. Hans Herr was 
a non-conformist of Schwabia, Austria, and one of a 
colony whom religious persecution had driven to 
Zurich, Switzerland. William Penn visited the col- 
ony, and invited them to find homes and rest from 
persecution in the Colony of Pennsylvania. 

Christian Herr, son of Hans, was one of a com- 
mittee appointed to visit the promised land. They 
crossed the ocean, selected a tract of 10,000 acres on 
the Conestoga, and the migration speedly followed. 
The people composing this colony were the first white 
settlers in this coimty, at that time a part of Chester 
county. Hans Herr had five sons : Abraham, Chris- 
tan, Emanuel, Isaac and John. They were the an- 
cestors of the Herr family which for the past two 
centuries has been conspicuous and eminently ser- 
viceable in the development of Lancaster county. 

Abraham Herr, the first son of Hans Herr, was 
a grandfather when he came to America, and he set- 
tled in Lancaster township on the east side of the 
Wabank road, near the Mennonite Meeting House. 
This old homestead is still in the possession of an 
Abraham Herr. There he reared a large family and 
died at a ripe old age. One of his (Abraham's) 
sons, was Emanuel Herr, who was the great-grand- 
father of Daniel H. Herr, and he (Emanuel) was 
given a portion of the ancestral acres in Lancaster 

Christian Herr, his son, and the grandfather of 
Daniel H., was reared on part of the old home farm. 
He married Catherine Kauflfman, the only daughter 
of John Kauffman, and died comparatively young in 

Daniel Herr, son of Christian and the father of 

Daniel H., was born in Lancaster township June 6, 
1809, and became a farmer and mill owner. He 
married on March 9, 1830, Susannah M. Horn- 
berger, who was born July 10, 181 1, daughter of Ste- 
phen Hornberger, who kept a well known tavern on 
the Columbia turnpike. She was a descendant on 
her mother's side from Henry Gross, a pioneer of 
Lancaster, who imported a communion set from 
Wurtemberg for the use of Zion's Lutheran Church 
of this city. Daniel Herr engaged in farming for a 
time on the old homestead, which he sold, and later 
farmed for some years on- the Conestoga creek, now 
known as the Brubaker farm. He sold the latter 
farm, and removed to Manheim township, where he 
bought the Dietrich farm of 167 acres, and later re- 
tired to Eden, where he died Sept. 12, 1852, aged 
forty-three years. His widow survived until Sept. 
16, 1875, passing away at the age of sixty-four years. 
To Daniel and Susannah Herr were born ten chil- 
dren, of whom five survive. 

Daniel H. Herr was born Jan. 14, 1835, ^t Mil- 
lersville, Lancaster Co., Pa., where his father had 
purchased a home, and his boyhood was spent in 
Manheim township. His early education was re- 
ceived there, and in Cumberland county. When a 
lad of eighteen (in 1853), after the death of his fa- 
ther, he went to Dayton, Ohio, where he was em- 
ployed in a dry-goods store. Returning to Lancas- 
ter county in 1856, he engaged in teaching school, 
and soon after entered the State Normal school at 
Millersville, graduating in the scientific course in 
1858. He was at once appointed professor of pen- 
manship, drawing and bookkeeping, and assistant in 
mathematics, filling these positions for four years. 
In the spring of 1862, Professor Herr, together with 
Professor Andrew R. Byerly and Hon. David N. 
Fell recruited Co. E, of the i22d P. V. I., nine 
months' service, thirty-six students of the Normal 
School being enrolled in the company. Prof. Herr, 
as he was then known, toid Prof. Byerly that he in- 
tended to enter the army, and Prof. Byerly said that 
if he (Herr) took the initiative, he too, would go. 
They shook hands, Mr. Herr went to Harrisburg, 
saw Gov. Curtin, was accepted, was commissioned 
second lieutenant, and was sworn in as mustering 
officer. Returning to the Normal School, he ex- 
hibited his commission and appointed a meeting with 
the students. The rest is easily told. Thirty-six 
students joined the company, and Col. (then lieu- 
tenant) Herr, assisted by Mr. Byerly and Mr. Fell, 
recruited the remainder in Lancaster. Prof. Byerly 
was made captain. Prof. Herr first lieutenant, and 
M'r. Fell second lieutenant. Col. Herr was mustered 
in as first lieutenant on July 26, 1862, and was 
mustered out May 16, 1863. The regiment joined 
the Army of the Potomac, was in the second battle 
of Bull Run, under fire at Fredericksburg, and en- 
gaged at Chancellorsville. Lieut. Herr, on Aug. 4th 
(before the battle of Chancellorsville) was made 
quartermaster of Piatt's Brigade, then in Gen. Stur- 
gis' Independent Division ; and, after the second bat- 



tie of Bull Run, this Brigade became the First 
Brigade, Third Division, Third Army Corps, Army 
of the Potomac, under Gens. McClellan, Burnside 
and Hooker. He participated in the engagements 
at Pleasant Valley, Harper's Ferry, Berlin, Warren- 
town Junction and Falmouth. After a regular 
quartermaster reported for duty, Lieut. Herr was de- 
tailed to go to Washington on important missions, 
the order coming from the corps commander; and, 
later, he was one of the detail on general court mar- 
tial in the field, the army then lying before Freder- 
icksburg. This was during the fall and winter of 
1862-63. During the summer of 1863, Lieut. Herr 
and others raised a company of Pennsylvania militia 
for emergency service, which became a part of the 
47di Regiment. Lieut. Herr was commissioned adju- 
tant of the regiment, which followed Lee in his re- 
treat to the Potomac, being a part of Gen. John E. 
Wool's troops, organized for the defense of the 
State, and later they did service in Schuylkill coun- 
ty, in suppressing the "Mollie Maguires." He then 
served as post adjutant of Taggart's Free Military 
School at Philadelphia, Pa., for training ofiEcers for 
colored troops. Passing Gen. Casey's board of ex- 
amination at Washington, he was recommended by 
the board for rank of Lieut. Colonel. Accepting a 
captaincy, he was assigned to Co. F, i22d regiment, 
infantry. United States Colored Troops, at Lexing- 
ton, Ky. The regiment was attached to the Army of 
the James, under Gen. Butler, and saw active service 
in the operations before Petersburg and Richmond, 
and the many engagements involved in that cam- 
paign. After the surrender of Gen. Lee, at Appo- 
mattox Court House, the 2Sth Army Corps was or- 
ganized at City Point, and this corps was assigned to 
the Department of the South, under Gen. Phil. Sheri- 
dan, with headquarters at New Orleans. This corps, 
under command of Gen. Weitzel, was sent to Texas, 
covering the entire southern part of that State. 
'Capt. Herr was detailed by Gen. Weitzel as assist- 
ant inspector general stationed at Corpus Christi, 
Texas, where he remained until the troops were dis- 
charged in the spring of 1866. Prior to that, how- 
ever, Capt. Herr had been made a member of the 
Court of Claims, created by order of Gen. Sheridan, 
and assisted in the adjustment of the claims of citi- 
zens for confiscated property. 

Returning to Lancaster, Capt. Herr re-entered 
civil life as a draughtsman for the old Norris Loco- 
motive Works, where he did work for the Pennsyl- 
vania, the Chicago & Northwestern, the St. Louis, 
Alton & Terre Haute, and the Lehigh Valley rail- 
roads, and during this period, two of the heaviest 
locomotives then known to the world, were con- 
structed, each locomotive weighing sixty tons, and 
having five pairs of driving wheels connected. He 
remained with this company until 1868, when, owing 
to the death of one of the firm, it suspended opera- 
tions. Going to Reading, Pa., Mr. Herr made a deal 
with the Howe Sewing Machine Co., securing con- 
trol of several counties, and doing business in his 

own name. In 1878 he removed to Philadelphia, 
making that city for a time his headquarters as a 
commercial traveler. Returning to Lancaster in 
1879, he was for one year principal of the Mulberry 
Street Grammar School, in Lancaster, and then 
taught school for one year at Florin, same county. 

In 1 88 1 Col. Herr returned to Lancaster, accept- 
ing a position as bookkeeper for Richard Blicken- 
derfer, iron founder. A little later he became 
draughtsman for David H. Kulp, pattern maker and 
patent attorney, and when the latter concluded to re- 
tire from the patent business, Mr. Herr purchased and 
has since continued this active and successful work. 

In 1879 at Philadelphia, Mr. Herr married Miss 
Emma Adams, a native of Lebanon county, daughter 
of Jacob and Mary Adams, her father having been 
formerly a well known business man of Reading. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Herr was born one son, Paul Adams, a 
graduate of Franklin and Marshall College, after- 
ward taking a post-graduate course in Chemistry 
and Physics, and securing his master degree in June, 
1901 ; he is now at the head of the Department of 
Natural Science in Lincoln Memorial University, 
Cumberland Gap, Tenn. Col. and Mrs. Herr are 
prominent members of St. James Episcopal Church. 
He is a stanch Republican in politics, and a member 
of George H. Thomas post, No. 84, G. A. R. In 
1875, he was appointed by Gov. Hartranft, Major 
and Aide-de-camp on the staflf of Maj. Gen. Bolton, 
commanding the second Division, National Guard of 
Pennsylvania. In that capacity he performed valu- 
able service during the railroad riots of 1876 and 
1877. He is a public-spirited citizen of Lancaster, 
and one of its most highly esteemed citizens ; while 
as a patent attorney, his work is of such a conscien- 
tious and intelligent character, as to win and hold 
for him the most prominent inventors and manufac- 
turers in the community as his clients. 

STEELE. The Steele family, many of whose 
members were conspicuous for patriotism and 
gallantry during the Revolutionary war, is of 
great antiquity. The original members came from 
Scotland. The first mention we have of the family 
in this state is in the history of Chester county. At 
an early date Ninian Steele with his wife and chil- 
dren, came from the North of Ireland and settled 
in New London township, Chester county. There 
he died in 1745, leaving a wife, Mary, and six chil- 
dren, as follows: Robert; Martha; Samuel, who 
died in 1760; Susannah; Ninian; and William. 

Samuel Steele, second son of Ninian, resided at 
what is known as "Thunder Hill," New London 
township. He died in May, 1760, leaving eleven 
children: Robert; Ruth, born 1719, married Sam- 
uel Futhey in 1750, and he died Jan. 27, 1790; 
Jane, married George Campbell, and he died in 
March, 1812, leaving eight children; Samuel; 
Francis; Joseph; James, married Isabella Read, of 
New London, and his descendants went to west- 
ern Virginia; William, born 1731, married Eliza- 



beth Magee, Jan., 1756, and died Sept. 5, 1797 (she 
died July 5, 1779) ; Ninian ; Ann ; and Elizabeth, 
married and settled in Northumberl'and county, 
with other members of the family. 

William Steele, probably the youngest son of 
Ninian, settled near Chestnut Level. On the break- 
ing out of the Revolution he was appointed First 
Lieutenant, First Pennsylvania Battalion of the 
Flying Camp, June to December, 1776. He was 
a representative man among the early settlers. He 
obtained a large tract of land on the west side of 
the Octoraro. 

William Steele, son of William, noted in above 
paragraph was also a staunch supporter of Ameri- 
can Independence. He was also appointed a lieu- 
tenant during the Revolutionary war and married 
Abigail, a sister of Francis Bailey, of Sadsbury. 

James Steele, son of William and Abigail, was 
born in Sadsbury township about the beginning of 
the Revolutionary war. He was in the War of 
1812, and became a brigadier general in the same. 
He died about 1840. 

General John Steele was born in Drumore town- 
ship in the year 1758. His parents had emigrated 
from Scotland at an early date. He was prominent 
in the Revolutionary war and was elected State Sena- 
tor of Pennsylvania in 1801. He died Feb. 27, 1827. 

Archibald Steele was a brother of Gen. John 
Steele, and raised one of the first Lancaster county 
companies in the Revolutionary war. His com- 
pany was in the famous march to Quebec in the 
winter of 1775. He died in Philadelphia in 1832. 
He had three sons, George, William, and Matthias, 
in the War of 181 2. 

HUGH STANLEY GARA was in his life- 
time one of the prominent citizens of Lancaster, not 
only as one of the best insurance men of the county, 
but also as a public-spirited citizen and a Mason of 
high degree. Active in every line in which he be- 
came interested, he not only made a success in his 
chosen life work, but found time to serve his fel- 
low citizens well without sacrificing one for the 
other, and in Masonic circles he was widely known 
and highly esteemed. 

Mr. Gara came of a race which Pennsylvania 
especially has reason to thank for many of her best 
citizens, his parents, Patrick and Mary Gara, both 
having been natives of the North of Ireland. Their 
marriage took place in Lancaster county. Pa., and 
here were born to them four children, all now de- 
ceased : Isaac B. was a prominent citizen of Erie, this 
State, where he edited the Erie Gazette, and served 
as postmaster : he was deputy secretary of the Com- 
monwealth under Gov. Geary. Samuel H. was a 
resident of Philadelphia. Hugh Stanley is men- 
tioned below. Margaret married Joseph Baldwin, 
a farmer of Ogdensburg, New York. 

Hugh Stanley Gara was born March 28, 18 17, 
in Soudersburg, East Lampeter township, this 
■county, where he lived until he was eleven years of 

age, and in the public schools of which locality he 
received his first instruction. Later he attended 
the Parkesburg (Pa.) Academy. At the age of 
seventeen he commenced to learn the mercantile 
business, his first employment being in the mercan- 
tile store of James WhitehJl, in Strasburg Borough, 
and he was subsequently with James Shirk, in the 
same place. He was still a youth when he came to 
Lancaster and entered the store of David Markley, 
from whose employment he went to Boon & Cock- 
ley, serving three years as manager of their foundry. 
He then formed a partnership with David Cockley, 
conducting a general dry goods store, of which, 
after some years, in 1845, he became sole proprietor, 
continuing in this line for twenty-five years. Mr. 
Gara first took up the insurance business in 1840, 
being always looked upon as the pioneer in that field 
in Lancaster, and after retiring from mercantile 
life devoted his business hours to general insurance 
until 1 89 1, when, because of his advancing age, he 
sold out, Christopher Hager purchasing his in- 
terest in that line. He was the veteran insurance 
man of Lancaster, and was highly thought of as an 
able and successful man in that line. He was a stock 
holder and manager of the Keystone Watch Co., 
of which he was one of the founders (only under 
another name) and was its president for many years. 
All Mr. Gara's business transactions Were charac- 
terized by the utmost honesty and strictest integ- 
rity, traits which were recognized and thoroughly 
appreciated by all with whom he had dealings. 
After relinquishing the activities of business life 
he gave himself almost entirely to the duties of no- 
tary public, acting as such twenty-five years prior 
to his death, and to the work of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, serving as secretary, continuing for a period 
of twenty-five years, in various Masonic bodies. He 
attained to the thirty-second degree, and at the time 
of his death was one of the best known and oldest 
Masons in the locality. He was "made" Feb. 12, 
1862, in Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M., of which he was 
elected secretary in 1864. He also held that office 
in Chapter No. 42, R. A. M., was recorder of Good- 
win Council, No. 19, R. S. E. & S. M. ; Commander 
of Commandery No. 13, K. T. ; and a charter mem- 
ber of Lancaster Lodge of Perfection, A. A. S. R., 
and its secretary for many years. He was secre- 
tary of all bodies named at the time of his decease, 
which occurred March 9, 1896, in Lancaster. He 
was also a member of the I. O. O. F. Mr. Gara was 
laid to rest in Lancaster cemetery with every mark 
of respect and honor due so worthy a citizen, and his 
death was mourned as a loss to the community, in 
general. Though ever busy, Mr. Gara always found 
time to be affable and courteous, and he was exceed- 
ingly pleasant to all with whom he came in contact, 
whether in the business world, in social life, or in the 
domestic circle. 

Mr. Gara was a stanch Republican, and not as a 
partisan but as a patriotic citizen, and took an active 
part in public affairs in his locality. He held office 



as a matter of duty, and evidently discharged the du- 
ties of the various incumbencies to which he was 
chosen in the same spirit. For many years he was 
a member of the school board, of which he was sec- 
retary during some fifteen years of that time ; he was 
one of the board of prison inspectors for nine years, 
and also served as county recorder. As will be seen, 
his services seems to have been especially in demand 
as secretary, and in addition to his work in that line 
already mentioned, he held such relations to the Lan- 
caster Board of Trade for two years. For many 
years he was president of the Union Building & Loan 
Association. A life long member of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, Mr. Gara served as a member of the 
board of trustees of the local congregation, for forty 
years, until his death, and was president of the same 
for nine years. He was an elder for thirty years, 
and, in fact, was zealous and active in all that per- 
tained to the welfare of his home church especially, 
and Christianity in general, his earnest efforts in this 
connection, however, being no more than might be 
expected of one so deeply interested in moral ad- 
vancement everywhere. He was orderly sergeant in 
the Lancaster Fencibles, a crack military organiza- 

On Oct. 15, 1841, Mr. Gara was married in Lan- 
caster to Sarah J. Buck, and two children blessed this 
union : William H., who died young ; and Elizabeth 
Batterson. The latter is a member of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution, claiming descent from 
early American ancestry through her mother, who 
was born in Lancaster, Sept. 19, 1820, a grand- 
daughter of John Okely (who was a member of the 
Constitutional Congress) and who died March 13, 
1890, at the age of sixty-seven years. She was a 
daughter of William and Elizabeth (Okely) Buck, 
the former a native of Bedford, England, the latter 
of Bethlehem, Pa. Both died in Lancaster county, 
and the father is buried in St. James Episcopal cem- 
etery, the mother in the Lancaster cemetery. They 
had a family of seven children, one son and six 
daughters, of whom Sarah J., Mrs. Gara, was the 
youngest. John Okely, of Northampton county, Pa., 
Mrs. Gara's grandfather, was a member of Congress 
from Northampton county in 1773-74-75. He served 
during the Revolutionary war, first as lieutenant, and 
finally became assistant commissary general, remain- 
ing in the army until the close of the struggle. 

BENJAMIN R. KREIDER, a resident of West 
Lampeter township, and one of the more prominent 
men of Lancaster county, was born in East Lam- 
peter township, Aug. 18, 1855, and is a son of Isaac 
and Anna (Rohrer) Kreider, both of whom are 
still living in East Lampeter township. 

Benjamin R. Kreider was educated in the pub- 
lic schools, and after he had passed his twenty- 
first birthday began operations on his own account as 
a fence builder, in which work he was engaged for 
five years. For the past nineteen years he has been 
employed in gathering and delivering milk to the 

creameries and the caramel factory. Mr. Kreider 
owns a small farm of seven acres which he pur- 
chased in the spring of 1892. This property is in 
West Lampeter township; the residence has been 
greatly rebuilt by him, and the other buildings on 
the place have been changed and added to, Mr. 
Kreider expending some fifteen hundred dollars 
in adapting the place to dairy purposes. It is said 
Mr. Kreider delivers more milk to the factory than 
any other contractor in the county, his daily aver- 
age being seven thousand pounds or more. 

Benjamin R. Kreider was married Oct. 10, 
1876, to Susan, a daughter of John and Susan 
(Wenger) Musser, of Earl township. Mrs. Kreid- 
er was born Jan. 21, 1856, and became the mother 
of the following children ; Anna Mary, Harry Mus- 
ser, Clara Bertha, Lizzie B., Ada May and Elmer 
Benjamin. Mrs. Kreider died May 27, 1901, and 
with her husband belonged to the Old Mennonite 
Church. His two oldest children are married, 
Anna Mary is the wife of Jesse Kreider, of Salis- 
bury, who is an extensive farmer and dairyman; 
Harry M. married Fannie Shriner, of Manheim 
township, and is an employe of the silk mills in 
Lancaster township, having his home in West Lam- 
peter township. 

HUGH M. NORTH. Among the legal lights 
of Pennsylvania the name of Hugh M. North, of 
Columbia, shines as a star of the first magnitude. 
His mastery of legal lore, his tenacious memory, his 
natural ability, have all combined to make him one 
of the foremost lawyers of the State, one who is con- 
sulted by the members of his own profession and one 
whose decisions are regarded as ultimate. 

Mr. North was born May 7, 1826, in Juniata 
county, Pa., a son of John North, of Scotch-Irish 
descent, and his wife, Jane McAlister, whose father, 
Hugh McAlister, of Revolutionary fame, was the 
founder of McAlisterville, Pa. Hugh M. North was 
given as good educational facilities as his father's 
circumstances permitted, and when twenty years of 
age he was graduated with honor from the academy 
at Mifflinburg, Pa. He then entered the office of 
Judge Casey, of Union county, who later became 
Chief Justice of the United States Court of Claims. 
Young North applied himself to his studies with the 
same energy that had characterized his school wOrk, 
and when he went to take his examination for ad- 
mission to the Bar he had a fund of legal knowledge 
superior to many lawyers then old in practice. He 
was admitted to the Bar in Union county in March, 
1849, ^^'^ i" the August following to the Lancaster 
County Bar. Columbia was chosen as the future 
home of the young lawyer, and there he immediately 
entered upon his practice. His fine intellectual at- 
tainments soon won recognition, and before long his 
time was fully occupied, and his large and lucrative 
practice yielded him a handsome competence. There 
were calls fo^ his services from all over the State, 
and every important case in his own vicinity found' 

<^.^. .//^.^^7 



him actively interested on one side or the other. In 
every branch of the law he seems equally at home, 
and the thoroughness with which he studies the sub- 
ject under litigation, his skill, his insight into human 
nature, and his fine presence, make him a tower of 
great strength before courts and juries. His gen- 
erous disposition has prevented him from putting 
any obstacles in the paths of younger members of 
the profession; instead, he is ever willing to aid in 
any way those who seek his counsel. In 1880 he was 
instrumental in organizing the Lancaster County 
Bar Association, for the "improvement of law and 
its administration," and so generally was his pre- 
eminence conceded that he was unanimously elected 
president, to which office he has been re-elected 
annually ever since. He is a prominent member of 
the American Bar Association, and for a time was 
a member of its council for the, State of Pennsyl- 

Questions of public importance, local or national, 
have found in Mr. North a deep and intelligent 
student. He has held a number of offices in the bor- 
ough of Columbia, and in 1854 became a member of 
the State Legislature, having been elected on the 
Democratic and Independent tickets.- In i860 he was 
a delegate to the National Democratic Convention 
held at Charleston, S. C, and there served on a num- 
ber of important committees. Active work in that 
convention required the exercise of rare judgment, 
and it was men like Mr. North who were able to 
carry it through with honor and with dignity. In 
1864 he was the Democratic candidate for Congress 
against the late Thaddeus Stevens, and in 1872 was 
the opponent of A. Herr Smith ; in 1874 he was a 
candidate before the State Convention for lieuten- 
ant governor, and polled the second highest vote; 
in 1876 he was delegate-at-large to the Democratic 
Convention at St. Louis. 

Mr. North's work has brought him many well- 
deserved honors. He is solicitor for the Pennsyl- 
vania Co., the Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co., 
two national banks of Columbia, and many other 
corporations, including iron companies, insurance 
companies, etc. He is president of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Columbia, and a director in a num- 
ber of other corporations. 

Mr. North is a member of the Episcopal Church, 
and a vestryman of St. Paul's, Columbia, and rec- 
tor's warden. He has been for many years a member 
of the standing committee of the Diocese of Central 
Pennsylvania, and was a deputy to the general con- 
ventions of 1895, 1898 and 1901. He was honored 
some years ago with the degree of LL. D. from 
Franklin and Marshall College. 

On Dec. 23, 1868, Mr. North was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Serena M. Franklin, daughter of 
the late Thomas E. Franklin, LL. D., of Lancaster, 
well known and prominent in the legal circles of the 
State, and Attorney General of Pennsylvania under 
Gbvs. Johnson and Pollock. To Mr. and Mrs. 
North have been born two children, viz. : Serena 

Mayer, who on April 11, 1901, was married to Jo- 
seph Baldwin Hutchinson, general manager of the 
Pennsylvania Railway Co. ; and Hugh M., Jr., who 
graduated from Yale University in June, 1897, and- 
is now a member of the Lancaster Bar. 

HUGH MAXWELL was born Dec. 7, 1777, iri' 
Ireland, and when quite a young man he came tO' 

At the age of nineteen he entered into partner-- 
ship with Matthew Carey in that city, Carey being a- 
printer of prominence. They published one of the' 
early literary magazines and subsequently Maxwell' 
edited the Port Folio.. Whilst in the book-publishing: 
business he made his own engravings aind cast his 
own type. Meeting with losses in the financial crisis 
following the war of 1812, he abandoned the printing 
business and for a while engaged in the pursuits of a 
farmer. In 1817 he removed to Lancaster and began 
the publication of the Lancaster Gazette. Subse- 
quently he purchased the Lancaster Journal, which 
he edited until 1839. This paper was one of the- 
ablest Democratic newspapers of Pennsylvania. He 
was the inventor of the printer's roller which wa* 
patented in 1817. In 1820 he was one of the most 
active promoters of the Conestoga Navigation Com- 
pany, which had for its object the improvement of 
the Conestoga creek. When the subject of uniting 
Philadelphia and Columbia by railroad was mooted 
he called the first meeting at Columbia having that 
object in view. Mr. Maxwell was one of the found- 
ers of the Mechanics' Literary Association of Lan- 
caster, and became its first president. The Lykens 
Valley and Short Mountain coal fields were discov- 
ered by him and William White, an ex-sheriff of 
Lancaster, and they sent the first coal from that sec- 
tion to market. 

Mr. Maxwell was a vigorous writer and as an 
editor had few superiors in his day. His editorials 
were bold and fearless and showed much independ- 
ence of thought. He died Nov. i, i860. 

LL. D., Professor of Theology and President of the 
Theological Seminary of "the Reformed Church 
in the United States," located at Lancaster, is one 
of the most remarkable men not only of this local- 
ity and great religious body, but of the State. At 
the age of eighty-five years he still stands in the van- 
guard of theological achievement, vigorous in mind 
and body, controlling great religious interests and! 
managing business affairs with the clear judgment 
of a man of fifty. 

Dr. Gerhart comes of sturdy, Pennsylvania an- 
cestry, his grandfather, Abraham Gerhart, having^ 
been born in Sellersville, Bucks county, this State, 
where he lived an honest, industrious life as a farm- 
er, and reared a family to become respected mem- 
bers of society. Dr. Gerhart was born June 13, 1817, 
at Freeburg, Pa., where his father. Rev. Isaac Ger- 
hart, was pastor of the Reformed Church. His early 



education was carefully looked after by his intelli- 
gent father, and at the age of sixteen years, he en- 
tered the High School which the Reformed Church. 
had established in 1831, at York, Pa., and of which 
the distinguished Rev. Frederick Augustus Ranch, 
Ph. D., was at that time the principal. When, in the 
fall of 1835, the School was removed to Mercers- 
burg, young Gerhart was one of the eighteen stu- 
dents who followed the removal of the Institution, 
and when, during the winter of 1836, the school de- 
veloped into a college, he became a member of the 
first sophomore class of .Marshall College. Gradu- 
ating from this noted institution in 1838, he then en 
tered the Theological Seminary of the German Re- 
formed Church, at that time located at Mercersburg 
and completed his theological studies in September. 

While pursuing his theological studies under the 
scholarly direction of the learned Drs. Ranch, Mayer 
and Nevin, he became a teacher himself, instructing 
in the School for Women, under the principalship of 
Mrs. Sarah Ann Young; also in the preparatory 
school of Marshall College until the autumn of 1842. 
Dr. Gerhart was examined and found worthy to be 
licensed to preach the Gospel, by the Synod of the 
Reformed Church in its session held afReading, Pa., 
in October, 1841, and was ordained to the ministry 
at the Grindstone Hill Church, in August, 1842, by a 
committee of the Mercersburg Classis. For one year 
this enthusiastic young clergyman was the pastor of 
four churches in the vicinity of Chambersburg, but 
in the following May he accepted a call to Gettys- 
burg. The succeeding six years and two months 
were occupied in his duties to four German-English 
churches, his labors being acceptable and being 
blessed in many ways. 

During the summer of 1849, Dr. Gerhart was 
commissioned a missionary to the foreign born Ger- 
mans located in Cincinnati, Ohio, and he accepted 
this charge with the same belief in his success that 
has been a great factor in all his work. For two 
years he faithfully filled this mission in that city, and 
the church was well satisfied with the result, while 
the experiences of a missionary made Dr. Gerhart 
still more competent to meet other demands. His 
next great work was the organization of churches 
through Ohio, Northern Kentucky, Wisconsin, Indi- 
ana and elsewhere, being a pioneer in many locali- 
ties, and making many of his ministerial trips on 
horseback. Mnny a neglected hamlet and forgotten 
household came to bless the name of Emanuel Vogel 

In the winter of 185 1, at a special meeting of the 
Synod of Ohio, Dr. Gerhart was elected Professor of 
Systematic Theologv in the Theological Seminary 
and President of Heidelberg Colle'^e, institutions 
which were +hen in their infancy. These were lo- 
cated at Tiffin. Ohio, a stronghold of the Reformed 
Church, and l^ere for four years, from 1851 to i85;5. 
Dr. Gerhart hhored in this double capacity in the in- 

terests of a liberal theological education, with a vigor 
only appreciated by those who know him best. 

It was in 1855 that the board of trustees of 
Franklin and Marshall College strengthened their 
faculty by making him the President of this growing 
institution, and the Professor of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy. Here he taught for thirteen 
years and was one of the most valued of the instruc- 
tors. In the spring of 1868, by the mother Synod of 
the Reformed Church, which is now called the East- 
ern Synod, he was chosen to the chair of Systematic 
Theology in the Theological Seminary, at that time 
located at Mercersburg. In 1871 this institution was 
moved to the city of Lancaster and during all these 
years the same position in the faculty has been held 
by Dr. Gerhart. 

To mention all the works in the way of books, es- 
says, lectures and valuable theological papers which 
have issued from the facile pen of Dr. Gerhart, would 
be a task indeed. Perhaps those which have attract- 
ed the most attention have been : A "Monograph of 
the Reformed Church;" "Philosophy and Logic;" 
"Institutes of the Christian Religion," in two vol- 
umes ; and in addition to these a notable contribution 
to theological literature which Dr. Gerhart has 
named "A Philosophical Introduction to Theology," 
which is in printed form, but which has not yet been 
offered to the general public. For more than a half- 
century his life has been spent as a Teacher in relig- 
ious colleges and seminaries of his church, utilizing 
his generous endowment of mental gifts in her ser- 
vice. As a clergyman he has administered the duties 
of his position with extraordinary success, and as an 
educator few can be named as his equal. Exceptional 
as has been his career in duration, he is a singularly 
unostentatious laborer, only those who have been ad- 
mitted into the inner recesses of his life, ever realiz- 
ing^he depths of his zeal or the extent of his useful- 

Dr. Gerhart was married at Hagerstown, Md., on 
Jan. 3, 1843, to Miss Eliza Rickenbaugh, a native of 
that place, where her father, Martin Rickenbaugh, 
■was formerly a well-known business man. Four chil- 
dren were born to this union : Col. William R., a 
graduate of Franklin and Marshall College, class of 
1863, who was in the army during the Civil war, re- 
maining in the service until 1867, and is now a solic- 
itor of patents ; Rev. Robert Leighton, who was also 
educated in Franklin and Marshall College and a 
graduate of the Theological Seminary in the class of 
1 87 1, and is a minister in the Reformed Church, in 
Lewisburg, Pa. ; Virginia, a young lady possessing 
rare talent as an artist ; and Paul, also a graduate of 
Franklin and Marshall College, who studied law and 
was admitted to the Bar, but gave up the profession 
to engage in the mercantile business, and who was 
removed from Hfe suddenly, in June, 1901. The wife 
and mother departed this life in Januarv, 1864, and 
in August, 1865, Dr. Gerhart was married to Mrs. 
Mary M. Hunter, widow of Frederick S. Hunter, 6f , 



Reading, Pa. She passed away one year later, and 
after a widowerhood of nearly nine years Dr. Ger- 
Ivart was, on Dec. 29, 1875, married to Miss Lucia D. 
Cobb, eldest daughter of the Rev. Asahel Cobb, a dis- 
tinguished clergyman of the Congregational Church 
■of Massachusetts, and the evening of the venerable 
•doctor's life is made bright by the companionship of 
this cultivated and intellectual companion. 

On June 13, 1897, Dr. Gerhart reached his eighti- 
«th birthda}', and no better evidence of the esteem 
in which he is held on account of his labors for the 
Reformed Church could be found than in the fact 
that the Reformed Church Messenger devoted its 
entire issue of that date to a most interesting and in- 
structive recital of the life events of this learned the- 
ologian, as viewed by many in high authority. 
Among the sketches gladly contributed appeared 
those from the pens of such friends as Dr.' Bowman, 
Prof. Schiedt and Hon. W. U. Hensel. Never be- 
fore in the history of the Messenger was there such 
tribute paid in its pages to any one. No better end- 
ing can be made to this inadequate sketch than in 
the words which close a paper written on Dr. Ger- 
hart by the editor of The Forum, and published in 
its issue of December, 1901 : 

"And now, let us briefly add, notwithstanding 
the modesty of this venerable man, that in no way 
is the lesson that all this active, struggling, useful, 
pure life has taught, better exemplified than in the 
mere sight and presence of the man himself as we 
see him still moving along the streets of I^ancaster, 
with step so wonderfully firm for his years, with 
mind so clear, with countenance so restful, with con- 
science so at ease, with soul so pure, we cannot but 
feel that that alone is sermon enough for one day." 

who has been principal of the First Pennsylvania 
State Normal School at Millersville since 1887, is 
one of the. most widely known and popular educa- 
tors of Lancaster county. He is beloved, as well as 
respected, among his pupils and all with whom he 
has had relations in his long and successful career, 
for though strict as a conscientious discharge of his 
duties requires him to be, he exercises his authority 
judiciously. He his earnestness and sin- 
■ceritv upon all; winning their admiration as well as 
allegiance, and in this fact no doubt lies the secret 
to much of his success with so many of his pupils. A 
lifelong devotion to the profession of his choice has 
made him peculiarly alive to its needs and require- 
ments, and no less active in attempting to supply 
them. His connection with the Normal School has 
covered the greater part of his life, so that his in- 
terest is as much one of affection as of duty. 

Dr. Lyte was born June 29, 1842, near Bird-in- 
Hand, Lancaster county, and there passed his early 
life, in the winter attending the public schools, and 
■during the remainder of the year assisting his fa- 
ther in the care of his nursery. He had commenced 
preparation for college when the war of the Rebel- 

lion broke out, and he enlisted in the Union army 
for three years, serving his full term, and rising 
from the ranks of an infantry regiment to coinmis- 
sioned officer in a battery of light artillery. His 
regiment was attached to the Army of the Potomac, 
and he was actively engaged in a number of the great 
battles which it fought, proving efficient in every 
capacity. He was wounded at the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville, and has never completely recovered 
from the effects of the injury. 

Returning home at the close of the war Dr. Lyte 
resumed his studies, and commenced teaching, be- 
ing engaged two years in the district schools of Lan- 
caster county. Subsequently he became a pupil in the 
institution with which he has so long been connected, 
graduating therefrom in the regular course in 1868, 
and later taking up the scientific course, which he 
also completed. From the time of his graduation 
he has been a member of the Faculty, having first 
been elected Professor of Rhetoric and Bookkeep- 
ing, and later as Professor of Pedagogy and English 
Grammar. In 1887 he assumed the duties of his 
present position. His promotion to so responsible 
a position is the best evidence of his success in more 
subordinate, but equally important, work, and his 
long continuous service in that capacity is the best 
evidence of his worthiness to fill so great a trust. In 
addition to attending to his duties as principal, he 
fills the chair of Psychology and Logic. That he 
has not been without honor in his incumbency is 
shown by the fact that in 1878 Franklin and Mar- 
shall College conferred upon him the degree of 
Master of Arts, and in 1887 that of Doctor of Phil- 

Dr. Lyte has grown with the institution which 
has had so important a bearing on the intellectual 
life of Lancaster county. During his connection 
with the Normal School he has watched with pride, 
and aided in, her liberal expansion, which has been 
in keeping with the sj^irit of this advanced age, and 
with the constantly increasing patronage she has 
enjoyed. The number of pupils at present is "larger 
than in any similar institution in the State. The 
course of study has been broadened, many branches 
having been taken up which add to the interest of the 
work, widen the student's outlook, increase his 
efficiency for the duties for which he is preparing, 
and thus affect the value and raise the standard of 
the common schools. The various buildings include 
gymnasium, library, physical science and mechanical 
arts buildings, all of which have been found neces- 
sary with the growing needs of the estabUshment. 

Dr. Lyte has kept abreast of the times in his own 
studies, Language, Philosophy and Pedagogy be- 
ing his specialties. He is the author of a number 
of text books, a series on Language, one on Book- 
keeping and several on Music, and is a popular lec- 
turer on educational and literary topics, having 
many valuable ideas on the subject of public educa- 
tion especially. He is an eminently practical man, 
and as such his opinions are received with marked 



respect. Many of his plans for the development of 
the Normal, and the broadening of its usefulness, 
have been put into operation with complete success. 
Practically all his energies have been turned into' 
this one channel, his love for his work being of that 
genuine kind which overcomes all obstacles and out- 
lasts discouragement. He has frequently declined 
positions more lucrative, and which promised more 
renown, his attachment for his institution proving 
too strong to be easily severed. The Millersville 
State Normal has always borne a high reputation, 
and the standard has been elevated considerably 
under the present administration. Dr. Lyte has al- 
ways been in hearty sympathy with educational or- 
ganizations, and in 1891 was honored with election 
to the office of president of the Pennsylvania Teach- 
ers' Association. He is a life member of the Na- 
tional Educational Association, of which he has 
served as director for a number of years. He was 
president of the N. E. A. in 1899, and he has also 
been vice-president of the council of education of 
that body. He is likewise a member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Political Science. 

Fraternally Dr. Lyte is a thirty-third degree 
Mason, receiving his last degree in 1885 ; he also 
holds membership in the Loyal Legion, the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and the Society of the Sons 
of the Revolution. 

In March, 1872, Dr. Lyte married Mary Mcjun- 
kin, daughter of Dr. Isaiah Mcjunkin, of Phila- 
delphia, and they have had two children, Louis and 
Gilbert. Dr. and Mrs. Lyte are members of the 
Episcopal Church. They are widely known socially, 
and are everywhere esteemed among the circle of 
their acquaintances. 

THADDEUS STEVENS represented Lancas- 
ter county in the United States House of Represen- 
tatives during the last ten years of his eventful life. 
It is the highest honor this district, then the Ninth 
Congressional District of Pennsylvania, has ever 
known. During those years he did more than any 
other man in Congress to shape the policy of the Na- 
tion, both in war and in peace, to advance the cause 
of human freedom, to which his life had been de- 
voted, and to save from dismemberment the Amer- 
ican republic, the hope of the world. And the Na- 
tion, saved and regenerate, conferred upon him a 
title higher than King — the Great Commoner. We 
believe that he was brought by divine providence 
to do his appointed work, as much as was George 
Washington or Abraham Lincoln. FroiTi 1861 to 
1865 Abraham Lincoln and Thaddeus Stevens were 
|:he two mightiest forces in the land in shaping the 
policy and determining the destiny of the Nation. As 
Henry Watterson has said, "Thaddeus Stevens was 
the House of Representatives" during these four 
years of Titanic strife. Many of our people know 
him only as a name. We wish to present such a con- 
nected sketch as will give them more definite knowl- 
edge of his life and work. He was born in Danville, 

Vt., April 4, 1792. His parents were Joshua and 
Sarah (Morrill) Stevens, who removed from Me- 
thuen, Essex Co., Mass., about the year 1786. He 
was evidently of Anglo-Saxon stock, though little is 
known of his ancestors. His father was a surveyor 
and shoemaker. He resurveyed the town of Dan- 
ville in 1790, and his . measurements are the legal 
lines to-day. He was an athlete and a famous 
wrestler, but a man of rather dissipated habits. 
When he died or where is not known with certainty. 
In the war of 18 12 he is said to have enlisted as a 
soldier, and in the attack on Oswego to have re- 
ceived a bayonet wound from which he died a few 
days afterward. Thaddeus never wearied in talking 
of his mother and of the noble fight she made with 
penury in bringing up her four boys. She was a 
remarkable woman, and her sons all achieved distinc- 
tion. The eldest became a judge in Illinois ; Alan- 
son, the second son, was a practicing physician of 
high reputation at the time of his death. The third 
of the brothers became a farmer and was a gentle- 
man of intelligence and culture. Thaddeus, the 
youngest, was the one on whom especially she placed 
her affections. The boy, though healthy, was in 
some degree deformed. He had a club foot, and 
doubtless required greater attention than the others. 
He could never sufficiently acknowledge his indebt- 
edness to her. Long years after he said of her : 

"I really think the greatest pleasure of my life 
resulted from my ability to give my mother a farm 
of 250 acres and a dairy of fourteen cows, and an 
occasional bright gold piece, which she loved to de- 
posit in the contributors' box of the Baptist Church, 
which she attended. This always gave her much 
pleasure and me much satisfaction. My mother was. 
a very extraordinary woman. I have met very few 
women like her. My father was not a well-to-do 
man, and the support and education of the family 
depended upon my mother. She worked day and 
night to educate me. I was feeble and lame in 
youth, and as I could not work on the farm, she con- 
cluded to give me an education. I tried to repay her 
afterward, but the debt of a child to his mother, you 
know, is one of the debts we can never pay." He 
gratefully cherished her memory to the last, and by 
his will he established a fund, the income of which 
was forever to be used to plant each springtime 
"roses and other cheerful flowers" upon her grave. 

The mother moved from Danville to Peacham, 
where there was an academy, that she might educate 
her boys. During his early years Mr. Stevens was a 
very diligent reader of everything that came in his 
way. When about fifteen he taught school and 
started a library in the town. There he prepared for 
college, entering the Sophomore class at Dartmouth 
in 181 1. Two terms of his Junior year were spent 
at the University of Vermont, and his Senior year 
at Dartmouth, where he graduated in 1814. The 
records of the university show him as a speaker in 
a "Forensic Disputation" in 1813, and tell of a 
drama, "The Fall of Helvetic Liberty," a tragedy in 




three acts by Thaddeus Stevens, in which the author 
played one of the parts. 

When he graduated at Dartmouth he was twenty- 
two years old. He determined to study law, and, as 
his native State did not afford the opportunities he 
desired, he removed to Pennsylvania. There he 
taught for a time in an academy at York while read- 
ing law. He visited Lancaster, after his admission 
to the Bar, but finally decided to open an ofHce at 
Gettysburg.. It was discouraging experience for 
the young lawyer, and he was on the point of leaving 
the place when a case of murder, such that no other 
would undertake the defense of the criminal, came 
into his hands. He astonished everybody by his 
skill, his eloquence and the display of those qualities 
which afterward made him one of the ablest and 
most noted lawyers in the United States. His fame 
spread, and he was soon employed on one side or 
another of nearly every important case tried in that 
part of the State. He did much work gratuitously. 
Many a man, claimed as a slave, gained his freedom 
through , Mr. Stevens, and, when legal expedients 
failed, he at. times paid out of his own pocket the 
price demanded for the slave. There he spent fifteen 
years of his intense life, gaining in actual practice 
that ready and familiar acquaintance with the law 
for which he was noted above other men. 

Mr. Stevens took little part in politics until 1829, 
when the Anti-Masonic excitement swept over 
Pennsylvania. "He once told me," says Alexander 
H. Hood, Esq., for. many years a member of the 
Lancaster Bar, a man of unusual native ability and a 
close personal friend of Mr. Stevens, to whose sketch, 
written in 1871, we are indebted for much that is 
■contained in this article, "that the last talk he had 
with James Buchanan, who was an ardent Democrat, 
was in 1827, at York. They had both been engaged 
on the same side in the trial of a cause, and when the 
jury were out they walked down a lane some distance 
from the town and took a seat on the top rail of the 
fence. Buchanan suggested that it was a good time 
for a man of brains to enter politics, and added that 
Stevens would do well to come into the support of 
Jackson. Stevens answered by saying that he saw 
the advantages of such a course, but would not for- 
sake his old opinions, which he believed to be right, 
for the sake of joining a party in which he had no 
faith." They took opposite sides in politics and 
often assailed each other bitterly. The first became 
President of the United States, occupying the White 
House at one end of Pennsylvania avenue, while at 
the same time, from his own State, his own county, 
his own city, the second stood at the other end of the 
avenue, recognized as the mightiest man in the Uni- 
ted States Congress. 

In 1 83 1 Mr. Stevens was elected to the Legisla- 
ture from Adams county. His ability was, of course, 
recognized, though he was of the unpopular minor- 
ity. Few men have ever been more foully abused by 
an opposition press. He was charged with all man- 
ner of evil, but cared little or nothing to refute 

calumny. He had favored the free school law of 
1834, introduced by Hon. Samuel Breck, of Philadel- 
phia, who had come to the Senate for the sole pur- 
pose of securing its passage. This law had passed 
with little opposition, but revulsion of feeling all 
over the State at the prospect of taxation for the pro- 
posed system of free schools sent back a Legislature 
pledged to its repeal. Mr. Stevens had not served 
on the committee on Education and had taken no 
part in preparing the bill of 1834. He had little to do 
also with the educational work of the session of 1834- 
35 until the crisis came and he saw the infant free 
schools in danger of destruction. Then, gathering 
up his great strength, he threw himself with his 
whole soul into the contest, and won the day, not 
more by his eloquent, inspiring words, than by the 
bold and resolute position which he assumed. Com- 
petent judges of all parties who witnessed the fight 
agree that had he not stood like a rock, furnishing 
shelter and imparting strength to the free school 
combatants, and bidding defiance to the fiercest of 
those who would have struck them down, the law 
of 1834 would have been swept from the statute 
books or been saved only by a veto from the gover- 
nor, and the day of universal education in Pennsyl- 
vania would have been postponed for years. One 
who was present. Dr. George Smith, of Delaware, 
wrote in 1880, "Stevens's speech was one of the most 
powerful I ever heard. The House was electrified, 
and the school system was saved from ignominious 
defeat." In honor of its author, the speech was beau- 
tifully printed on silk by some school men in Read- 
ing, and proudly kept by him as a relic till his death. 
It is given in the Pennsylvania School Journal for 
July, 1865, along with another which he made in 
1838, in behalf of a bill to establish a school of art in 
Philadelphia, in which he championed most vigor- 
ously the higher institutions of learning. "Immedi- 
ately after Mr. Stevens concluded this great effort," 
says Hon. John W. Forney, "he received a message 
from George Wolf, then Democratic governor of 
Pennsylvania, and a leading member of the Masonic 
fraternity. Gov. Wolf was the firm friend of popu- 
lar education. Of a different and more methodical 
character, he did not and could not bring to the 
movement the attributes with which God had clothed 
Thaddeus Stevens ; but he was earnest and sincere. 
When Mr. Stevens, in response to his invitation, en- 
tered the Executive Chamber, he threw his arms 
about his neck, and, with tearful eyes and broken 
voice, thanked him for the great service he had ren- 
dered to our common humanity." We have always 
thought, in reading of this educational crisis and the 
far-reaching result of his victory, that the greatest 
thing Mr. Stevens did at this time was, providen- 
tially, to hold Samuel Breck's crude law of 1834 in- 
tact, for the work of Thomas H. Burrowes, secretary 
of the Commonwealth, during the three years of the 
Ritner administration, and the calling of this re- 
markable man to the organization, direction, im- 
provement and support of the school system of Penn- 



sylvania for the rest of his life of extraordinary use- 
fulness. We have seen and heard Mr. Stevens 
spoken of as the "father of the school system." He 
used to laugh at this as very ridiculous. No man in 
Pennsylvania history has ever inerited such title of 
distinction, and he was the last man to assume or 
allow it. His service to the schools was great be- 
yond estimate, but that of Dr. Burrowes far greater. 
"Old Thad." and "Old Tom," as they came to be 
familiarly known, were near friends for nearly forty 
years, and to no other two men of the past generation 
do the schools of the State owe so great a debt of ob- 

In the Constitutional Convention of 1837 he was 
a conspicuous figure. The debates fill thirteen large 
volimies. Stevens refused to affix his signature to 
the result of their deliberations because the new Con- 
stitution limited the right to vote to "white" citi- 
zens. His name alone, of all the members of the con- 
vention, was conspicuous by its absence. 

In 1838 Mr. Stevens was appointed by Gov. 
Ritner a member of the Board of Canal Commis- 
sioners. The political triumvirate of Pennsylvania 
was at that time Ritner, Burrowes and Stevens. The 
Gubernatorial campaign of that year was most bit- 
terly contested. The excitement was unprecedented. 
Thomas H. Burrowes was chairman of the State 
Central Committee of his party, and Thaddeus Ste- 
vens was the master spirit of the campaign. These 
men stood shoulder to shoulder through the stubborn 
fight. Ritner was defeated. The organization of 
the Legislature was delayed for weeks. At the most 
critical period in this fierce struggle bloodshed was 
looked for at any moment. Political ruffians from 
the Philadelphia slums and elsewhere were present 
with the avowed purpose to "kill Stevens." He 
faced the storm at Harrisburg with the same de- 
fiant, unflinching courage which he displayed nearly 
a generation later at Washington. Each faction or- 
ganized its own "house" — the "Hopkins House" and 
the "Stevens House" — ^but finally victory fell to the 
other party, who had retained possession of the Rep- 
resentatives' chamber. Stevens refused to recog- 
nize the legality of the "Hopkins House," and re- 
mained absent during its sessions. Later he at- 
tended an adjourned session, at the request of his 
constituents. The leader of the opposition party 
had a resolution passed, providing for the appoint- 
ment of a committee to inquire into his status as a 
member of the body. He contemptuously refused to 
appear before this committee, but sent them a letter 
which conclusively established the illegality of their 
proceedings and his absolute right of membership. 
The House by a party vote declared his seat vacant, 
and ordered a new election. He was returned by a 
large majority. The Legislature the next winter 
gave him "satisfaction" by expelling the member 
who had been responsible for his own expulsion. 
"While an intense partisan, he had won an acknowl- 
edged position as the most formidable debater and 

perhaps the greatest orator at that time in public life 
in Pennsylvania." 

Mr. Stevens took part in the Harrison campaign 
in 1840, and after the election was slated for a cabinet 
position, but this appointment was prevented by 
Clay and Webster. Stevens never forgave Webster 
for the part he took in this transaction ; nor did he 
go into the support of Clay in 1844, till Clay made 
known to Stevens that, should he be elected, atone- 
ment would be made for past wrong. 

Mr. Stevens closed his service in the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania with the session of 1841. His long- 
continued attention to politics, and the large sums 
he expended, had materially impaired his fortune. 
He had also lost very heavily through the operations 
of a partner in the iron business. In the summer of 
1842 he saw that Gettysburg did not afford an ade- 
quate field for his professional practice, and this in- 
duced his removal to Lancaster in August of that 
year. His course in 1844 has been already noticed, 
and from that time till 1848 he took little part in 
politics, though he was always keenly alive to what 
was going on in the country. During this period his. 
practice was very remunerative, and from this and 
the sale of his .A.dams county farms he brought down 
his debts to within what he considered a manageable 
limit. In 1843 he was in danger of being sold out by 
the sheriff. In 1844 he paid interest on debts 
amounting to $217,000. In 1849, when he first went 
to Congress, he had reduced his debts to $30,000. 
On March 4, 1853, when his first service in Congress 
ended, his debts amounted to about $60,000. These 
figures are given by Mr. Hood, who had opportunity 
to know the facts. What he was worth at his death 
it is difficult to say. After the payment of certain 
personal bequests he directed that the residue of the 
estate be used for the founding and support of an 
orphans' home in which there should be no distinc- 
tion of race or color. The amount of the fund is 
now (1903) over $60,000, and it is the purpose of the 
trustees to permit it to accumulate until it shall reach 
$100,000, when the necessary buildings will be 
erected in the eastern part of the city of Lancaster,, 
on land adjoining the Children's Home. 

When the Free Soil movement began he was 
favorable to its principles, though he supported 
Zachary Taylor with all his might for the Presi- 
dency. In 1848, after a sliaip contest with the op- 
posing candidates for the nomination he was named 
for Congress by the supporters of Taylor, and elected 
by a large majority. During the four years that he 
served at this time he was recognized as one of the 
leading men in Congress, and enjoyed to a large ex- 
tent the confidence of Gen. Taylor, who, though a 
slaveholder himgelf, was,' without declaring it openly,, 
opposed to the further extension of that evil ; and it 
is very certain that it was through his adroit man- 
agement that California came into the Union as a 
free State. The Fugitive Slave law was passed after 
Ihe death of President Taylor. This law and all kin- 



dred measures Mr. Stevens opposed to the extent of 
his power. Profoundly impressed with the gravity 
of the crisis, Mr. Stevens introduced into the House 
a series of resohitions covering the leading points 
at issue between the political parties. These, of 
course, stood no chance of approval or adoption. 
On Feb. 20, 1850, he made his first set speech in 
Congress, in which he violently attacked the Fugi- 
tive Slave law, and discussed the slavery question 
with the utmost vigor and frankness. 

"We can say anything," and his hard firm tone 
compelled men to listen — "we can say anything with- 
in these walls or beyond them with impunity, unless 
it be to agitate in favor of human liberty. That is 
aggression." While he announced his "unchange- 
able hostility to slavery in every form and in every 
place," he declared that he felt bound by the Con- 
stitutional provisions. Some of these compromises 
he greatly disliked, and if they were still open he 
would never consent to them, but he was precluded 
from objecting. It was a matter of regret that Con- 
gress had no power over slavery in the States, and, 
if it had, he would, regardless of all threats, support 
"some just, safe and certain means for its final ex- 
tinction." He then proceeded to discuss the wis- 
dom of slavery in a style which it is impossible to 
condense or abridge without injuring the argument. 
"This speech," sa)'s Hon. Samuel W. McCall, in 
his "Life of Thaddeus Stevens," published by 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., in the "American States- 
men" series, "not only commanded the admiration 
of his friends and justified the votes they had given 
him for Speaker, but it achieved the success of draw- 
ing upon him the fire of the opposition. It had 
strength and directness. It clearly expressed great 
ideas, which were not dressed up and concealed in 
any frippery or labored rhetoric. His trenchant 
power of argument, his courage, the force of his 
compact eloquence, not merely established his posi- 
tion in the House, but they attracted the attention 
of the country. The proceedings of the House which 
most intensely interested him were those relating to 
the slavery question. He was a member of the Ju- 
diciarv committee, and gave much of his time to the 
Avork of a technical and legal character which came 
before that committee, but his heart was with the 
slave, and his most elaborate speeches were made 
in his behalf." 

Shortly after this first great speech in the House 
of Representatives the leaders of the opposition are 
credited with saying: "Our enemy has a general 
now. We cannot buy him, we cannot allure him 
with office, we cannot seduce him. He is in earnest. 
He is bold. We can neither flatter nor frighten him." 
Such he had been always and such he continued to 
the end. When the California question came before 
the House he seized the opportunity to state more 
fully his position with regard to slavery in the Terri- 
tories as well as to make more emphatic, if possible, 
his hostilitv to slavery everywhere. On June 10, 
1850, he delivered another philippic, which was even 

more forcible and uncompromising than his Febru- 
ary speech. 

He constantly declared his undying hostility to the 
Fugitive Slave law. Referring to the people of Lan- 
caster county in this connection on one occasion, he 
said : "The distinguished Senator from Kentucky 
(Henry Clay) wishes further to make it the duty, 
of all bystanders to aid in the capture of fugitives ; 
to join in the chase and run down the prey. This 
is asking more than my constituents will ever grant. 
They will strictly abide by the Constitution. The 
slaveholder may pursue his slaves among them with 
his own foreign myrmidons, unmolested, except by 
their frowning scorn. But no law that tyranny can 
pass will ever induce them to join the hue and cry 
after the trembling wretch who has escaped from 
unjust bondage. Their fair land, made by nature 
and their own honest toil as fertile and as lovely as 
the Vale of Tempe, shall never become the hunting 
ground on which the bloodhounds of slavery shall 
course their prey and command them to join the 

In 185 1, for the first time in many years, a fugitive 
slave resisted, with arms, the claims of his owner. 
About two miles from Christiana, Lancaster county, 
a number of fugitive slaves were hiding at the house 
of a colored man named Parker. An elderly man, 
named Gorsuch, of Maryland, assisted by his son, 
and a deputy marshal from Philadelphia, named 
Kline, came to the house of Parker^ about an hour 
before daylight. Gorsuch, the younger, with Kline, 
summoned the persons inside to surrender. To this 
it was replied they would defend themselves, and at 
the same time the click of firearms was heard. Kline 
ran and hid behind a- tree. Young Gorsuch went to 
his father and reported that an attack would be dan- 
gerous. The father said it would never do to back 
out so, and started toward the house, his son follow- 
ing. Gorsuch hailed the house again, and on re- 
ceiving the defiant answer, fired a pistol, the ball 
taking effect in the leg of one of the blacks in the 
house. This shot was returned by a volley, killing 
the elder Gorsuch. The firing alarmed the neighbor- 
hood. Castner Hanway and Elijah Lewis were the 
first to reach the place. These were white men and 
Abolitionists. Their influence prevented further fir- 
ing, and they assisted the younger Gorsuch to remove 
the dead body of his father to Christiana, the nearest 
railroad station to the scene of the fight. This oc- 
currence raised the pro-slavery spirit to a flame. For 
a week no colored man could pass along the railroad 
without being arrested. Hanway and Lewis were 
taken to Philadelphia and tried for treason. In 
this trial Mr. Stevens and John M. Read, later one 
of the judges of the Supreme court, were the counsel 
for the prisoners. Stevens was the inspiration for 
the defense. Its lines were laid down by him. But 
because of his extreme anti-slavery views it was 
thought best to give the part of leading counsel to 
one of the ablest Democratic lawyers in the State, in 
the person of Judge Read, whose exhaustive argu- 



merit on the law of treason knocked the breath out 
of the prosecution, and Mr. Stevens was content with 
a brief speech. The prisoners were acquitted, and 
from that day the Fugitive Slave law was practi- 
cally a dead letter in Pennsylvania. The great merit 
of Mr. Stevens in this transaction was in the bold, 
firm stand he took at the beginning. His defiant 
attitude kept up the courage of those who would 
otherwise have desponded. His share in the trial 
was not very conspicuous, but there were good rea- 
sons for the course he pursued. The great object 
was attained, and that was all he desired. 

Mr. Stevens was elected to the XXXIId Con- 
gress, which was organized without difficulty, and on 
the ballot for Speaker he received sixteen votes, 
among them those of Joshua R. Giddings and Horace 
Mann. He made two or three important speeches, 
and in March, 1853, "retired, as he thought per- 
manently, to private life, from which he did not 
emerge again until his countrymen, aroused to fever 
heat, were about to decide the question amid the 
clash of arms, and he was to do the work which was 
to make his name immortal." 

From 1853 to 1858 he steadily pursued the prac- 
tice of his profession in Lancaster and elsewhere, 
though at the same time taking part in the initiatory 
movements which resulted in the formation of the 
Republican party, he being one of the delegates from 
Lancaster, the Ninth Congressional t>istrict, to the 
convention which nominated Fremont. In 1858 
the necessities *f the country required his presence 
in Congress, and, after a warm contest, he was elected 
by a large majority. He had scarcely taken his 
seat in that body, in December, 1859, when the first 
symptoms of the Rebellion began to be developed. 
Although nearly sixty-eight years old wHen he re- 
entered Congress, the great work of his life lay yet 
before him. He had never met his intellectual su- 
perior, either at the Bar, in the Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature, or during his four years in Congress. But 
it is the work he was yet to do that has given him en- 
during fame in the history of a great nation saved 
and purified from the taint and curse of negro 
slavery. There was a long contest over the organiza- 
tion of the House in 1859, and Mr. Stevens was in 
the thick of the fight, a conspicuous figure. Noisy 
threats of disunion and bloodshed filled the 
air. Stevens had been through such scenes 
before, and enjoyed lashing his opponents into 
fury. His wit, always apt and telling, flashed like 
the lightning, and often scorched like flame. Many 
of the Southern members hated him intensely, and 
feared him as no other man, as well they might, and 
yet, personally and socially, not a few of them ad- 
mired and were attracted by him. When the House 
was not in session he was often the center of a group 
in which all sections of the country were pleasantly 

Then came the Presidential election in i860. 
Stevens was a member of the Pennsylvania delega- 
tion to the National Convention. The vote of this 

delegation was transferred to Mr. Lincoln on the 
ballot which secured his nomination. Lincoln was 
elected, and Congress met in December for the most 
extraordinary session in our national history. Mr. 
Stevens was a master spirit during this eventful ses- 
sion. He thought that the time had at last arrived 
for determining whether secession was a rightful 
act. If it were, "then the Union is not worth pre- 
serving for a single day ;" for, if the emergency then 
existing should pass away, "fancied wrongs would 
constantly arise," and induce States to secede. He 
then made a powerful argument against the right 
of secession, and declared that the South had no 
just grievance. "Rather than show repentance for 
the election of Mr. Lincoln, with all its consequences, 
I would see this Government crumble into a thousand 
atoms. If I cannot be a free man, let me cease to 

Hon. Henry L. Dawes, who was a member of 
Congress at the time, has preserved a striking pic- 
ture of the effect of the speech. It was a tremendous 
scene. The same heroic figure as when he saved 
the School Law from repeal in 1835, at Harrisburg, 
but on a vastly broader arena, filling it with a sense 
of his presence and his power, "No one," says Mr. 
Dawes, "could forget the scene in which it occurred, 
though all I can say of it and of him seems tame 
enough without the inspiration of the occasion and 
of his presence. This speech was' delivered in that 
last session after the election of Mr. Lincoln, when 
the House was more like a powder magazine than a 
deliberative assembly. His denunciation of the plot- 
ters of treason to their face was terrible, and his 
expose of the barbarism of the so-called civilization 
behind them was awful. Nearly fifty Southern mem- 
bers rose to their feet and rushed toward him with 
curses and threats of personal violence. As many 
of his friends gathered around him, and, moving him 
in sort of hollow square to the space in front of the 
Speaker, opened before his assailants and stood guard 
over him while he arraigned the slaveocracy in an 
indictment for its crimes against humanity surpass- 
ing in severity even the great arraignment of Mr. 
Sumner. He was then an old man, approaching 
seventy, on whose frame and voice time had already 
made sad inroads, but still standing erect and firm 
as a man of thirty-five. Calm and self-possessed as 
a judge, he lashed them into a fury, and then bade 
them compose themselves at their leisure. The ex- 
citement aroused by his fiery denunciation and de- 
fiant scorn beggars all description and can live only 
in the memory of those who witnessed it." 

Through all the four bloody years of the Civil 
war, as chairman of the committee on Ways and 
Means, Mr. Stevens was most emphatically the right 
man in the right place. "Had he been younger and 
not deformed," says Mr. Hood, "his natural courage 
would have sent him to the battlefield at the firing 
of the first gun. Men, firm believers in the doctrine 
of special providence, aver that his lameness was a 
necessity, ordained to keep him where he was. With- 



out entering into any discussion on this point, it is 
enough to say, there were so many illustrations of 
the doctrine during the war, that to a thinking mind 
it is somewhat difficult to deny the proposition." 

The House of Representatives, now that the 
Southern leaders had withdrawn, had a large Re- 
publican majority. Galusha A. Grow was elected 
Speaker. Thaddeus Stevens was made chairman of 
the committee on Ways and Means, the most im- 
portant committee of the House, the post of all others 
for him at such a crisis. The duty of this committee 
■was to provide means for prosecuting a great war 
and having charge of the appropriation bills, to de- 
■cide how the money should be spent. Thus Mr. 
iStevens was directly in charge of the great work of 
raising and spending the money needed during the 
four years of the war of the Rebellion, aggregating 
not hundreds of millions, but thousands of millions. 
Stevens drove the revenue bills and the appropria- 
tion bills with his accustomed energy. He favored 
the issue of legal-tender notes and the enormous bond 
issues of the Government. Says Mr. McCall, in 
speaking of this tremendous task of the Ways and 
Means committee : "What other men have ever done 
so well ? With national credit almost destroyed, with 
property values greatly lessened, and with half the 
men of military age in the field in a civil war, twenty 
million people were called upon in four years to meet 
an expenditure of $3,500,000,000, and they showed 
themselves able to respond to the gigantic demand. 
The achievement not only stands without a parallel, 
but it stands unapproached. The credit was not 
chiefly due to leadership. What was demanded 
of the leaders was the ability to comprehend and the 
boldness to call into play the splendid capacity and 
the fervent patriotism of the people. But the one 
man who is as much entitled as any other, with the 
exception of the Secretary of the Treasury, to the 
glory of these financial achievements, was the chair- 
man of the committee on Ways and Means, and 
the leader of the House of Representatives — Thad- 
deus Stevens." 

He was from the first in favor of emancipation 
as a war measure, urging that the slaves should be 
armed if the war continued, and declaring that 
slavery caused the Rebellion. After waiting in vain 
for action by the Military committee, he boldly pre- 
sented his bill to the House, and secured an assign- 
ment for its consideration without awaiting the re- 
port of any committee. This unusual course excited 
violent opposition, and an attempt was made to pre- 
vent a vote upon the measure. by repeated roll-calls 
upon motions to adjourn and other dilatory proposi- 
tions. After an all-night session the House ad- 
journed without action, but the struggle was re- 
sumed at its next meeting and continued for a week. 
Stevens concluded the debate in a characteristic 
speech. His efl-'orts were at last crowned with suc- 
cess. The bill passed by 83 to 54, and the hundreds 
of thousands of black soldiers who enlisted before the 

end of the war refuted by their conduct the predic- 
tions that they would be guilty of inhumanity. 

"A review of the course of Stevens upon all the 
measures coming before the House," says Hon. Sam- 
uel W. McCall, himself a member of the House of 
Representatives, "would involve practically a history 
of legislation during the war. He was so unquestion- 
ably leader that no man was next to him, and his in- 
dustry and energy responded so fully to all demands 
that he was almost always upon his feet or in charge 
of measures before the House. When the enormous 
amount of committee work which he was called upon 
to perform is remembered, and especially the prepar- 
ation of revenue and appropriation bills, which would 
alone be a sufficient tax upon the strength of an or- 
dinary man, it is almost incredible that one of his 
advanced age should have been able to attend so 
constantly upon the sessions of the House and per- 
form the part that he performed there." His memory 
seemed a prodigious storehouse, in which everything 
was in order and everything at command. His 
will was indomitable as ever, his mental force and 
intellectual grasp never greater, though his physi- 
cal vigor was slowly losing ground under the tre- 
mendous strain of heavy duties and vast responsi- 

The war ended, but the troubles it brought in its 
train stood out in such bold relief that people only 
then began to have something like a correct idea of 
their magnitude. The South, though beaten and 
vanquished, was far from being in a temper to ac- 
cept the situation as the fortune of a war brought 
on by themselves against their brethren. There was 
a debt of 'nearly, if not more than, three thousand 
millions, taxing the people and their posterity for 
many years to come. Besides this, there were four 
millions of emancipated slaves to be cared for, to be 
instructed and protected from the aggression of 
those who had formerly been their masters. Of the 
leading measures adopted to reconstruct the South, 
Mr. Stevens was the author. The whole general 
plan, though possibly not original with himself, was 
by adoption peculiarly his own ; and though some 
modifications may have been made in Congress, yet 
the principal features of his. measures were retained, 
and were the means employed to govern the people 
of the section lately in rebellion until its several por- 
tions were again admitted as component parts of the 
Union, as States, members of the great family of 
communities forming the indivisible Republic. 

During the whole period, from the beginning of 
the war to the end of his life, Mr. Stevens was scarce- 
ly a day absent from his seat, and for the most of 
that time his labors were truly herculean. During 
the war, in times of peculiar adversity, when every- 
body else seemed to lose heart, his indomitable en- 
ergy, and his full assurance of final success, inspired 
with new life the hearts that were ready to give up 
the combat. After the disastrous battles of Freder- 
icksburg and Chickamauga he seemed more than ever 



determined to fight on, no matter how gloomy the 
prospect before the country. 

Men will wear out, and Mr. Stevens was no 
exception to the general rule. When he left Lan- 
caster for Washington, about the end of November, 

1866, he was so feeble as to be unable to sit up in the 
car, and a bed was made for him on the floor. Those 
who knew his condition had great fear whether he 
could survive the journey. After his arrival at Wash- 
ington he rallied, and during most of the session he 
remained comparatively well. At the adjournment 
he came home, and remained there till November, 

1867, when he took his last journey to the capital. 
He then seemed much better than he had been for 
some time, and appeared very hopeful in regard to 
his health. 

After the death of Abraham Lincoln his successor 
in office, Andrew Johnson, adopted a policy that 
aroused strenuous opposition on the part of the Re- 
publican leaders. On the 25th of February, 1868, 
Mr. Stevens, with Mr. Bingham, appeared in the 
United States Senate and presented articles of im- 
peachment against Andrew Johnson. The trial, of 
which Mr. Stevens was one of the managers 
on the part of the House, ended on the 
26th of May. During all this time Mr. 
Stevens, so feeble as to be carried daily to 
the Capitol in a chair, was always present attend- 
. ing to his duty. His will was indomitable. Nothing 
but death could conquer him. He prepared his 
speech before the Senate with great care. After 
standing for a few minutes, in addressing that body, 
his strength gave out, and he was forced to resume 
his chair. He spoke for nearly half an hour from 
his seat, when his voice became weak, and the reading 
of his speech was concluded by Gen. Benjamin F. 
Butler. He was greatly disaopointed at the acquittal 
of the President, and was for a time depressed, but 
soon regained his accustomed gayety and spirit. 

He attended the sessions of the House when at 
all able to do so, though his strength was ebbing fast, 
and took part in the proceedings. On July 7, 1868, 
within a few weeks of his death, he introduced five 
additional articles of impeachment, "apparently for 
the purpose of reviewing the law of impeachments, 
in one of the longest speeches of his later years, and 
to express his dissatisfaction with the Senate on the 
rulings of the Chief Justice." On July i6th he in- 
troduced a resolution looking to the acquirement of 
a naval station and depot in the West Indies, and 
supported it in a brief speech. On July 27th Con- 
gress adjourned until September. Mr. Stevens was 
too weak to make the journey to Lancaster. But 
he would.die, he said, "like Nicanor, in harness." "I 
mean to die hurrahing," was a favorite expression 
with him. "You have changed my medicine?" he 
said to his physician. Dr. Henry C. Carpenter, a few 
days before his death. "Yes," replied the doctor. 
"Well," replied Stevens, grimly with a smile, "this 
is a square fight." And those who knew him, know 
just how he would say it, and how characteristic of 

the man. He died on Tuesday, Aug. 11, 1868. The 
Republican primary election in Lancaster county had 
been called for Saturday of that week, for the nom- 
ination of the member of Congress. Although he 
was dead, it was found when the votes were counted 
that all were cast for Thaddeus Stevens. 

The character of Thaddeus Stevens was made 
up of contradictory elements. Nature designed him 
for one of the great men of the race, and, so far as 
time and circumstances gave his powers opportunity 
to act, he fulfilled her intention. One of his most re- 
markable endowments was that never-failing spirit 
of generous kindness, which made it his pleasure to 
do good to and confer benefits on all who came within 
his reach. His inherent liberality grew by continual 
practice, till it became almost one of the necessities 
of his being. No man, woman or child approached 
Thaddeus Stevens, worthy or unworthy, and asked 
for help, who did not obtain it when he had the 
means. Another quality most strongly developed 
was his unconquerable perseverance and determina- 
tion to accomplish anything which he undertook. 
No matter how often defeated, he was always ready 
to "tr)', try again;" and this he would do when, to 
al! appearance, he had not the slightest chance of 

During the war his good offices were often re- 
quired to save men sentenced to be shot, and he never 
refused to invoke with success the kind feelings of 
President Lincoln, who was only too happy to have 
some person to intercede for the miserable delinquent. 
It is true that in a speech in Congress, Stevens justi- 
fied Juarez for shooting Maximilian ; but it is very 
certain that had he been ruler of ]\Iexico the fallen 
emperor would have been sent home safe and sound. 
There is no doubt that had Mr. Stevens been invested 
with the power of life and death, but few criminals 
would have been executed. A woman's tearful face, 
or the wai! of a child, was beyond his power to resist. 
This, in a ruler, might have been a great weakness, 
but in Mr. Stevens's position it was, doubtless, one 
of the most amiable traits in his character. Nothing 
ever pleased him better than to tell of his success with 
the President on occasions like those above referred 
to. He never took the credit of success to himself, 
but always ascribed it to the goodness of "Old Abe." 
Let us illustrate what has been said by introducing 
one of these stories : "A young fellow from Lan- 
caster county was to be shot for desertion. It was 
rather a hard case, and his mother, in great distress, 
called on me to help save him. I took her at once 
to the White House and introduced her to the Presi- 
dent. On the road I told her to tell her story in her 
own way, which she did in such a manner as none 
but a mother could tell it. I said nothing. I saw 
by the President's eye it was all right. There was 
no use in my saying a word. While snc rv^is talking 
the President began to write. It was but a couple of 
lines, but it was effectual. Fearing a scene, I took 
her into the ante-room, telling her as we went along- 
her son was safe. As soon as she fully understood 



it, she broke out : 'Oh ! this is the man our news- 
papers said was a brute and a devil. Why he is the 
loveliest man I ever saw in my life ! He is an angel ! 
He does the work of the Almighty, and stands in His 
place on earth ! I could worship him for his good- 
ness — my poor Ben is safe.' There was a great deal 
of desertion about that time. Some hard-hearted 
devils thought all should have been shot, but then I 
had nothing to do with that. It was Lincoln's busi- 
ness, and he did all ttiose things as he believed to be 
right. He was a great man. In his place, perhaps, 
I would have done tne same thing." 

Mr. Stevens was about five feet eleven inches 
high ; clear, ruddy, smooth skin. His natural hair 
was chestnut, but he lost it from brain fever when 
about thirty-five years old, and afterward always 
wore a wig. He had very fine teeth; was strongly 
built, but not corpulent ; his appearance when his 
features were at rest was very dignified. When 
young, he was a great lover of athletic sports, and 
could make a full hand at an)-thing where swiftness 
of foot was not required. He was a splendid Horse- 
man, and very fond of the chase. His favorite ex- 
ercise during much of his life was horseback riding, 
and he spent much of his leisure in the saddle. He 
was also fond of attending horseraces. He was an 
excellent swimmer, and often swam across "Joe's 
Pond,'' as he called it, which he said was one and 
a half miles wide and as cold as a spring. He de- 
clared that he could swim the Bosphorus as easily 
as Byron did. He resembled Byron in another par- 
ticular, for he had a club foot, but, unlike Byron, he 
did not seek to conceal his deformity. This affected- 
his walking, and he assisted himself with a very 
common hickory cane. He had a large mouth, thin 
upper lip, prominent aquiline nose, and massive head. 
"No stranger," says Hon. Henry L. Dawes, "would 
pass him on the street without turning for a second 
look at an unmistakably great character. On great 
occasions, when his untamable spirit had got the 
mastery of him, he no longer looked like a man, at 
least like any other man I ever saw." 

He hated oppression and injustice in all its forms. 
This was the ruling passion, and exhibited itself in 
full force as he drew near his end. In the principal 
cemeteries of Lancaster it was stipulated, by charter, 
that no person of color should be interred within 
their limits. He had bought lots in both Woodward 
Hill and Lancaster cemeteries, but when he received 
the deeds he sent them back, refusing to be buried in 
the grounds of either. Shreiner's cemetery, the 
smallest in the city, was free from this objection, 
and there he was laid to rest, within a short distance 
of the public schools which his fearlessness and love 
for humanity aided in establishing in Pennsylvania 
forever. For the reason above stated, he ordered 
in his will the following should be inscribed upon 
his tomb : "I repose in this quiet and secluded spot, 
not from any natural preference for solitude, but 
finding other cemeteries limited by charter rules as 
to race, I have chosen it that I might be enabled to 

illustrate in my death the principles I have advocated 
through a long life — equality of man before the 

In one of his essays, in which he touches the 
drama of History in its mightiest actors, Alexander 
Smith says : "I sit as in a theatre — tne stage is 
Time, the play is the World. What a spectacle it 
is! I hear or cry 'Bravo!' when the great actors- 
come on, shaking the stage." Thaddeus Stevens is,, 
bevond question, one of these great actors, upon this 
stage of Time, in this play of the World ; and life has 
been and will be better for untold millions because 
of the part he has played in the great drama of human 

There is no "life" of Mr. Stevens that is full 
enough to be satisfactorv. It should be a great book 
in several volumes. What a book it would be if 
there had been near him some Boswell, quietly not- 
ing, without his knowledge, wit and fact and mem- 
orable incident, and capable of carrying on the story 
of liis work to the end — the success which crowned 
him at the last! Edward McPherson, Esq., one of 
the executors under his will, had collected matter 
with the thought of an extended biography, but he 
died before this was fairly begun. There would be 
no large sale for such a "life," but it should stand in 
the great libraries, and in the collections of students 
of history and statesmen. 

Vermont has given to Pennsylvania two extra- 
ordinary men, Thaddeus Stevens and Elnathan 
Elisha Higbee. They found their way,_providential- 
ly, to the same part of the State, where, after busy 
years of unconscious preparation for service of which 
neither had any premonition, they came, one before 
the State, the other before both State and Nation, 
to do their appointed work. Each spent the last 
years of his useful life in the city of Lancaster. When 
Mr. Stevens died, in i86S, he was the most widely- 
known, and most honored man in Pennsylvania. 
When Dr Higbee died, in 1889, he was, we think, 
the man best beloved in all the State. Only those 
who knew them, in themselves and in their work, 
can estimate the value of their lives as compared with 
those of men in general. Their work was done in 
widely dififerent fields, and in it mankind has been 
greatly blessed. 

We close with this bit of humorous verse by 
Charles G. Halpine, on "Uncle Thad Stevens," writ- 
ten at a time when the Old Commoner was the most 
inlluential member of the United States Congress. 
The lines were read and laughed over, grimly we 
suppose, by Mr. otevens himself, and will be read 
again with interest bv many of his old admirers. 
They are as follows : 

Gnarled and tough from seventy winters, 

A gritty, grisly, bitter "Rad" — 
Though our Union fall to splinters, 

Here's to Pennsylvania Thad. 

Brown his wig but green his vigor, 

Angry often, never sad — 
Full of wit, and prone to rigor, 

Here's to Pennsylvania Thad. 



Though lame his leg, his mind is rapid, 
And all the House is hushed and glad 

When, to squelch some talker vapid. 
Rises Pennsylvania Thad. 

He's in candor a believer; 

All may know the thought he had; 
For no mealy-inouthed deceiver 

Is our wrinkled Uncle Thad. 

Into epithets he rushes; 

All are "traitors" or are "mad" — 
All who dare to cross the wishes 

Of our Pennsylvania Thad. 

Thad, we like you; you are able; 

And the biggest brick we've had 
In our loud Congressional Babel 

Is our Pennsylvania Thad. 

Spite of age, he still is human. 

And while to man he is not bad, 
Oh, dear! a good man to woman — 
■ The kindliest man is Uncle Thad. 

Go it, my old shoulder-hitter! 

Though at times your logic's bad, 
You're just as brilliant as you're bitter — 

Here's to Pennsylvania Thad. 

ELIAS H. HERSHEY was born Dec. 12, 1841, 
in Dauphin county, son of Jacob and Nancy Hershey. 
His ancestors emigrated from Switzerland between 
1719 and 1739, settling in Lancaster county, Pa. He 
was married to Elizabeth Miller Frantz, daughter 
of Christian and Elizabeth, in the year 1868; their 
living children are Annie, Mary, Christian and Ezra. 
Bishop Hershey's forefathers in Europe were Men- 
nonites, which faith he embraced in 1862, was chos- 
en to the ministry in 1874, and elected Bishop in the 
Reformed Mennonite Church in 1884. In the fol- 
lowing lines, from his pen, he notes some historical 
points, and delineates leading principles : 

The Church of Christ originated on the day of 
Pentecost, with the effusion of the Holy Ghost. 'This 
■divine endowment, in persons willing to forsake sin, 
works the change of temper and life denominated 
the "new birth," which is manifested by being peace- 
able, harmless, passive under injuries and wrongs 
without ever resenting aggression, humble and pure 
in life, just in all transactions, loving our neighbor as 
ourself, united in faith and doctrine, reproving all 
unfaithful worshippers by withdrawing from their 

Such was the character of the primitive Church, 
according to history, until about the beginning of, 
the fourth century, when worldly rulers united the. 
Church with the State, and, by compulsion, made 
many of their subjects Christian formalists. From 
that time we find a class of believers differing from 
the formalists in rejecting infant baptism, and as- 
serting baptism on faith, leading spiritual lives sepa- 
rated from the world by abstaining from a fleshly 
walk and worldly irregularities from vain ambition, 
idle amusements, pride, folly, and from all unfaithful 
worship, being strictly non-resistant, and maintain- 

ing the doctrine that Christians take no part in 
worldly government. Their position provoked the 
same persecutions which the Head of the Church 
and his early adherents suffered. At times they are 
unnoticed, then they appear prominently, according 
to the tolerance of worldly rulers. They are vari- 
ously called Poor Men of Lyons, Waldenses, Al- 
bigenses, Berengarians, Petrobroscians, Henricans, 
Leonists, Mennonites. Menno Simon, in the year 
1524, became a priest in the Roman CathoUc Church, 
which priesthood, and the connection with the 
Church, he renounced, Jan. 12, 1536, and associated 1 
with persons of dne heart with him, at whose solici- 
tation, and under the impulse of love for souls hun- 
gering for the pure Scriptures, he yielded himself 
to preaching and writing for the propagation of 
sound Gospel doctrines. His labors prospered 
against violent opposition. There are many branches 
diverging from the origin cited, holding some of the 
views of those early believers. 

The Reformed Mennonite Church had its begin- 
ning through a number of Mennonites, in the early 
part of the nineteenth century ; being impressed that 
Menno Simon had soundly interpreted the Scrip- 
tures, they withdrew from their church to restore the 
practice of his teachings, being in full accord there- 
with, and believing that the support given them by 
the shedding of much innocent blood in Europe, be- 
tween the years 1524 and 1781, was a martyrdom in 
behalf of doctrines founded on the Gospel. 

Doctrines. They believe in the Godhead of the 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost ; that the Old and New 
Testaments were given by inspiration, that the New 
supersedes the Old, and is the true text-book for the 
Church ; that the Holy Ghost is the sure interpreter, 
without the necessary aid of advanced human learn- 
ing ; that conversion is a gift of God, bestowed upon 
all who by divine light are willingly led to abhor sin, 
that they may turn to righteousness, the change be- 
ing the nature of God born in them, by which they 
lead new lives ; that the clergy are to be exemplary 
leaders, not arbitrary lords ; that through the love 
of God in them Christians are always in fellowship, 
as was the iirst State of the Church ; that there can 
be only one visibly Church, separated from profes- 
sions maintaining the doctrine of divided organiza- 
tions ; that the Church as a body is required to sepa- 
rate from the company of members who again per- 
sist in sin, or commit gross violations, by avoiding 
them in church communion, in secular dealings, in 
eating social meals, in customary social intercourse, 
without respect of persons, or regard to social rela- 
tions, for their spiritual reformation, and to preserve 
the purity of the Church, and to cause all to fear sin. 
Matt, xviii; i Cor. v; 2 Thess. iii; that Chris- 
tians do not vote, hold office in civil government, sit 
in judgment to pass civil or criminal sentence, do not 
litigate, do not have "ownership in chartered corpora- 
tions, do not use deadly weapons in war or self-de- 
fense to destroy the tares, Matthew xiii ; do not in- 



dulge in worldly pastimes and frivolous plays, in 
dancing and foolish conversation, Ephesians v; do 
not make vain display in raiment, but clothe with 
modest apparel, i Timothy ii ; are exemplary in their 
deportment to fill the high station assigned them of 
being chosen out of the world, and being the light of 
the world they display in walk and conversation the 
virtues of grace. 

Ordinances. They are regarded as testimonies, 
not saving means. Circumcision commanded to 
Abraham was a token of the covenant God had made 
with him, and was typical of regeneration. Rom. ii. 
The baptism of John in Jordan was a testimony to 
repentance, foreshadowing a state in which "all flesh 
should see the salvation of God," under the higher 
administration of Christ, who was to save his peo- 
ple from their sins. It was an act of righteousness, 
because an act of obedience, as all obedience is right- 
eousness, though our works of obedience do not save 
us, they are only a fruit of having been saved. It is 
the entire consecration and submission of all our will 
power to the Divine will that gives God power in us 
to save us, and to bring us under His control. This 
power the Savior promised to His disciples, to be 
given only after his ascension to the Father. Luke 
xxiv, 49. 

The baptism commanded in the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, expresses 
a full union with the Godhead, indicating our adop- 
tion as full heirs, by faith, annulling the baptism of 
repentance. Acts xix. 

Baptism is associated with faith in the Scripture 
examples, as an expression of faith, the saving virtue 
being ascribed to faith. By faith the malefactor on 
I the cross had the promise of Paradise without bap- 
tism. He had no opportunity after he had repented 
and confessed faith, to be baptized, or to confirm his 
faith by works; the promise rested on his sincere 
confession and appeal. Baptism has not more virtue 
to save us than obedience to any other command- 
ment, yet, believers, when they have opportunity, will 
observe baptism and every other commandment, as 
a fruit of faith, for by works faith is made perfect. 
James ii. 

Not having merit to save, we understand why 
baptism is treated indifferently as to form. "The true 
worshippers worship the Father in spirit and in 
truth," not seeking merit in forms, regarding the 
outward ordinances as symbolizing inward condi- 
tions, understanding that no particularity in forms is 
urged in Gospel teaching, lest we might become re- 
ligious formalists, instead of spiritual worshippers. 
Spiritual worship involves the whole life given in 
service to God. 

The breaking of the bread and the drinking of 
the cup is commanded as a commemorative ordi- 
nance bringing to mind the sacrificial offering on 
the cross, impressing solemn obligation to divine 
love, inspiring the heirs of redemption with a will- 

ing obedience to all Gospel teachings, leading us 
near to God in contemplating his mercy to a fallen 
world. The manner, time and frequency of observ- 
ing it being not particularized is likely to direct more 
attention to its spirituality. 

The washing of feet is indicative of the divine 
cleansing, and of the mutual aid members of the 
Church extend to one another by blameless example, 
kind admonition, brotherly reproof, and every serv- 
ice of humility and love. It portrays the fellowship 
and unity in the household of faith, confirmatory of 
the doctrine of oneness prominent in the Gospel mes- 
sage, leading in its observance to contemplation. 

The kiss of charity is understood to be a social 
salutation in acknowledgment of the fervent love 
believers bear to one another, and is practiced when 
they meet, by each sex separately to denote peace. 

Principles. While they strive diligently to 
conform, in their outward life, to all New Testament 
teachings, they seek no salvation in anything out- 
ward, believing the unction of the Spirit will prompt 
all outward actions, as an indwelling presence. 

They recognize God in things temporal as well as 
in things spiritual, that God in the Old Testament 
age prescribed worldly government, and used world- 
ly rulers as his agents to accomplish his purposes. 
It was said unto Pharoah that God raised him up to 
show his power in him, though he destroyed him. 
God established civil statutes by Moses, which he 
refutes by Christ, in saying, "Ye have heard that it 
hath been said. An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a 
tooth. But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil." 
Matthew v. The fact that Paul says, "the pow- 
ers that be are ordained of God," as applying to 
worldly government, signifies that they are compre- 
hended in his infinite plan. Every good tendency in 
mankind emanates from God, and works human 
amelioration and beneficent ends. It is an active 
principle in worldly affairs, formulating government 
for the good of mankind. Governments are good or 
bad in proportion as this influence prevails. 

They regard regeneration as the higher and full- 
er influence of the spirit of God wrought by Christ's 
coming formulating the kingdom or conditions in 
which the mind and spirit of Christ hold sway, evinc- 
ing its practical effects in the visible Church by 
"transforming every faithful member to the image of 
God's Son." To be loyal to their Head, the believ- 
ers in Christ cannot take part in the kingdom "out of 
which he has chosen them," nor obey worldly rulers, 
in demands conflicting with "the law of the spirit of 
life in Christ Jesus." They will rather suffer "as 
lambs to the slaughter." To give tribute, honor and 
fear is commanded, yet the authors of this teaching 
proved by their example that they meant as far as 
the Divine law allows, for they continued preaching 
against the prohibition of the authorities, and suffer- 
ing for it. 

Understanding the Scriptures to teach a respon- 



sibility resting on every member of the Church to re- 
prove sin known to them, they cannot commune with 
disorderly members, but must as a spiritual duty la- 
bor for their reformation, and see "that the wicked 
are put away" from the Church, when amendment 
-does not follow. 

Separation from discordant worshippers, they be- 
lieve, is based on the principle that fundamentally 
mankind are created to be in social accord ; that the 
disturbance of this law through sin is overcome by 
the Redeemer who came to destroy the works of the 
Devil to restore the love of God through the Holy 
Ghost, giving ascendancy to the fundamental life in 
us, that "love may knit together our hearts." This 
principle pervades the teaching of our Savior and 
the Apostles, in their earnest advocacy of oneness, 
and in their condemnation of disunity. Agreeing 
with their doctrine, we must reprove divisions, ana 
Jive in unity as taught by our Savior, "by this shall 
all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love 
one to another." The observances taught the church 
demand unity of action. 

They believe, therefore, in one United Christian 
Church, in fulfillment of Scripture injunctions and 
types. The idea of outward ordinances suggests 
agreement, the appeal "to the church" in disposi- 
tion, forbids division, Matthew xviii ; " by this shall 
all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love 
one to another" teaches the unbroken tie to all ob- 
servers, John xiii; the prayer, "that they may be 
made perfect in one ; and that the world may know 
that thou hast sent me," is significant of vmity, John 
xvii; the condemnation of divisions points to the 
same truth flowing from divine love. Christ uses the 
natural vine as a type of Christian system and unity 
bearing uniformity of fruit, demonstrating that 
when one branch ceases to receive the life of the vine, 
it is like a soul ceasing to abide in Christ, the spirit- 
ual character withering and the carnal life springing 
into fruitfulness, dooming the soul to death, which 
is "the wages of sin," John xv. The temple built 
by Solomon at Jerusalem is used as a type of the 
Church, "ye also, as lively stones are built up a spir- 
itual house," I Peter ii. The natural body is used as 
an illustration. For as the body is one and hath 
many members and all the members of that one body, 
being many, are one body ; so is Christ. One mem- 
ber does not say to another, I have no need of thee. 
God hath tempered the body together, having given 
more abundant honor to that part which lacked. 
That there should be no schism in the body ; but that 
the members should have the same care one for an- 
other. But speaking the truth in love may grow up 
into him in all things which is the Head, even Christ. 
From whom the whole body fitly joined together and 
■compacted by that which every joint supplieth, ac- 
cording to the effectual working in the measure of 
•every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edi- 
fying of itself in love, i Corinthian xii ; Ephe- 

sians iv. The figures here drawn accord with Gos- 
pel teaching throughout, being confirmatory of the 
effect of God's love working harmony among the 
redeemed, displaying the impulse of the Creative 
Mind transforming the passive creature into the 
"likeness of God" who is blessed forever. Amen. 

A. J. STEINMAN, Esq., member of the Lan- 
caster Bar and prominent in his ownership and con- 
trol of the Penn Iron Works, as well as in the news- 
paper world, being senior publisher and editor of the 
Intelligencer, comes from one of the oldest and most 
honored families in the State. 

Christian Frederick Steinman (1.711-1760), a na- 
tive of Dresden, Saxony, married Anna Regina Ro- 
sin (1717-1783). Their eldest son, George Michael, 
born at Erfurt, in 1738, sailed with Moravian Col- 
onists from Zist for St. Petersburg in 1767, and the 
next year was one of the zealous band who founded 
Sarepta, in Astrakhan, where he settled and married 
in 1793. The parents embarked for Pennsylvania as 
a' fruitful field for missionary labor, and settled at 
Bethlehem, where another son, John Frederick 
(1752-1823), was born. 

The Moravian Church records at Lititz, Lancas- 
ter Co., Pa., report that Christian Frederick Stein- 
man arrived with his family at that new ecclesiastical 
establishment in November, 1756, and that he had 
been appointed to oversee and take care of the work- 
men who were to build the saw and grist mill near 
the town, on the stream issuing from the great Lititz 
Spring. After a large part of this work was done, 
the Church authorities changed the site of the mill 
to a spot quite a mile below the village, whither 
"Brother and Sister Steinman removed in April, 
1757, taking up their abode in a house bought by the 
brethren." They returned to Bethlehem in 1758, but 
in October of the next year returned to Lititz as per- 
manent residents, where he died, being the first mar- 
ried man who had died in the new settlement, and 
the fifth person buried in the Moravian cemtery, his 
grave being numbered "5," and the seventh from the 
main entrance walk in the second row from the 
south end of the grave-yard, in its southwestern corr 
ner. His widow removed with her son, John Fred- 
erick, to Lancaster, there married John Christopher 
Heyne, and died without children born of her sec- 
ond marriage. 

John Christopher Heyne established a tin and 
copper-ware business in Lancaster in 1764, on the 
present site of the Steinman Co.'s hardware store,. 
which John Frederick Steinman continued to carry 
on after the death of John Christopher Heyne, in 
1 78 1 — a business which in his hands and in those 
of his descendants, has expanded into one of the 
larsrest and most opulent hardware houses in the 
country. John Frederick Steinman was burgess of 
Lancaster in 1800, and elected chief burgess in 1801. 
He married, in 1777, Sybilla Margaretha Mayer 



<| 1753-1831), eldest daughter of George Ludwig and 
Maria Barbara (Diemer) Mayer, of Lancaster. 
<jeorge Ludwig Mayer (1727- 1793), a native of 
Ulm, came to America in 1752; his wife, a native of 
the same place, died in Lancaster in 1777, and was 
buried in Trinity churchyard, her husband being 
buried there, and noted on the church records as an 
■old member thereof. The children of this union are : 
George Michael Steinman (1779-1799), who went 
to Cape Francois, San Domingo, with his uncles, 
Jacob and John Mayer, the former United States 
consul there, and with the latter largely associated in 
commercial enterprises, and there died of yellow 
fever; Anna Maria (1780-1844), wife of George 
Bryan, clerk of the State Senate and auditor general ; 
^Rebecca Regina (1782- 1845), who married Daniel 
Dinkle, and died at Carlisle, Pa. ; Susanna Julianna 
(1785-1817), wife of Joseph Cottrell, a hardware 
inerchant of Columbia and Lancaster ; Sybilla Ame- 
lia (1786-1839), wife of John Christian Ernst, a 
farmer and merchant, of Easton, Pa. ; John Fred- 
«rick, born at Lancaster, Pa., Dec. 19, 1789, who died 
Oct. 5, 1884; and Eva Henrietta Steinman (1791- 
1842), wife of Richard Treat Leech, a farmer and 
merchant, of Pittsburg. 

Of these, the only son, John Frederick Steinman, 
succeeded, on attaining his majority, to his father's 
mercantile business in Lancaster City, which he de- 
veloped into large proportions, and conducted with 
^reat success until his retirement from the business, 
in 1849, when he transferred it to his eldest son, 
■George M. Steinman, who had been his partner since 
1836. He was a non-commissioned officer of a vol- 
unteer company in the war of 1812, and marched to 
Elkton. He was first president of the Conestoga 
Steam Cotton-Mill Co., organized by citizens of Lan- 
caster; active in the City Councils for many years, 
and a member of the first Select Council of the city ; 
-chief organizer of the school system of the city, and 
a director of the school board for a number of years, 
•over which he was the first to preside ; took an ac- 
tive part in building the first reservoir, a:nd while 
he took a deep interest in the prosperity of his own, 
the Moravian Church, he was liberal in his opinions 
•of other religious demonstrations. His public spirit 
led him to assist in all worthy local enterprises. His 
first wife, Maria Gill, of Lancaster, whom he mar- 
ried Sept. 5, 181 1, died Nov. 25, 18 18, having borne 
Tiim one son and three daughters, Henrietta Dickert, 
born March i, 1813, became the wife of George 
H. Bomberger, of Lancaster ; George Michael, born 
July II, 1815; Margaretta Rosina, born 1817, and 
died the same year; and Mary Gill Steinman, born 
Oct. 14, 1818, wife of Elam D. Hurst, of Lancas- 
ter. By his second marriage in 1824, to Mary Smith 
(1794-1851), daughter of Charles Fahnestock, of 
Warren, Chester Co., Pa., he had the following chil- 
dren : Susan Smith, Margaretta Sybilla, Charles 
Fahnestock, Rebecca (wife of Jonathan M. Foltz, 

Surgeon General United States Navy), John Freder- 
ick, Amelia and Andrew Jackson. 

Andrew Jackson Steinman, Esq., who is now 
senior editor and publisher of the Intelligencer, the 
oldest newspaper now published in Lancaster (hav- 
ing passed its io8th birthday on March 9, 1902), 
has been associate or chief editor of that stanch Dem- 
ocratic journal since 1868. He was born in the city 
of Lancaster, Oct. -lo, 1836, and graduated from 
Yale in 1856, and was admitted to the Bar in 1859. 
He graduated in the same class with Chauncey M. 
Depew, Justices Brewer and Brown of the United 
States Supreme Court, Chief Justice Magrader, of 
the Illinois Supreme Court, General Swayne, and 
others of scarcely less note, and his meeting with 
all these distinguished men in the Autumn of 1901, 
at the re-union of their Class during the bi-centen- 
nial anniversary of Yale College, was quite a mem- 
orable event to him. The November-December 
( 1901 ) double issue of The Rostrum, under the cap- 
tion, "Local Men of National Fame," has this to 
say of Mr. Steinman: "He drifted into the Intelli- 
gencer rather unexpected to himself in 1868, be- 
cause there was some change then about to take 
place in its management, and he being chairman 
of the Democratic County Committee at the time, 
and his party feeling the importance of maintaining 
a daily organ, practically requested him to take 
charge of the ship. He accordingly did take charge, 
and that he has successfully piloted it through 
all the storms which battered it in an overwhelm- 
ingly Republican county is evidenced by its large 
circulation, newsy columns and general flour- 
ishing condition. Mr. Steinman is a Democrat of 
Democrats, his paper always being 'regular' in every 
emergency from presidential candidate down to 
ward constable, swallowing both Greeley in 1872 
and Bryan in 1896; though the natural independ- 
ence of his mind is always compelling him to give 
reasons rather original and slightly different from 
those ordinarily given by politicians for sticking to 
their party. In his strictures upon local events 
he is biting and sarcastic, cutting and slashing in 
all directions without the slightest regard as to 
where the chips fly, and in this connection, we 
must allude to an experience he had in 1880, while 
the Hon. W. U. Hensel was connected with him in 
publishing the Intelligencer, which has happened 
possibly to no other journalist in this country: we 
allude to what is still remembered distinctly as the 
famous attempt to disbar both gentlemen (as they 
were both members of the Bar) for the publishing 
of an editorial which reflected upon the integrity 
of the Court. The paragraph at which the Court 
took umbrage was on the disposition, by the Court, 
of an alleged violation of the election laws by a 
Republican, and was as follows : 'Logically, the last 
acquittal like the first was secured by a prostitution 
of the machinery of justice to serve the exigencies 



of the Republican party. But as all the parties im- 
plicated, as well as the Judges, belong to that party, 
the Court is unanimous — for once — that it need take 
no cognizance of the imposition practiced upon it 
and the disgrace attaching to it.' The late Judge 
Patterson, who was the trial judge, summoned 
both Messrs. Steinman and Hensel before him 
and asked them both, separately, if they were 
the author of the article, and' both gentlemen 
acknowledged responsibility for it in their editorial 
capacity, whereupon the Judge ordered rules to be 
served upon them to answer for contempt of court, 
and to show cause why they should not be dis- 
barred and their names stricken from the list of 
attorneys. The case immediately attracted wide- 
spread attention in this country, and was even 
noticed in England, The case was argued before 
the Court, Rufus E. Shipley, of Philadelphia, rep- 
resenting the respondents and Samuel H. Reynolds, 
the rule. The opinion was delivered on the next 
regular opinion day, both Judges concurring that 
the rule for contempt should be discharged, and 
that the rule for disbarment should be made absolute. 
The case was appealed to the Supreme Court, where 
Mr. Shipley was reinforced by Colonel A. K. Mc- 
Clure and Francis E. Gowen, and Mr. Reynolds 
by John B. McPherson and Henry W. Palmer. The 
case was most exhaustively argued on both sides. 
The opinion of the Court was finally delivered by 
Chief Justice Sharswood, in which the rule was 
discharged, holding, in substance, that the conduct 
of a Judge was as proper a subject for criticism by 
the press as the conduct of any other public official, 
and the fact that the comments were made by prac- 
ticing attorneys in the Court in their editorial ca- 
pacity, in no wise altered the case, closing his opin- 
ion in the following language: 'To say that an at- 
torney can only act or speak on this subject under lia- 
bility to be called to an account, and to be deprived 
of his profession and livelihood by the very Judge 
or Judges whom he may consider, it his duty to 
attack and expose, is a proposition too monstrous 
to be entertained for a moment under our present 
system.' Thus were Messrs. Steinman and Hensel 
gloriously sustained and an important question for- 
ever settled before the Court of last resort in Penn- 
sylvania. In addition to lawyer and editor, Mr. 
Steinman is one of the leading business men of the 
city. He became interested in the Penn Iron Works 
in 1879. They employ hundreds of men, and pay 
more money annually for labor at their office than 
is paid at any other place in the city. Mr. Stein- 
man has never held office and has never been a 
candidate for any, holding to the idea that an editor 
can wield a more independent pen out of office than 
in it." 

Mr. Steinman married Miss Caroline Morgan 
Hale, of Reading, Pa., niece of the Hon. Gideon 
Welles, who was the distinguished Secretary of the 

Navy under Lincoln. Four children were born o£ 
this union: Miss Elizabeth, attending the noted, 
school at Farmingto'n, Conn. ; Jack and Hale, both 
of whom attend the Yeates School; and Caroline, 
Mr. Steinman takes a prominent part in the 
Cliosophic Society, composed of Lancaster's leading 
literary men and women, and he is as ready in 
debate as he is at wielding the pen. So trenchant is 
the latter, that tlie editorials of the Intelligencer 
attract attention wherever independence of thought 
and grace of diction are appreciated; and, whether 
as a lawyer, journalist, literary authority or business 
man, you will always find him in the front rank. 

THE GRUBB FAMILY was first represented 
in America by John Grubb. There is still in exist- 
ence a letter written to his uncle by King Charles I, 
in November, 1642, with the Royal signature and 
the Royal seal appended, asking the loan of £200 in 
money or plate, "to aid the King in defending the 
realm and the church against his enemies." This 
letter was addressed to "our truly and well beloved 
John Grubb, Esq." Lord John Grubb's family are 
interred in the old manor churchyard on his estate 
in England, and on it were many memorial tablets 
bearing epitaphs in Latin and having the family 
arms and crests. This family is descended from 
people who distinguished themselves as early as the 
tenth century. 

John Grubb, the first of the family on these 
shores, was a son of John and Helen Grubb. At the 
age of twenty-five years he came to America to 
mend his fortunes, which had been much impaired 
by the support he gave to the Royal cause. Sailing 
from London in the ship "Kent," in 1677, he arrived 
at Burlington, West Jersey, after a lengthy voyage, 
and received 340 acres of land on Chester creek. As 
early as 1682 Grubb'.s landing. Brandy wine Hun- 
dred, Del, was known to fame, and here Emanuel 
Grubb, the eldest son of John, was born July 19,. 
1682. John Grubb became the possessor of a tract 
of land 600 acres in extent, was made one of the 
Colonial justices in 1693, and was twice elected tc^ 
the Colonial Assembly. The historian says of him,. 
"He came from that stock of men second to none on 
the face of the earth — the English country gentle- 
men." At Grubb's Landing he erected a tannery,, 
and was the first manufacturer of leather in Penn's 
province. -In 1703 he left Grubb's Landing and lo- 
cated in Marcus Hook, Pa., where he presently in- 
vested heavily in land. He died there in March, 
1708. He was an extensive land owner in both 
Pennsylvania and Delaware. Like his ancestors, he 
was a devout supporter of the Established Church 
of England. Frances Vane, his wife, belonged to an 
old English family, and they had a family of nine 
children: Emanuel, John, Joseph, Henry, Samuel, 
Nathaniel, Peter, Charity and Phoebe. Of these, 

Peter Grubb was the ancestor of the family of 
Clement B. Grubb, of Lancaster. His special dis-- 






tinction is his discovery of the vast beds of iron ore 
at Cornwall, Lebanon county, and his standing as a 
pioneer in Pennsylvania manufacturing interests. 
In 1734 he became the proprietor of the celebrated 
Cornwall ore hills, of almost pure magnetic ore. On 
this property he built the Hopewell Forge and the 
Cornwall Furnace, naming the latter after the En- 
glish mining county where his father was born. In 
this furnace, during the Revolutionary war, he cast 
cannon ammunitions for Washington, and, as a 
loyal adherent to the cause, accepted no remunera- 
tion. The Cornwall furnace, which is the oldest in 
the country, is still in operation. It was noted by 
Aurelius, in his history, as early as 1756. Peter 
Grubb became a member of the Society of Friends 
in 1732. He first married Martha, widow of James 
Wall, and daughter of Jeremiah and Mary Bates, 
of Gloucester, N. J. She died in 1740, and late the 
following year he married Hannah, widow of 
Thomas Marshall, and daughter of Benjamin and 
Ann Marshall. His second wife died in 1770. The 
children of Peter Grubb were Curtis and Peter (2). 

Peter Grubb (2) was born in Cornwall and died 
in 1786 at Hopewell Forge, now called Speedwell. 
Under the old English law of entailment two-thirds 
of the property of Peter Grubb ( i ) went to his son 
Curtis, the other son, Peter, receiving one-third. 
Disagreements between the brothers followed, and 
Peter bought Mount Hope, where, in 1784, he 
erected a furnace, which is still in existence, though 
unused for years. In 1771 Peter Grubb (2) was 
married to Mary Shippen Burd, a daughter of James 
and Sarah (Shippen) Burd, sister-in-law of Judge 
Jasper Yeates, of Lancaster, granddaughter of 
Judge Shippen, and niece of Peggy Shippen, who 
was the wife of Benedict Arnold. She died at 
Hopewell Forge Feb. 23, 1776. Their children 
were: Alan Burd Grubb, born at Hopewell Forge 
. Feb. 6, 1772 ; and Henry Bates Grubb, born at 
Hopewell Forge Feb. 6, 1774. Peter Grubb (2) 
served as colonel in the 8th Battalion during the 
Revolutionary war. 

Henry Bates Grubb was married at Pine Grove, 
Pa., June 18, 1805, to Ann Carson, daughter of John 
Carson, of Dauphin county. She died in October, 
1806, leaving one child, Henry Carson, . who was 
bom in 1806, and died in 1873. On Dec. i, 1808, 
Henry Bates Grubb was married to Harriet Amelia 
Buckley, daughter of Daniel and Sarah (Brooke) 
Buckley, the former of whom owned the "Compe- 
tence farm" and Brooke Forge, in Pequea. Children 
as follows came to this union: (i) Edward Burd 
Grubb, born Dec. 17, 1810, died at Burlington, N. J. 
He married Euphemia Parker, of Carlisle, and they 
had four children — Gen. E. Burd Grubb, minister to 
Spain under President Harrison; Henry Grubb; 
Charles Ross Grubb; and Euphemia, who is now 
Madame de M. de Cerkez, of Paris, France. (2) 
Clement B. Grubb is mentioned below. (3) Mary 
Shippen Grubb was married Sept. 2, 1845, to George 

Wellington Parker, and her daughter Mary mar- 
ried Hon. William Welsh, who was consul to Flor- 
ence under President Grant; his father, Hon. John 
Welsh, was minister to England. (4) Sarah Eliza- 
beth Grubb, born Nov. 19, 1818, died Nov. 27, 1884. 
She was married Feb. 16, 1846, to John G. Ogelvie,. 
and their daughter, Elizabeth, married Dr. Herbert 
Norris, of Philadelphia. (5) Alfred Bates Grubb 
was born Jan. 6, 1821, and died Feb. 2, 1885, He 
was married 'March 25, 1856, to Ellen Farnum, 
daughter of Henry Farnum, of Philadelphia, and to 
this union were bom Alfred Bates Grubb (2), who 
is a director of the Manheim National Bank ; Ellen ; 
Ann Newbold, .wife of George J. Chetwood ; Mary 
Elizabeth; and Rosalie, wife of Charles Grosholtz, 
of Philadelphia. Henry Bates Grubb, the father, 
died at Mount Hope March 9, 1823. 

Clement B. Grubb, second son of Henry Bates, 
was bom at Mount Hope Feb. 9, 1815, and died at 
his Lancaster residence Oct. 31, 1899. He was 
but eight years of age when his father died, at which 
time he was placed under the tutelage of Dr. William 
Augustus Muhlenburg, who later founded St. Luke's 
Hospital, New York City. Mr. Grubb's literary 
training was completed at Franklin Institute, Phila- 
delphia, and he was but seventeen years of age when 
he took up the threads of his father's business, run- 
ning the Mount Hope, Mount Vernon, Manada and 
Cadorus charcoal furnaces, besides two others — an 
anthracite furnace, St. Charles, in Columbia, which 
he built, and the Henry Clay furnace, at or near Co- 
lumbia, which he bought and rebuilt.' Mr. Grubb 
was sole owner of the Chestnut Hill ore bank, and 
one of the owners of the Cornwall ore bank, and for 
twenty years was president of the First National 
Bank of Lancaster. He was a very active business 
man throughout his long life, giving employment to 
thousands of men, and he had the rare faculty of 
being in perfect sympathy with all his employes, by 
whom he was admired and beloved to a degree en- 
joyed by few. His justness and liberality to those 
in his employ were among the most marked charac- 
teristics of his remarkable business career, and many 
there were who attributed their start in life and their 
subsequent success to his advice and assistance. He 
never lost an opportunity to do a favor for his men, 
but his benefactions, though numerous, were always 
unostentatious, like the man himself. His manners 
and habits were proverbially quiet, and he was the 
soul of kindness, and his disposition displayed itself 
in his intercourse with all his fellow men, whether in 
business or in social life. His gentleness was not 
the result only of good nature and training, but of 
the happy combination of these with a strong char- 
acter, well controlled and perfectly balanced. In spite 
of the many demands upon his time and attention he 
was never too busy to be obliging, and as a friend 
he was true to every obligation imposed by that 
sacred relationship. He was baptized into the Epis- 
copal Church by Bishop White, the first American 



bishop in Pennsylvania. Mr. Grubb was liberal in 
his support of church work and religious enterprises, 
and he served as a vestryman of St. James Church, 
Lancaster. In political sentiment he was a stanch 
Republican, and he was one of the first members of 
the Union League Club of Philadelphia. However, 
he was no office seeker, the attractions of domestic 
life appealing more strongly to him, and though he 
thoroughly enjoyed social life and the company of 
his numerous friends, he was happiest in the home 
circle. His death, which occurred Oct. 31, 1899, 
was widely and sincerely mourned. 

Clement B. Grubb was married, Feb. 27, 1841, 
to Mary Brooke, daughter of Charle.s Brooke, a dis- 
tinguished ironmaster, and they became the parents 
of the following named children: (i) Harriet B. 
Grubb is the widow of Stephen B. Irwin, of Phila- 
delphia. She has one son, John Hiester Irwin. (2) 
Charles Brooke Grubb, born Oct. 6, 1844, in Lan- 
caster, received a fine education, graduating from 
Princeton College. He has never married, and at 
present resides in the old family mansion in Lime 
street. Lancaster. He was a partner of his father in 
the iron business, succeeding on the latter's death to 
the different furnaces and his father's interests in 
the Cornwall ore bank and the Conestoga ore bank^ 
in the management of all of which he proved himself 
a competent business man and won high standing in 
commercial circles. At one time he was a vestry- 
man of St. James Church, and socially he is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity. His political support 
has been given to the Republicans. (3) Mary Lilly 
Srooke Grubb is the wife of Joseph Bond Beall, of 
New York, who owns several cotton plantations in 
the South. They have tliree children, Mary Lilly, 
Ethel Grubb (wife of Surgeon George Tucker 
Smith, of the United States navy) and Florence. 
(4) Ella Jane Grubb is the widow of Col. L. Heber 
Smith, who carried on a furnace at Joanna, Pa., 
where his family still reside. Six children were 
born to them, Clement Grubb, Heber L., Mary 
Grubb, Daisy Emily (wife of William S. Morris). 
Stanley MacDonald and William Howard. Col. 
Smith took a prominent part in the Civil war. (5) 
Daisy Elizabeth Brooke Grubb is the present owner 
of Mount Hope. Through the Shippens the family 
are related to Gen. McClellan, and also to Gen. John 
R. Brooke, who was prominent in the Spanish- 
American war. 

Mount Hope, the old home of the Grubb family, 
is an historic place, long noted in connection with 
the mines surrounding. The dwelling, which was 
built in 1800 by Henry Bates Grubb, is a spacious 
and inviting mansion, and the grounds, which com- 
prise some 3,000 acres, are beautiful and artistic. 
In 1848 Mrs. Henry B. Grubb erected a church on 
the property, and in 1900 elaborate additions were 
made, as stated on the chancel building comer-stone, 
"to the glory of God and the memory of Clement B. 
and Mary Brooke Grubb." 

JOHN WRIGHT, the founder of Wrights Ferry, 
now Columbia, Lancaster county, was a Quaker, 
who for many years in the last century had been a 
member of the Pennsylvania Assembly. He was 
born of Quaker parents in Lancashire, England, in 
1667, and came to Pennsylvania in '1714. He was 
elected to the Assembly from Lancaster county in 
1729, and held that .office until in 1748. He was 
one of the leading citizens of his day, and took an 
active part in securing the establishment of the 
new county of Lancaster in 1719. Samuel Wright, 
son of James, and grandson of the above mentioned 
John Wright, laid out the town of Columbia on 
its present site in 1787. The place was one of three 
sites proposed by Congress in 1790, as the place for 
the permanent capital of the United States. Colum- 
bia was incorporated by act of State Legislature in 

SLAYMAKER. Among the old and honored 
families of Lancaster county, there are a few which 
have become particularly conspicuous on account 
of their identification with the progress and develop- 
ment of their localities, and their peculiar fitness 
for the positions of trust and responsibility in which 
they have been placed by their fellow-citizens. Such 
in a marked degree is the case in the Slaymaker 

In its German orthography the name was 
spelled Schleurmacher, and was one held in high 
esteem in its native land. When Mathias Schleur- 
macher, or Slaymaker, left Germany to find wider 
opportunities in the New World, his immediate 
family in Strasburg, were people of position and 
eminence, one being a clergyman of repute, and 
another a diplomatist of celebrity, being at that 
time secretary of Legation from the German gov- 
ernment to the Court of St. James, afterward be-' 
coming Charge d'affairs to the same place. Ma- 
thias was also a man of judgment and foresight, 
and when he reached America in 1710, he made a 
wise selection of land in the State of Pennsylvania. 
His purchase was 1,000 acres from the London Co., 
and its location was in what was then known as the 
London Lands, then situated in Strasburg, now 
Paradise township. Building his log cabin near a 
beautiful spring of clear, pure water, he settled down 
to an agricultural life, clearing up his land as quick- 
ly as possible, the whole of it being at that time but 
a wilderness. Being a man of gigantic size, he 
compelled the respect and admiration of his savage 
neighbors, who were ever impressed by physical 
strength, while his honesty and kindness in dealing 
with the Indians won for him their respect and 
friendship, a matter of no little moment in that 
unsettled region. Mathias Slaymaker not only gave 
the name to Strasburg, but he liberally contributed 
to the county's improvement, cleared lands, made 



roads, built school houses and encouraged religious 
movements, filling out to the utmost our idea of a 
useful and noble life. He was permitted a long 
career, and the work he did laid the foundations 
upon which his family and fellow-citizens have since 
builded. His remains lie in the old cemetery of 
the Presbyterian Church, in Leacock township, 
where many of the family rest. The five sons of 
Mathias Slaymaker were : John, Lawrence, Ma- 
thias, Henry and Daniel ; while his daughters were : 
Margaret and Barbara. All record of Lawrence dis- 
appeared after he joined a band of pioneers and 
went to the West. Mathias purchased that por- 
tion of the original i,ooo acres which, in 1832, be- 
longed to his great-grandsons, John M. and Nathan 
E., the latter of whom was for many years the sec- 
retary and treasurer of the Lancaster County Mu- 
tual Insurance Co. John, son of Mathias the set- 
tler, was the father of the late Capt. John Slay- 
maker of Paradise township, and he became a sol- 
dier in Braddock's army at the age of twenty-two 
years, participating in the disastrous battle of Brad- 
dock's Field, later becoming a captain in the Rev- 
olutionary army. After the close of that war he 
returned to his home in Lancaster county, and 
ended his long term of public service as commis- 
sioner of this county, his death occurring in 1798, 
at the age of sixty-five years. 

Henry Slaymaker, the great-grandfather of our 
subject, was also a very prominent man in his State 
and county during and after the Revolutionary war. 
During its progress he was a conspicuous member 
of the Whig party, and was one of the first in his 
neighborhood to take his stand with the Colonies. 
Being a magistrate at this time, he administered 
the oath of allegiance to those patriots who es- 
poused the cause of the Republic, and he used 
prompt measures in suppressing efforts on the part 
of the Tories, and in punishing them for furnish- 
ing the British army with horses and provisions. 
When Mr. Slaymaker became the oldest justice in 
Lancaster county, succeeding Mr. Hubley, he was 
appointed principal judge of the county courts, and 
presided as such for one year. It was during this 
time that Judge Slaymaker had the site cleared for 
the erection of the old jail in Lancaster county, 
the same being the present site of the Fulton Opera 
House, and a number of other places of business. 
His efforts were ever directed toward public im- 
provement consonant with the wise administration of 
public money? His prominence in his county was 
recognized by his appointment as a delegate to the 
convention called for the formation of a constitution 
of the State of Pennsylvania, which met at Phila- 
delphia, July IS, 1776. His marriage was to Miss 
Richardson, and the three sons of the union were: 
Amos, Henry and Samuel. 

Amos Slaymaker, son of Henry, also gave his 
State distinguished and faithful service. He served 

during the Revolutionary war as an ensign in the 
company commanded by his uncle, Capt. John Slay- 
maker, and belonged also to an association formed 
for the suppression of the Tories, in the eastern end 
of the county, at the head of which was Col. James 
Mercer, afterward conspicuous in the State. Mr. 
Slaymaker built and operated a hotel until 1804, on 
the Lancaster and Philadelphia pike road. For 
many years he served as a magistrate; was county 
commissioner from 1806 to 1 810; and was a member 
of the State Senate from 1810 to 181 1 ; a member of 
Congress during 1814-15, and it was during this 
period that he became peculiarly useful to his gov- 
ernment. With a small number of other substan- 
tial and upright citizens, he lent his credit and 
endorsed notes which were placed in the George- 
town Bank, which enabled the Government to 
safely tide over its financial crisis at the time when 
it was necessary to raise funds for the speedy de- 
fense of New Orleans. Hs was public-spirited and 
liberal, and his recor^i is that of unsullied states- 

In association with his two brothers, Henry and 
Samuel, Amos Slaymaker was one of the promoters 
and proprietors of the great stage line which ran 
from Philadelphia through Lancaster, the accepted 
line of transportation at that time, whith was prior 
to the development of the great railroad system of 
later years. Amos Slaymaker died in 1835, at the 
age of eighty-five years, full of honors and esteemed 
far and wide for his high character. His family 
consisted of six sons and four daughters, and those 
of whom we have record are: Jasper; Henry 
died on the old farm; William died in Virginia; 
Amos died in Maytown, this county; Isabella mar- 
ried Evan Green; Mrs. Mott; Elizabeth married 
Barton Henderson; and Hannar married Samuel 

Jasper Slaymaker, the father of our subject, also 
became a distinguished citizen of Lancaster county. 
His early death at the age of thirty-nine years 
cut short a career which promised to attach higher 
honors to an already eminent family name. He was 
born in Salisbury township, and was afforded super- 
ior educational advantages. He was a student with 
James Buchanan, at Dickinson College, at Carlisle, 
and in the office of James Hopkins, Esq., at Lancas- 
ter. He was early in his career admitted to the 
Lancaster Bar, was the first prosecuting attorney 
of the mayor's court, and served with honor for two 
years, 1816 and 1817, and 1817 and 1818, in the 
State Legislature. He was well known through the 
county, and was regarded as one of its most prom- 
ising public men. His death occurred Aug. 27, 
1827, at the age of thirty-nine years. His mar- 
riage to Jane Evans resulted in the birth of these 
children : Amos, of this sketch ; Frances, who mar- 
ried Rev. Solomon McNair, a Presbyterian clergy- 
man, and died in 1876 ; Samuel, who married Char- 



lotte Tate, and was a prominent stock broker in Phil- 
adelphia, where he died in 1887; James B., who 
married a Miss Wilson, and is a nurseryman, far- 
mer and fruit grower in Delaware ; and Jasper, who 
married Sarah Elder, and is a retired merchant at 
Sunbury, Pa. The mother of our subject was born 
in Donegal township, in 1800, and died in 1885, at 
the age of eighty-five years. She was a daughter 
of Samuel and Frances (Lowery) Evans, of Done- 
gal township (more extended mention of the Evans 
family being found elsewhere). 

Amos Slaymaker, who for many years was one 
of the leading attorneys of Lancaster county, the 
eldest son of Jasper and Jane (Evans) Slaymaker, 
was born in the city of Lancaster, in June, 1819. 
Until her death he remained with his mother, except 
for a period when she resided with a daughter. His 
early education was obtained in the city schools, a 
study of the languages being pursued in Lancas- 
ter Academy, which was followed by a period of 
study in Delaware College in Newark. From there 
he entered the sophomore class in Dickinson Col- 
lege, at Carlisle, where three years were passed, 
and where he graduated with honors in 1838. 

Mr. Slaymaker naturally adopted the law as his 
profession and in its study became a pupil of Hon. 
John R. Montgomery, in Lancaster. His prepara- 
tion was such that in 1841, he was admitted to the 
Bar, and immediately entered upon a long and suc- 
cessful practice which was terminated by his re- 
tirement from its cares and triumphs, in 1885. In 
1867 he was made registrar in bankruptcy of this 
Congressional district, under the Bankrupt Law, 
discharging the duties of this office with an eye 
single to the public good. 

Although not connected by membership, Mr. 
Slaymaker is a constant attendant and a con- 
tributor to the Episcopal Church. As a man of 
means, leisure and high intellectual attainment, 
Mr. Slaymaker takes a prominent place in Lan- 
caster. While he is retired from all active busi- 
ness life, his interest continues in public afifairs, 
and he can usually be found in his costly library^ 
where he is surrounded with the best thought of 
the past, as well as the latest disquisitions and pol- 
ished literary efforts of the present. 

JOHN D. SKILES, president of the Fulton Na- 
tional Bank, and connected with many other enter- 
prises that have added greatly to the material de- 
velopment and prosperity of the city of Lancaster, 
enjoys the distinction of being perhaps the only man 
in this community who has been continuously in 
business for a period of half a century, the fiftieth 
anniversary of his advent into commercial circles 
having occurred in April, 1902. 

John D. Skiles was born April 29, 1829, in 
Leacock township, this county, where he passed his 
boyhood. At the age of ten years he entered the gen- 
eral store of Moses Eby, at Intercourse, where he 

clerked for three years. For the succeeding three 
years he was employed in John Wenger's store, in 
West Earl township, and in 1845 secured employ- 
ment with Michael Peiper, a grocer in Lancaster. 
At the end of five years he entered the dry-goods 
store of FonDer smith & Herr, where he continued 
for about two years, at the expiration of that time 
embarking in business for himself as a grocer at the 
corner of East King and Duke streets, and remain- 
ing there until 1858, when he bought the property 
owned by the Lancaster County Bank, corner of 
East King and Christian streets ; there he engaged in 
the grocery business until 1865. At that time he 
bought out a dry-goods business on East King 
street, and devoted his attention to that branch of 
trade until 1878, when he sold out and retired from 
that line. In 1861 he had invested in a leaf tobacco 
business with his brother-in-law, James B. Frey, 
under the firm name of Skiles & Frey, and he has 
been continuously in the leaf tobacco business since 
1861, handling immense quantities of tobacco, which 
is packed in the firm's warehouse located on North 
Duke street. 

On Dec. i, 1854, Mr. Skiles married Emily M. 
Frey, daughter of Jacob Frey, one of the early set- 
tlers, and formerly a merchant of Lancaster. The 
only child of this union, William P., died at the age 
of nineteen years. Mrs. Skiles entered into rest in 
January, 1897. Mr. Skiles married, a second time, 
his present wife having been Miss Rebecca M. 
Porter, of Newark, N. J. One son, John D. Skiles, 
Jr., was born of this union March 29, 1900 — ^his 
mother's joy and his father's pride. 

Mr. Skiles was one of the organizers of the Ful- 
ton National Bank and of the Lancaster Trust Com- 
pany. He was a director in the Fulton National 
Bank until the death of John R. Bitner, succeeding 
that gentleman as president of the bank on Sept. 6, 
1897; and he has been a director of the Lancaster ' 
Trust Company from its organization to the present 
time. Indeed, his influence has been felt in almost 
every notable public enterprise looking to the de- 
velopment and prosperity of the city, for an ordin- 
ary lifetime, and among his most conspicuous busi- 
ness interests may be mentioned his connection with 
the Pennsylvania Traction and Conestoga Traction 
Companies, as director; he is still connected with 
some of the suburban trolley lines, having been as- 
sociated with the trolley systems of Lancaster since 
1893. He is president of the board of managers of 
the Lancaster Cemetery Company; has been for 
thirty years (and is still) treasurer of the Mechanics' 
Building & Loan Association ; a member'of the board 
of trustees of Franklin and Marshall College ; a trus- 
tee of the Reformed Theological Seminary of the 
L'nited States, at Lancaster ; a director of the Y. M. 
C. A. ; and has many other business connections. He 
served ably for three years as prothonotary of the 
court, from 1885 to 1888. Socially he is a member 
of Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M., and of the Lodge of 
Perfection and the Commandery; and he was one 



of the organizers and directors of the Hamilton 
Club. Religiously he is a member of St. Paul's Re- 
formed Church, in which he has been a trustee for 
many years, and in the upbuilding of which church 
he has taken an active and substantial interest. So 
many have been his enterprises, so great his activity, 
so sound his judgment, so far-reaching the aims and 
purposes of his life, that it is difficult to determine 
in what particular path his influence for good has 
been most felt ; but it is a notable fact that, with all 
the varied interests he has had in hand, he has never 
for a moment lost sight of the leaf tobacco trade, in 
which he is still a prominent figure.' In banking 
circles, in the mercantile world, in the leaf tobacco 
trade, in the church, in the social circles, everywhere, 
the name of John D. Skiles stands for all that is en- 
terprising, progressive, liberal and honorable. 

WILLIAM HAYES GRIER, printer, editor 
and politician, was born in the village of McEwens- 
ville, Northumberland Co., Pa., in 1841. His grand- 
father. Rev. John Hayes Grier, was a native of 
Bucks county, and was born in 1788. He graduated 
at Dickinson College, Carlisle, in the same class with 
James Buchanan, who, in 1857, became the fifteenth 
president of the United States. Entering the min- 
istry, soon after his graduation, Mr. Grier was 
placed in charge of the Great Island and Jersey 
Shore Churches, in the West Branch Valley of the 
Susquehanna. This was in 1814, and he remained 
there until 1854, when he retired, after having been 
actively engaged in the ministry for fifty-six years. 
He died at his home in Jersey Shore, in February, 
1880, at the mature and mellow age of ninety-two 

Dr. John Hayes Grier, eldest son of the venera-i 
ble clergyman arid father of our subject, was born 
in Brandywine Manor, Chester Co., Pa., June 2, 
1813. After receiving a preparatory education he 
was graduated from Jefferson Medical College, 
and entered upon the practice of his profession in 
McEwensville in 1840. There he remained for fif- 
teen years, when, in 1855, he removed to Jersey. 
Shore, where he practiced until 1859. He then 
settled in Oriole, in the beautiful valley of Nippe- 
nose, where he passed the remainder of his life, fol- 
lowing his profession until his death, which oc-- 
curred Nov. 19, 1894, in his eighty-second year. 
He married Amanda M. Quiggle, who died Aug< 
I, 1897, in her eighty-first year. 

William Hayes Grier, the subject of this notice, 
is the eldest son of the Doctor. He received his 
primary education in the public schools, after which 
he entered the academy at McEwensville, and spent 
four years in that institution. On Oct. 20, 1856, 
he was apprenticed to learn the trade of a com-i 
positor in the office of the Jersey Shore Vidette, and 
remained there until 1858, when he accepted a 
position to teach school in Clinton county, for a 
term of four months, at a salary of $25 per month. 

Having finished his school in 1859, young Grier re- 
moved to Akron, Ohio, and entered the office of 
the Democrat, remaining there until 1861, when, 
owing to the impending war, he returned to Jersey 
Shore, and resumed work in the office of the 
Vidette, where he had learned his trade. There he 
remained until Fort Sumter was fired upon, when 
he enlisted April 18, 1861, becoming a private in 
the Jersey Shore Rifles, known as Company A, 
5th Pennsylvania Reserve Regiment. They were 
assigned to the Army of the Potomac, and passed 
through all the battles of that division from Dranes- 
ville to Cold Harbor, with the exception of Chancel- 
lorsville. On June 27, 1862, our subject was 
wounded in the leg at the battle of Gaines Mills, 
and was laid up for six weeks in a hospital at 
Washington. He rejoined his regiment in time to 
participate in the second battle of Bull Run. In 
March, 1863, he was promoted to first sergeant, 
and on June 4, 1864, was commissioned second 

On the expiration of his term of enlistment in 
1864, Lieut. Grier returned home and became fore- 
man of the printing department and associate editor 
of the Columbia Spy, remaining with that paper 
until October, 1866, when he was nominated by his 
party (Democratic) for the State Senate against 
his old Colonel, Joseph W. Fisher, but was de- 
feated because his party was in the minority. Soon 
after his political experience he founded the Colum- 
bia Herald, printing the first copy on a hand press. 
His enterprise proved successful, and he continued 
the publication of his paper until 1870, when he was 
appointed traveling agent for the Columbia Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company. After six months ex- 
perience in the insurance business he resigned, and 
until 1873 successfully conducted a job printing 
office in the city. That year he purchased the Her- 
ald, and was employed in its publication until Jan- 
uary, 1885, when he sold out. 

From early life Mr. Grier took an active part 
in politics, serving his party repeatedly in county 
conventions, and he was delegate to the national 
convention which nominated Samuel J. Tilden for 
president. He served as a member of the State com- 
mittee for several years, was on the county com- 
mittee, and was chairman of that body through the 
important campaign of 1874. Although his party 
was in the minority in Lancaster county, he did 
much to preserve its organization, and in 1878 again 
sacrificed himself for State Senator. Ever active 
and aggressive as a politician, WilliiStrHayes Grier 
was never discouraged over defeat. In 1883 he 
was a candidate for auditor general, when many 
distinguished men were brought forward, and on 
the second ballot he received the second highest 
vote. The first political office he held was that of 
assistant assessor of internal revenue, to which 
he was appointed in 1866 by President Johnson. 



Subsequently he was clerk of the Council for two 
years, was tax collector, and was appointed by Gen. 
William McCandless, who was secretary of inter- 
nal affairs in 1875, chief of the bureau of statistics- 
He has frequently served his fellow citizens in many 
local and minor offices, and in 1876 was elected 
school director in his district for a term of three 
years. In 1881 he was justice of the peace, and 
in 1883 was appointed superintendent of public 
printing at Harrisburg, by Gov. Pattison, to fill a 
vacancy. On the expiration of the term he was re- 
appointed for a full term, from July i, 1885, to July 
I, 1889, which he served. In 1887 he was tendered 
the office of chief of the Southern division of the 
Pension Bureau, Washington, but declined. On 
Gov. Pattison's re-election in 1890, he was re-ap- 
pointed superintendent of public printing, and he 
filled the office with credit, retiring in 1894. 

Col. Grier has been twice married. His first 
wife, Miss Mary E. White, whom he wedded in 
1865, died in 1884, leaving two daughters. In 1890 
he married (second) Miss Annie, daughter of Gen. 
William Patton, of Columbia. He is a Freemason, 
and has taken both the Blue Lodge and Royal Arch 
degrees. For a man of such political activity as 
Col. Grier, it was impossible after his long career as 
an editor and publisher, to do without an organ 
after the sale of the Herald, in 1885. Consequently 
but a short time elapsed until in December, 1889, 
he started the Independent, a weekly paper, which 
he is still publishing. 

CORNELIUS F. ROLAND, president of the 
New Holland National Bank, and a man of high 
standing and recognized worth at New Holland, was 
born at that point May 30, 1822, a son of Henry and 
Margaret ( Seeger) Roland. His father was born in 
Hinkletown, and his mother in New Holland, and 
the family was long and intimately associated with 
the best interests of Lancaster county. 

Henry Roland was a farmer, and the most of his 
earlier life was spent in New Holland. While still a 
young man he removed to Philadelphia to take a po- 
sition as a clerk in a general store, where he remained 
until the death of his father, when he returned home 
to care for the large estate left by his father. He 
died in January, 1847, at the age of sixty-seven. His 
widow long survived his loss, and died at the 
age of eighty-two. They were buried in the New 
Holland cemetery. Both belonged to the Lutheran 
Church, of which he was an officer for many years, 
and a most earnest and devoted worker. 

Henry ^jQjrjid and his wife were the parents 
of the following family: Catherine, who mar- 
ried Esaias Kinzer, of Leacock township, both de- 
ceased; Jonathan H., who married Elizabeth James, 
was a farmer, and died at the age of fifty-four ; Will- 
iam, a physician, who died in York, Pa., at the age of 
eighty-two ; John F., a graduate of West Point, who 
died in Charlestown Harbor, where he had command 

of a fort, at the age of thirty-six ; Henry A., a farm- 
er and miller, who died in 1901, at the age of eighty- 
two ; Cornelius F. ; Julia, the widow of Hon. Will- 
iam H. Heister, at one time the secretary of the 
Commonwealth, and representative from Berks 
county in the State Legislature. 

The paternal grandparents of Cornelius F. Ro- 
land were Jonathan and Catherine (Huber) Roland, 
farming people of prominence and wealth in Earl 

Cornelius F. Roland was married in New Hol- 
land Oct. 26, 1846, to Elizabeth Shirk, the ceremony 
being performed by Rev. Mr. Barnitz. Born to this 
union were the following children : Charles A., who 
died at the age of three years ; Horace, an attorney in 
Reading, married to Ellen Daly, by whom he has 
had four children; Henry S., unmarried and living 
at home ; Cornelia, who died unmarried at the age 
of thirty-five. Mrs. Roland was born in New Hol- 
land, and died in April, 1887, at the age of seventy 
years. Her remains rest in the New Holland ceme- 
tery. She was a daughter of Henry and Mary (Oil- 
ier) Shirk, both of Lancaster county. 

Mr. Roland was reared in New Holland, and 
when fourteen years of age attended the Lititz Acad- 
emy, and later the school at West Chester. In 1839 
he went to Philadelphia, where he clerked for a short 
time in a general store. Business was prostrated by 
a panic shortly after his arrival, and he came back to 
New Holland, to farm for several years. For three 
years he was engaged in a store, but gave up that 
work in 1871. In 1881 he organized the present 
bank, of which he is still the capable and energetic 
president, and which ranks very high, the stock be- 
ing now quoted at over 200 per cent. Mr. Roland 
is a large landed proprietor, owning a number of 
valuable farms. In religion he belongs to the Luth- 
eran Church, of which he is a liberal supporter and 
a hard-working member. 

JOHN KOHR, who has been bishop of the New 
(or Reformed) Mennonite Church since 1896, is a 
retired farmer, living in the Kohr homestead in 
Manheim township, one and a half miles northeast 
of the city of Lancaster, on the Fruitville pike. 

Bishop John Kohr, father of our subject, was the 
successor of John Herr, reformer of what is known 
as the Old Mennonite Church, or rather an adherent 
to the true principles of the founder, Menno Simon, 
early reformer of the Catholic Church. The church 
has no discipline save the plain indisputable word of 
Christ, the principle and character briefly described 
by Bishop Elias Hershey, under his naine in this 
work, which is well worth referring to. Bishop 
Kohr faithfully filled the office of Bishop for many 
years, and being well preserved in body and faculties 
to the close of his long life, was able to the end to 
serve diligently and profitably in his high calling 
m the church. His death occurred in the fall of 
1887, after a brief illness with pneumonia, when he 
was nearly eighty years of age. The vacancy was 



deeply felt, and in 1896 his son, John Kohr, was 
called by the church to be his successor. 

John Kohr was born in 1847, one mile from his 
present home. He accepted the faith in the fall of 
1868, and was admitted into the church by water 
baptism in the fall of 1869. Bearing evidence of 
his faithfulness and godly zeal, the church called 
him to the ministry to publicly declare the doctrines 
of Christ, in the fall of 1879. I" 1896, as before 
stated, he was called to the office of Bishop. Having 
retired from all the active duties of life, his time is 
now given for the most part to the church. Mr. 
Kohr occupies the home where his father lived to the 
close of his days. 

In the fall of 1876 Mr. Kohr was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Ida N. Weaver, daughter of Anna 
and Martin (Herr) Weaver, of Strasburg township, 
and this union has been blessed with two children, 
Enos and Mary. The daughter died in her first 
year. The son has erected on his father's farm 
property a number of greenhouses, which he man- 
ages successfully, being engaged in growing flowers, 
etc., principally for the cut-flower trade. Enos 
Kohr. accepted the faith of his ancestors at the age 
of twenty-one years. He was united in marriage to 
Miss Viola Godshak, of Montgomery Co., Pa., in 
the spring of 1903. 

John Kohr has one brother, Jacob, and four sis- 
ters, Annie, Hettie, Mary and Lizzie. 

rejoices in an ancestry that came to this country 
in 1737, and they date back a good deal more than 
that as members of the Reformed Church. The 
Gerhards are descendants of Paul Gerhardt, the 
great German poet, who lived two hundred and 
fifty years ago. The first Gerhardt (as the name 
was originally spelled) of this family of whom we 
have any record was Christian Gerhardt who was 
Burgomaster of Gruesenhaerichen, Germany, in 
1637. He had five children, of whom one was the 
poet Paul. The poet had one son, Paul Frederick, 
and his son was Christopher ; Christopher's son was 
William, and his son was Frederick, who was born 
March 26, 1714, in Langenselbold, a town in the 
Wittrau, Hesse-Cassel. Frederick's parents were 
members of the Reformed Church, and he was 
brought up in that faith — a faith that has been zeal- 
ously clung to by all the descendants to the present 
day. On Jan. 22, 1737, Frederick Gerhardt married 
Elizabeth Fischer, and soon after came to America, 
settling in Philadelphia, where a son, Peter, was 
born Oct. 28, 1737, and not long after, his wife died. 
Frederick then moved to the vicinity of Heidelberg, 
Berks county, where on Feb. 14, 1740, he married a 
widow whose maiden name was Barbara Reiger. 
From this union there were nine children, five sons 
and four daughters. One of these sons was Fred- 
erick, born Sept. 23, 1744, and his son Frederick 
was born in 1770. 

Rev. William T. Gerhard, Rev. D. W. Gerhard's 

father was born on Dec. 10, 1809, and died Aug. 
20, 1886, having been for many years one of the 
most prominent figures among the clergy of Lancas- 
ter. He married Miss Elizabeth Seibert, a daugh- 
ter of Jacob Seibert, a prominent farmer of Lebanon 
county. From this union eight children were born, 
five sons and three daughters, of whom three sons 
survive, as follows : Rev. Darius W., of Lancaster ; 
Dr. J. Z., of Harrisburg, where he spent twenty- 
one years as resident physician at the State Insane 
Asylum, but is now enjoying a large private prac- 
tice, in which he gives special attention to nervous 
troubles ; and Dr. M. U., of Lancaster, where he en- 
joys a fine practice. 

Rev. Darius William Gerhard, A. M., was born 
in Berks Co., Pa., March 21, 1838, was educated in 
the public schools of his native county, and pre- 
pared for college in the Allentown Seminary. Be- 
fore entering college, he taught school for two win- 
ters, and was graduated from Franklin and Marshall 
College in 1862, taking one of the class honors, the 
German oration. He graduated in July and entered 
the army in August, enlisting in the nine months' 
service in Co. E, 135th P. V. 1., and serving nine 
months and sixteen days, when he was honorably 
discharged. He then entered the Reformed Theo- 
logical Seminary at Mercersburg, from which he 
was graduated in 1866. He served the Reformed 
congregation at McConnellsburg for one and one- 
half years during his theological course, and was 
called there and ordained, remaining another year as 
an ordained minister. His next field of labor was 
New Holland but he served four congregations — 
New Holland, Zeltenreich, Vogansville and Salem 
(at Heller's), for twenty and one-half years, at the 
end of which time, he began confining his labors to 
Salem (at Heller's) and Willowstreet, which be- 
came part of his charge. This continued for six 
years, when Conestoga Center was added. In the 
spring of 1888, Willowstreet and Conestoga Center 
were made one charge, and from this time on, Rev. 
Gerhard was pastor of Salem only. Here he built 
up one of the largest congregations of any rural 
church in this section, his congregation having 
reached three hundred and fifty communicants in 
1900, while the Sunday school numbered fully two 
hundred. Under his earnest pastorate, the church 
was remodeled and enlarged in 1896, and with its 
Gothic windows, symmetrical tower and magnificent 
location, it is one of the most attractive church edi- 
fices in Lancaster county. Rev. Gerhard planted 
near the church a little sprig of Virginia juniper, 
taken from near the tomb of Washington at Mt. 
Vernon, and it is now six feet high, and another tree 
which he planted, a rnagnolia, towers above the 
church. This church (Salem) is the oldest Re- 
formed church in the Conestoga valley, the congre- 
gation having been organized in 1722. 

Besides all the pastoral labors of Rev. Gerhard 
he has done some literary work. Simply to be pastor 
of Salem . (Heller's) church for thirty-five years. 



driving through all kinds of weather in visitations 
among a large rural congregation, is a big work ; but 
this was only a small part of all that this devout and 
devoted pastor has done. For fifteen years past, he 
has published The Pastor's Helper, a well edited and 
interesting publication which the people to whom our 
subject has ministered, as well as many outside the 
Reformed Church, have learned anxiously to look 
for. No clergyman in Lancaster has been more gen- 
erous in assisting the reporters of the daily news- 
papers in reporting college commencement exercises 
and the proceedings of local Reformed gatherings 
generally; and, besides all this, he has been a fre- 
quent contributor to the church publications, not- 
ably The Reformed Messenger and The Guardian. 
He wrote and published a history of the New Hol- 
land Charge (four congregations) in 1877, in which 
he gave in his introduction a resume of the history of 
the Reformed Church in general; and the late Dr. 
Thomas G. Apple, in an article in the Reformed 
Quarterly Review, says this of the history: "We 
have not seen anywhere a more satisfactory account 
of the Reformed Church in so small a space. The 
facts are carefully gathered and well arranged; the 
style is good. It is well adapted to convey a cor- 
rect knowledge of the Reformed Church to those 
who may seek for light on this subject." These 
are precious words to Mr. Gerhard, coming from so 
learned a source. Mr. Gerhard also wrote and pub- 
lished a history of Lancaster Classis covering its en- 
tire history of fifty years. The New Era says "he 
lias admirably performed his task." 

Mr. Gerhard has been stated clerk of Lancaster 
classis of the Reformed Church without interrup- 
tion, since 1869; has been secretary of the Alumni 
Association of Franklin and Marshall College for 
twenty-three years, and was elected to his twenty- 
fourth term in the summer of 1902 ; has been dele- 
gate to Synod and the General Synod time and 
again, and was president of the district synod in 
1898; has been repeatedly secretary and press re- 
porter of the Lancaster Ministerial Association, de- 
clining these positions finally because of his in- 
creased pastoral and other duties ; and is class secre- 
tary of his college class, which was graduated in 
1862, and he published a history of the class at its 
twenty-fifth annual reunion, in 1887. Surely Mr. 
Gerhards stands an unchallenged champion in ac- 
tivity and hard work among the clergy of his age. 

Rev. Gerhard married Miss Mary C. Geise, of 
Reading, Pa., a daughter of Jacob Geise, a coal 
dealer and farmer. From this union there were five 
children born as follows : ( i) Paul Lambert, A. M., 
a graduate of Franklin and Marshall College, and of 
the Theological Seminary at Lancaster, Pa., is now 
a missionary teacher in Sendai, Japan, where he 
occupies the chair of English language and literat- 
ure. (2) Elizabeth R., a graduate of the Lancaster 
High School, was in 1900 assistant matron at Beth- 
any Orphan Home, but is now living at home. (3) 

Mary E., a graduate of the Lancaster High School 
and of the Woman's College, Frederick, Md., re- 
ceiving from the latter institution the degree of A. 
B., is the teacher of the Brick Hill school in East 
Drumore township, Lancaster county. (4) Martha 
E., a graduate of the Lancaster High school, and 
the Millersville Normal School, is a teacher in Tay- 
loria. Little Britain township. (5) William S. is 
a member of the class of 1903, in Franklin and 
Marshall College. These are descendants of a fam- 
ily that has been noted for its piety and devotion 
to the Reformed Church for generations, and who, 
like their father, are worthy descendants of a time- 
honore4 and respected family. 

JACOB BAUSMAN was born Oct. 18, 1812, 
in Lancaster township, Lancaster Co., Pa., and was 
the fourth in the family of John Bausman (Feb. 5, 
1780-N0V. 20, 1861) and Elizabeth Peters (Dec. 
i9> 1779-Dec. 18, 1851), who were married April 
4, 1805. His paternal ancestry is traced back to 
Philip Bausman, born in 1539, in Hockenheim, two 
miles from the city of Kreuznach, in Rhine-Prussia, 

The family in Germany were uniformly farmers 
and vine-dressers. John Bausman, the father, born 
Feb. 5, 1780, in Freilaubersheim, son of Johann 
Heinrich Bausman (Oct., 1746 — April, i793)and 
his wife, Barbara Bernhardt, came to America in 
1802, to become the heir of his uncle, Andreas Baus- 
man (Feb. 25, 1734— Sept. 15, 1814) and his wife, 
Elizabeth Weigel (Aug. 10, 1728 — Sept. 26, 1813), 
who were childless. Andreas left Germany in 1755, 
and settled near Lancaster, where others of his kin 
had lived for a number of years. He invested his 
money in real estate and amassed a large fortune. 
[See record of his will, proved Sept. 22, 1814, Reg- 
ister's Office, Lancaster, Will Book K, Vol. I, Page 
639, &c.] He lived and died on his lands between 
Lancaster and Millersville, which are still in the 
Bausman family. 

The first of the name to settle in Lancaster came 
in 1725, and after that the name occurs frequently 
in the early baptismal records of the First Reformed 
Church, as shown in Vols. IV and V of the Pennsyl- 
vania German Society. Members of the family held 
various positions of more or less importance. Will- 
iam Bausman (July i, 1724 — March 30, 1784) mar- 
ried to Elizabeth Hiester, a collateral ancestor, was 
chief burgess of Lancaster in 1774-1775, a member 
of the Committee of Safety, and master of the 
barracks during the Revolutionary war, in all of 
which positions he rendered conspicuous service. 
[See Pennsylvania Archives.] He built in 1762 the 
old stone residence at Nos. 121-123 East King street, 
Lancaster, which is still used as a dwelling house. 
His son William (June i, 1759 — April 25, 1833) 
was register and recorder of the county from i8og 
to 1818. 

Andreas Bausman, whose lands we have re- 




f erred to, bought 317 acres along what is now the 
turnpike to Millersville, for the equivalent of $680, 
from which a single acre has since been sold for 
nearly as much, and out of the products of a single 
acre of which nearly as much has been realized in 
one year as the total original investment. When he 
died, in 1814, he was probably the richest farmer in 
Lancaster county, and his nephew, John Bausman, 
became his executor and chief heir, and founder of 
the prominent family of his name; which, though 
having distinguished members in professional and 
mercantile circles, has been pre-eminent in the agri- 
cultural life of the county, and now holds under cul- 
tivation many hundreds of acres of land, almost ad- 
joining the city, in Manor and Lancaster townships, 
the richest and most populous section of this great 
county. As one rides out along the Millersville 
street railway or turnpike about half the distance, 
he sees a beautiful private residence, built on the 
right of the way. To the left is a commodious and 
comfortable one story and a half farm house, and 
near by a substantial stone spring house. These 
buildings illustrate right fitly the progress of the 
best type of the Lancaster county farmer. That 
spring house was built by Andreas Bausman in 1775, 
when, he made whiskey and shipped it to Pittsburg 
in casks — two of them strapped upon a horse's back. 
Upon this site he established the homestead, which 
bids fair to remain in the family for generations to 
come. Here came John, after he had reared his 
family and quit farming, and here his son Philip 
built the present mansion house, which is now owned 
and occupied by Philip's son, David. 

Nine children blessed the marriage of John Baus- 
man and Elizabeth Peters (who was the sister of 
the late Hon. Abraham Peters), eight sons and 
one daughter. The youngest son is Rev. Dr. Ben- 
jamin Bausman, the famous preacher of the Re- 
formed Church, editor, oriental traveler and author, 
of Reading, Pennsylvania. 

Jacob Bausman, the subject proper of this ar- 
ticle, died Feb. 11, 1894, in the eighty-second year 
of his age, but his portrait will still be recognized as 
that of one of the most conspicuous, influential and 
busy citizens of Lancaster in his day. Probably no 
man in the county was better known, and for half a 
century he was recognized as one of its most stable, 
firosperous and farsighted business men. His early 
education was received in the district school near 
his home. At the age of sixteen his father sent 
him to the famous boys' school of John Beck, at 
Lititz, from which vi^ent forth so many well equipped 
youths of that day. He remained two years under 
the instruction of Father Beck. Farmers' boys sev- 
enty-five years ago left school and went to work' a 
little earlier than, as a rule, they do now. So it 
happened that when young Bausman was about nine- 
teen he was put to the mill at Wabank, then one 
of the most extensive of the local manufactories. 
He did not confine himself strictly to the dull grind- 
ing of the millstones, but very soon displayed that 

aptitude for trade and shrewdness of business ven- 
ture which characterized his subsequent life. At that 
time probably no gristmill here did so large a busi- 
ness as the Wabank. It was owned by Jacob Huber, 
subsequently high sheriff of the county, and Mr. 
Bausman, about 1835, was conducting it for him on 
shares. That was the year of a wonderful wheat 
crop, which in the succeeding year was almost 
an utter failure in this county. As early as April, 
in 1836, it was to be seen that the fly had destroyed 
the crop, but before that Mr. Bausman had, on his 
own account, begun to buy up heavily of the grain 
then in store. Wheat commanded from $1.10 to 
$1.20 a bushel, and during the entire winter he con- 
tinued making large investments of this kind. About 
this time, too, there was a revival in the condition 
of navigation along the Conestoga. The old com- 
panies having failed, their rights, sold at sheriff's 
sale, were bought by the Colemans, who built new 
packets, which connected at Safe Harbor with the 
Tide Water canal. The latter had a dam at- Safe Har- 
bor to float boats across, and with seventeen miles 
of slack water navigation, seventy-one chains, with a 
fall of sixty-four feet, there was a valuable water- 
power at every locU, and times were brisk along 
our great local waterway. Arks loaded with flour, 
whiskey and other products of agricultural develop- 
ment were being loaded and floated off from every 
port, and trade and commerce flourished. Mr. Baus- 
man, as has been stated, bought largely of wheat. 
It advanced rapidly in price ; so did flour, in antici- 
pation of a light wheat crop ; and so rapid was the 
rise that on one occasion, when an arkload of 500 
barrels of flour was detained for a short time to 
remove the heads of the barrels, as they had become 
wet, to prevent damage to the entire contents, flour 
advanced $1 a barrel during the detention, and Mr. 
Bausman made $500 by the accident. During the 
year of the grain famine very little grain or flour 
was shipped away from the county. The entire 
product of Mr. Bausman's operations was needed 
for the local demand; flour brought $11 a barrel 
in Lancaster city. After seven years' experience in 
the Wabank Mill, young Bausman, accompanied by 
John Linter, concluded to try his fortunes in the 
West, then offering glittering inducements to ener- 
gy, enterprise and capital. The far West then was 
Ohio, and between Springfield and Dayton the Lan- 
caster county boys engaged in distilling and farm- 
ing. In the fall their fathers came out to view the 
situa.tion, and, not being entirely satisfied with it, 
induced the young men to return to Pennsylvania, 
which they did. , Jacob Huber failed in the mean- 
time. His assignee, Christopher Hager, exposed 
the Wabank mill property for sale and it was bought 
by Mr. Bausman and Col. William B. Fordney. 
When he engaged in business for himself Mr. Baus- 
man rapidly extended and enlarged his operations, 
and for fifteen years they were of a very extensive 
character. He became known all over eastern Penn- 
S3'lvania as a large dealer in grain, lumber, flour 



and cattle, and the sawmill connected with his grist- 
mill did a large business. During the year of "the 
Irish famine," in 1847, he dealt largely in corn, 
making frequent purchases or engagements to de- 
liver as much as 10,000 bushels at one transaction 
m the Philadelphia Corn Exchange. 

jVlr. Bausman sold his mill property to the Wa- 
bank Hotel Company, the story of whose venture 
(.0 establish a summer resort on the Conestoga is 
still remembered by our older citizens. From the 
Wabank Company the mill passed to the Oberholt- 
zers. Meantime Mr. Bausman, who was almost a 
daily visitor to Lancaster city, and was constantly 
associated with its active business and commercial 
concerns, engaged in many local enterprises, and 
ventured without stint or timidity into judicious 
speculations. He was one of the original and con- 
tinuous members of the Lancaster Gas Company, 
which had such a prosperous career. He was early 
in the direction of the cotton mills, and one of the 
joint owners of No. 3 until it was sold to John 
Farnum & Co. He was a part owner of the Beaver 
Street Cotton Mill, which was sold after the death 
. of Dr. John L. Atlee, one of its joint proprietors. 
He was one of the managers of the Lancaster Fire 
Insurance Company during its existence. One of 
his largest business interests, and what proved to be 
an ufifortunate venture, was his association with 
Thomas Baumgardner and B. F. Shenk in the En- 
terprise Coal Company, of the Shamokin region. 
But the greater part of Mr. Bausman's time and 
attention during the last twenty-five years of his 
life was devoted to the management of the affairs 
of the Farmers' National Bank. That institution 
has a history of nearly a century. It was established 
first on Jan. 10, 1810, with a capital of $300,000 
at that early day. Conrad Schwarz was its first 
president; George Graeff succeeded him in 1814, 
and the line of his successors embraces the names of 
William Jenkins, George Louis Mayer, George H. 
Krug and Christopher Hager. Mr. Bausman be- 
came a director of the institution in 1855, and in 
1868 was elected to the presidency, which position 
he filled and adorned until January, 1892, when by 
reason of his age he declined a re-election and was 
succeeded by his son, J. W. B. Bausman, Esq. Mr. 
Bausman owned a number of farms, and took an 
active interest in their management. He was one 
of the first stockholders of the Manor Turnpike 
Road Company, and served as a director until his 
death. He was identified with the Millersville State 
Normal School from the time of its institution, and 
for many years was trustee of Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, and the treasurer of its board for 
twenty-eight years. He was a prominent member of 
the First Reformed Church of Lancaster, and a liber- 
al contributor to every form of church benevolence. 

Mr. Bausman was not married in early life, and 
made his home at his father's residence until he was 
over forty years of age. On Jan. 31, 1854, he mar- 
ried Mary Baer, who died Feb. 11, 1862; the only 

child of their union is John W. B. Bausman, a well- 
known citizen of Lancaster, and a sketch of whose 
career follows this. Jacob Bausman after his mar- 
riage lived on his farm on the Columbia turnpike, 
about three miles west of Lancaster city, until 1883, 
when he and his son moved into the mansion at the 
corner of West Chestnut and Concord streets, Lan- 
caster, where his son still resides. Until the time of 
his death, in February, 1894, he was a familiar figure' 
on the streets of the city. Every day found him at 
the bank, which chiefly engaged his attention, and 
where he gave direction to business interests. He 
was widely known as a business man of sagacity, 
integrity and stability. He took great pride in his 
native county, in the ancestral vocation of his fam- 
ily, and in the wealth and high cultivation of the 
lands of the Manor on which his ancestors settled, 
and where their children remained among the first 
citizens of the community. He recalled with clear 
recollection the dififerent stages of his career and 
noted the development of our material interests. 

The miller of to-day has to watch more closely 
than in years gone by the fluctuations of the grain 
market ; the farmer no longer has a distillery on his 
premises, nor offers the bottle to every hand before 
every meal ; but, in the main, agricultural modes of 
to-day are not radically different from those of half 
a century ago in Lancaster county ; and in the his- 
tory of what makes for prosperity, stability and per- 
manency, no name shows to better advantage in local 
annals than that of Bausman. 

nent and influential citizen of Lancaster, was born 
March 12, 1855, in East Hempfield township, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., only child of Jacob Bausman (Oct. 
18, 1812 — Feb. II, 1894) and Mary Baer (May 25, 
1816 — Feb. II, 1862), who were married Jan. 31, 
1854. The record of his paternal ancestry is set 
forth in the preceding sketch of his father. His 
mother, Mary Baer, was a daughter of Henry Baer 
(Oct. 16, 1783 — Oct. 15, 1843) and Anna Hershey 
(Sept. 9, 1791 — April 15, 1861). Henry Baer was 
a son of Martin Baer (March 14, 1755 — Aug. 19, 
1838), who was married to his cousin, Elizabeth 
Baer (Aug. 25, 1765 — July 3, 1849). Martin Baer 
was a son of Benjamin Baer (Feb. 16, 1727 — Aug. 
10, 1799) and Maria Meylin (April 10, 1735 — July 
27, 1806), and Benjamin Baer was a son of Henry i 
Baer (died July 10, 1750) and Barbara, his wife, the \ 
great-great-great-grandfather, and original settler, 
who came from the Canton of Berne, Switzerland, 
to Lancaster county, Pa., in the early part of 1717. 
With a view to acquiring land he made application 
on the 27th of July, of that year, to William Penn's 
deputies for a warrant for 500 acres. [See Everts & / 
Peck's History of Lancaster County, page 866.]/ 
The warrant was issued May 4, 1718, and the land/ 
"surveyed and laid out" on the 30th of the same 
month. On June 20, following, a patent was granted 
by the Proprietaries of the Province [see Rolls Office 



Mr. Harris was reared in the political school of 
Jefferson, and was inclined from the attack upon 
Sumter, to frown upon the armed subjugation of 
the South, deeming it without the range of the 
Federal Constitution. The fearless utterance of his 
sentiments on this topic led, on Feb. 20, 1863, to his 
arrest by military authority, but he was discharged 
from custody by habeas corpus the following day. 
Mr. 'Harris wrote and published his Geographical 
Hand Book in 1862 — a useful book of reference for 
the student, teacher and general reader. During the 
same year, 1862, he wrote and published a pamphlet 
of eighty-six pages entitled "The Cause of the War 
Shown," an utterance of his sentiments which had 
largely led to his before mentioned arrest. Having 
written, in 1872 he published, his "Biographical 
History of Lancaster County," an octavo of 600 
pages, containing sketches of the early settlers and 
eminent men of the county. In 1876 he published 
his "Review of the Political Conflict in America," 
the same being a condemnation of the coercive prin- 
ciples of the banner of victory against the Southern 

Mr. Harris has been quite an investigator, es- 
pecially in the field of religious thought. Having 
•early freed himself from one of the most stubborn 
schools of protestant thought into a change of faith, 
he was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church 
Feb. 23, 1863. His articles, however, on Frederick 
Schleiermacher Origen, the ancient divine, and 
others that appeared in the Mercersburg Review in 
1873 and afterwards, evince a rationalistic change 
of thought to have taken place from that whfch he 
■first, upon investigation, adopted. 

Mr. Harris is quite a linguist, and has ever had 
great fondness for that kind of study. Besides be- 
ing fairly conversant with the classical languages 
of Greek and Latin, a large part of his library is 
made up of the writings of German and French 
authors, which languages he reads with ease. Out- 
side of his mother tongue he has devoted most time 
to the mastering of the German language, for a 
clearer understanding of the great writers and 
thinkers in all departments of science and phil- 
osophy, who have left their brightest and best 
couched only in the language of their native 

AMOS ELLMAKER. Lancaster county has 
produced few men of intellectual attainments so 
brilliant as those of Amos Ellmaker, lawyer, jurist 
and statesman. Fitted by mental endowment to fill 
the highest political stations in the land, admired by 
a wide constituency, courted by men of eminence 
and renown, he possessed that equable nature 
which was unmoved by the glitter of political prefer- 
ment, and though he filled many positions of im- 
portance and eminence he declined many others, pre- 
ferring the practice of his profession in Lancaster 

Mr. Ellmaker was a native of Lancaster county. 

born Feb. 2, 1787, son of Nathaniel Ellmaker. Giv- 
ing in his early youth abundant evidence of superior 
ability. Amos was afforded by his father the oppor- 
tunity of acquiring a liberal education. He was sent 
to Princeton College, there completing his classical 
education, and choosing the law as his profession he 
attended the then celebrated law school at Litchfield, 
Conn., conducted by Judge Reeves. Admitted to the 
Bar, Mr. Ellmaker began practice at Harrisburg, and 
he speedily established himself as one of the leading 
members of the Pennsylvania Bar. His professional 
life became one of great activity. He was an officer 
in the army that marched from Pennsylvania to the 
defense of Baltimore in the war of . 1812. He was 
appointed prosecuting attorney for Dauphin county, 
and from the same county was three times elected to 
the State House of Representatives. In 1814 he 
was elected to Congress, but declined to serve; for 
the same year he was appointed Presiding Judge for 
the district composed of Dauphin, Lebanon and 
Schuylkill counties. Resigning this judgeship later, 
he was appointed Attorney General of the Common- 
wealth, which office he also resigned, in 1821. 

Removing that year to Lancaster, Mr. Ellmaker 
there entered upon the practice of law, and met with 
extraordinary success. Completing a brilliant career 
as an advocate, he retired in affluence a number of 
years later. Judge Ellmaker was in 1832 a candidate 
of the anti-Masonic party for Vice President of the 
United States, and two years later he received next 
to James Buchanan the highest legislative vote for 
United States senator. Upon the accession of James 
Monroe to the Presidency Mr. Ellmaker was ten- 
dered, but declined, the cabinet appointment of Sec- 
retary of War, a position for which he was admirably 
qualified, and though urgently solicited by his many 
friends to accept he preferred the enjoyments of a 
quiet life. He was a natural leader of men and 
political thought,- and during the anti-Masonic and 
the Whig campaigns of his active life his political 
views and sentiments were widely sought. He com- 
manded a wide influence in professional and political 
'circles, and though deaf to many beckoning calls to 
honors and preferments he retained and' cherished 
to the last the affections and admiration of the peo- 
ple of Pennsylvania. 

Judge Ellmaker married, in 1816, Mary Rachel 
Elder, of Harrisburg, a member of a distinguished 
pioneer family of Pennsylvania, many representa- 
tives of which attained high political and profes- 
sional honor. She was a granddaughter of Rev. 
John Elder, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, .and 
for more than a half century pastor of the church 
at Paxton, Pa. Several of his sons were officers in 
the Revolutionary army. Judge Amos Ellmaker 
died Nov. 28, 185 1. His family consisted of six 
children, Franklin, Nathaniel, Catharine C, Eliza- 
beth E., Thomas and Levi. 

Thomas Ellmaker, M. D., a retired physician 
of Lancaster, and perhaps the oldest member of the 
medical profession in that city, is a son of Hon. 



Amos and Mary Rachel (Elder) Ellmaker. He was 
born in Lancaster county March 22, 1825, and in 
the schools of Lancaster city received his early edu- 
cation, subsequently attending St. Paul's Episcopal 
College, on Long Island. Attending lectures at Jef- 
ferson Medical College, he graduated from that in- 
stitution March 24, 1846, and at once began the 
practice of medicine at Landisville, this county. He 
continued successively in practice for a period of five 
years, and then removed to Lancaster, where, on 
West King street, he successfully conducted for 
twenty years a drug store. Dr. Ellmaker then re- 
tired from active life. He has since retained his 
residence at Lancaster, but has traveled considerably 
through the West. He is proficient in the French, 
Latin and Greek languages, and is well read in the 
sciences also. He is the owner of a large and well- 
selected library, which he keeps up to date by judici- 
ous purchase. He has been a member of the Lan- 
caster City and County Medical Society, of the 
State Medical Society, and of the American Medical 
Association. He served as president of the Lan- 
caster Medical Society, and as secretary for three 
years. In politics Dr. Ellmaker is a Republican. He 
is an attendant of and a liberal contributor to the 
Presbyterian Church, and among the social organiza- 
tions he is prominently affiliated with the Order of 
United American Mechanics. He also has promi- 
nent business and financial connections. 

Dr. Ellmaker has never had need to use glasses, 
and he is a remarkably well preserved man for his 
age. The city and county of Lancaster have no 
warmer friend than Dr. Ellmaker. He has been 
identified with many business interests,. and in any 
cause for public improvement his aid is ever ready. 

well-known member of the Lancaster County Bar, 
who has retired after an active practice of thirty- 
seven years, resides in one of the handsomest and 
most comfortable residences in Ephrata — a village 
which has become noted for its attractive residences 
and air of solid comfort. 

The Seltzer family is of German extraction. 
Three brothers came from Germany to America, 
one of them settling in Berks county. Pa., one in 
Lebanon county, and the third in Virginia. It was 
the settler in Berks county who founded the branch 
in which William Konigmacher Seltzer traces his 
direct ancestral line. For many years his respected 
grandfather, John Seltzer, was a leading farmer 
in the vicinity of Womelsdorf. 

Jacob Van Reed Seltzer, son of John, and the 
father of William K., was a wholesale merchant in 
Philadelphia for a number of years, remaining in 
business until his health failed. Returning to his 
old home in Berks county, after six years of retire- 
ment, he died there in 1853, ^t the early age of 
thirty-six years. He married Mary Konigmacher, 
daughter of the late William Konigmacher, the well- 

known farmer, tanner and stone contractor, who 
furnished all the fine stone for Franklin and Mar- 
shall College; St. Mary's Catholic Church of Lan- 
caster ; the courthouse ; the Lancaster county prison ; 
the store front of the building erected by the late 
John N. Lane, now owned by J. R. Foster; and 
many other of the city's most notable buildings. 
The stone was furnished from the famous quarries 
which are located near Durlach, this county, and 
which cannot be equalled in the State. 

The Konigmacher family has an old and honor- 
able record also, great-grandfather Dr. Jacob Konig- 
macher being an eminent physician of his time. 
Among the prized possessions in Mr. Seltzer's home 
is a veritable "great-grandfather's clock," which 
was once used by this ancestor, and which still 
serves its purpose, although its face has looked out 
upon the domestic life of its owners for fully 125 

Upon the death of Jacob Van Reed Seltzer his. 
widow removed to Ephrata, which was her old 
home, taking her nine-year-old son, William K., 
with her, and through all these years mother and 
son have been spared to one another, the tender af- 
fection between them realizing the highest maternal 
and filial love. Mrs. Seltzer is a woman of superior 
mind and attainments, mentally equipped and phy- 
sically as strong as many women who have not yet 
passed the half-century life mark. 

William Konigmacher Seltzer was born Aug. 8,. 
1844, at Womelsdorf, Pa., and was educated in the 
schools there and in Lancaster county. For a time 
he pursued higher branches at the State Normal 
School at Millersville, after which he taught school 
for several years, all the time, however, having his 
mind fixed on the study of the law. Finally, with 
this end in view, he went to New Haven, Conn., 
and there took a preparatory course, later entering 
the Yale Law School. Upon his return to Lancas- 
ter county he entered the law office of the revered 
Hon. Nathaniel Ellmaker, of the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the practice of his profession 
in September, 1865. Later he was admitted to the 
Supreme and Superior courts, and for a period 
of thirty-seven years engaged in successful practice. 
For twenty-five years, as justice of the peace, Mr, 
Seltzer administered impartial justice. Although a 
lifelong Republican, and active in the work of the 
party, he received his first appointment to this posi- 
tion from a Democratic governor, Pattison. Mr. 
Seltzer resigned the office some four years ago. 
For a number of years he was also a notary public, 
and as such attended to a great deal of business. 
As stated above, Mr. Seltzer is a lifelong Republi- 
can, and it can also be said 'that his Republicanism 
is such that where he stands politically is not ques- 
tioned. He has served as delegate to county. State 
and National conventions, and was one of the fam-. 
ous 306 who, in the Republican National Convention 



of 1880, believed so strongly in the wisdom of Gen. 
Grant's serving a third term as President that they 
went down to defeat with their colors nailed to the 

Mr. Seltzer's interest in educational matters has 
made him a particularly useful member of the school 
board, on which he has served for five years, and 
he is serving his second year as its efficient presi- 
dent. Although he is a most effective speaker, 
arid a most desirable candidate for almost any office 
in the eyes of his friends, he has steadily declined 
political preferment, private life being more to 
his taste. Since June, 1866, he has been president 
of the Northern Mutual Fire Insurance Company of 
Lancaster county, which manages about $18,000,- 
000 of local insurance. 

In his early manhood Mr. Seltzer was sworn in 
as a militiaman and served during the Civil war, 
for one year as a member of Battery I, Pa. Light 
Artillery, under Capt. Nevin. In this connection, 
as in other relations of life, he gave faithful and 
satisfactory service. For nearly twenty years he has 
been a vestryman in the Lutheran Church, and for 
a considerable period was superintendent of the 
Sunday-school. Fraternally he is a Thirty-second 
degree Mason, a member of the Consistory and all 
the bodies leading up to that honorable body. 

In 1869 William K. Seltzer married Miss Emma 
Keller, daughter of Jacob B. Keller, a retired mer- 
chant of Ephrata, who had also been a prominent 
miller and farmer in his day. Six children were 
born to this union, five of whom are still living: 
Henry Kent, who graduated from Lehigh Univers- 
ity, class of 1895, is now following a successful 
career as a civil engineer in Kansas City, being 
connected with the responsible firm of Waddell & 
Hedrick, consulting engineers, the senior member 
of this well-known firm having received a decoration 
from the Emperor of Japan. Jacob Franklin died 
at the age of ten years. Naomi M. was educated 
at Ladies College, Hagerstown, Md. Lillian R. 
was educated at Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pa, 
Mabel R. was a student at the excellent Quaker, 
George School, near Newtown, Bucks county, which 
is under the supervision of the Society of Friends, 
and at present is attending Irving College, at Me- 
chanicsburg. Pa. William Van Reed, also a student, 
is at home. 

The professional life of Mr. Seltzer has been 3, 
successful one, but the business affairs of the great 
company which he so efficiently directs leave hin^ 
no time to continue in that line. His familiarity with 
the risks and responsibilities of the business has 
made him highly valued by his associates, and gained 
him the confidence of the public. A pleasant, gen- 
ial gentleman, overflowing with the milk of human 
kindness, with an open hand and a ready smile, Mr. 
Seltzer is one of the most popular and highly es- 
teemed citizens of Ephrata. 

PATRICK McEVOY (deceased), who was one 
of Lancaster's most prominent men, was born in 
Mount Mellick, Queen's County, Ireland, in 1805, 
and came to America in 1823. He found employ- 
ment with a railroad contractor, but in a few years 
embarked for himself in the same business. Return- 
ing to Ireland, he in 1835 was married there to Julia 
Maher, a native of the same place as himself. With 
his wife he returned to America, and purchasing a 
tract of land just outside the limits of Lancaster, re- 
sided there until his death. He became the business 
partner of Mr. Malone and in a few years was one of 
the most extensive railroad contractors in the coun- 
try. He had large contracts in the construction of 
the Pennsylvania railroad, the New York and Erie, 
and on the Susquehanna tide-water canal. One of 
the finest pieces of railroad in the United States is 
the section of the Central Pennsylvania railroad at 
Kittanning Point, and this was constructed by Mr. 

In 1867 Mr. McEvoy became a member of the 
banking house of Evans, McEvoy & Co., in Laricas- 
ter ; he was the owner of considerable real-estate, a 
stockholder of the Pennsylvania Central railroad ; a 
director of a number of turnpike companies and also 
of the old Lancaster Bank. In 1864 he was a Presi- 
dential elector on the Democratic ticket. He was a 
very liberal man and was one of the founders of the 
Buchanan-McEvoy-Reynolds Relief Fund of Lan- 
caster city, and he bequeathed various amounts to 
the Boys' Orphan Asylum, Philadelphia; and the 
Catholic Seminary at Overbrook, Pa. He died Feb. 
I, 1870, and is interred in St. Mary's Catholic Ceme- 
tery, Lancaster. 

family is not only one of the most prominent, but is 
also one of the oldest families in Lancaster county, 
having been founded in 1719. Its numerous repre- 
sentBtives have been noted for their excellence, as far- 
mers, their intelligence and morality as citizens, and 
for their work and influence in the Mennonite 

Andrew Hershey was born in Switzerland in 
1702. His father removed to the Palatinate, and be- 
came a member of the court of Freidensheim. In 
1719 the records tell that with his father and brother 
Benjamin, Andrew Hershey emigrated to America 
and settled in Lancaster county. Pa. The other 
brother. Christian, was forced to remain behind at 
the court, but in 1739 he also came to America and 
joined the two brothers who had preceded him. 
They were all serious-minded, worthy men, and 
were chosen to be ministers in the Mennonite 
Church. Andrew Hershey lived to the age of ninety 
years, and died in 1792. He had the following 
children: Christian, Andrew, John, Benjamin, 
Jacob, Abraliam, Isaac, Herii-y, Peter, Catheririe> 
Maria and Adli. 



Andrew Hershey (2), son of Andrew, was born 
in Lancaster county, and married Magdelina Bach- 
man. He was a farmer all his life and died July 
16, 1806 ; his widow survived until Sept. 10, 1833. 

Jacob Hershey, son of Andrew (2) was a well- 
known farmer of Lancaster county. He married 
Anna Newcomer, and their children were : John, 
Christian, Abraham and Joseph. Jacob Hershey 
died in 1825, at the age of eighty years, while his 
widow survived until 1830, dying at the age of 
eighty-one years. 

Bishop Joseph Hershey, son of Jacob and father 
of Rev. Jacob R. Hershey, was for many years a 
bishop in the Mennonite Church, and by precept and 
example, promulgated his belief; His residence was 
on the old Hershey estate in SaUsbury township, 
where he died in 1855, at the age of sixty-four 
years. His wife, Magdalena (Roop) Hershey, a 
daughter of Andrew and Esther (Kauffman) Roop, 
died April 19, 1887, aged eighty-nine years and ter^ 
months, and was laid to rest by her husband's side 
in the old Hershey cemetery, in Salisbury township, 
this quiet spot having been a part of the original 
estate. The children born to this union were : Rev. 
Jacob R., of this sketch ; Christian, who died at the 
age of eighteen years; Barbara, deceased wife of 
David Hoover; Anna, who died young; John, who 
died young; and Abraham. 

Rev. Jacob R. Hershey, son of Bishop Joseph 
and Magdalena (Roop) Hershey, was bom on his 
present farm, Aug. 9, 1817, and there grew to man- 
hood. For many years he was well known in agri- 
cultural circles, but he retired from all active labor 
in 1877. Brought up under Christian influences, 
in a pious and godly home, his beloved parents 
setting him noble examples, the young man early 
professed religious conviction and became a minister 
in the Mennonite Church. In 1858 he was ordained 
to the work, and for forty-two years has been a 
faithful laborer in the field of usefulness in which 
he was placed. He is known and beloved over a 
wide extent of territory, and particularly in the 
Old Road and Paradise charges, where hjs labors 
have been much blessed. Although no politician, his 
sympathies have always been with the Republican 
party. For a considerable period he served as 
school director, and has taken a deep interest in 
educational matters. With the exception of four 
years passed on a neighboring farm, the one he 
now occupies has always been his home. Here he 
is surrounded by all that makes advanced life com- 
fortable, is the center of loving relatives and friends, 
and appears much younger than many of his con- 
temporaries, as he reads without glasses. With the 
exception of a hardness of hearing, he shows that 
Time has touched him very gently. 

On Nov. 29, 1839, in Lancaster, Rev. Hershey 
was married to Margaret Eby, born July 14,1819, in 
Salisbury township, daughter of Peter Eby (whose 

wife was a member of the Weaver family), and 
sister of Bishop Eby. (For sketch of Eby family, 
see another part of this volume). To Rev. Jacob 
R. and Margaret (Eby) Hershey were born nine 
children, of whom we have the following record: 
Josiah; Magdalena, the wife of John R. Buck- 
walder, of Kinzers, Pa. ; Peter, who went to the 
West and has never been heard from; Ephraim', a 
farmer in Salisbury township; Mary, who married 
Christian Metzler, a farmer of Paradise township; 
Jacob, a farmer of Salisbury township ; Lizzie, who 
died young; and Margaret, also deceased. 

Ephraim Hershey, the third son of Rev. Jacob 
R. and Margaret (Eby) Hershey, was born on the 
old homestead, in Salisbury township, Dec. 6, 1844. 
Until his marriage he remained under the parental 
roof, and then took charge of the farming opera- 
tions there for three years. He next removed to his 
present excellent farm of ninety-three acres, and 
has developed them in the same excellent manner. In 
his locality he is much esteemed, and he and family 
belong to the Mennonite Church. He belongs to no 
political party, casting his vote as he deems best 
for all concerned. 

On Jan. i, 1867, Ephraim Hershey was married 
to Susan E. Leaman, of Paradise township, and to 
this union were born the following children: Ira, 
who married Sarah Kreider, is a farmer in Salisbury 
township, and has six children; Emma M., who 
married John G. Wenger, lives in Salisbury town- 
ship, and they have four children; Frank B., who 
married Lydia W. Buckwalter, is a farmer in 
Salisbury township; and Omer E., Elam W., 
Ephraim K., Jacob R., Jr., and Alice W. are at home. 
Mrs. Susan E. (Leaman) Hershey was born May 3, , 
1845., ill Leacock township, daughter of Jacob and 
Lydia (Buckwalter) Leaman, the former of whom 
was a farmer, and for many years a school director 
of East Lampeter township. He died in 1891, at the 
age of seventy years, and was buried in Mellinger's 
cemetery, near Lancaster. His widow resides in 
Paradise township, with her daughter, Mrs. John 
Kreider. Both Mr. and Mrs. Leaman were members 
of the Mennonite Church. • 

Jacob E. Hershey, general farmer, was born 
in Salisbury township, on his present farm, Sept. 
13, 1856, son of Rev. Jacob R. and Margaret (Eby) 
Hershey. He was reared to farm life and has 
followed agricultural pursuits exclusively, on this 
farm, all his ictive life, with the exception of three 
years spent on a neighboring estate. Mr. Hershey 
like the other members of his family is highly es- 
teemed as a man of honor and reliability, and belongs 
to a family which is one of the most substantial in this 
part of Lancaster county. He has shown a deep 
interest in educational matters, and has served as 
school director for the past fifteen years. In politics 
he is a Republican. With his family he belongs to, 
and assists in supporting, the Mennonite Church. 



On Oct. 26, 1876, in Lancaster, Mr. Hershey was 
married to Miss Mary Esbenshade, and the children 
born to this union were as follows: Herbert, at 
home; Clayton, who married Ella Buchwalder, has 
one child, and lives in Paradise township; Milton, 
Elwood, Bertha, Mabel, Edna and Margerie, are at 
home; and Willis died young. 

Mrs. Mary (Esbenshade) Hershey was born in 
Earl township, Nov. 25, 1852, daughter of Jacob and 
Susannah (Bushong) Esbenshade, of Lancaster 
county, both of whom died in East Earl township, 
where they were farming people all their lives. The 
father of Mrs. Hershey died in 1898, aged sixty- 
nine years, and the mother died in August, 1901, 
aged seventy-oiie years. Both parents were interred 
in Eaby's cemetery in West Leacock township, hav- 
ing long been members of the German Baptist 
Church. They had these children born to them, 
besides Mary, who is the wife of Jacob E. Hershey ; 
Elizabeth, deceased wife of John Kochel; Sarah, 
wife of Rife Myers, a farmer of Earl township; 
Emma, wife of Frank Buckwalder, of Paradise 
township ; Susan, wife of Elam Kreider, of West 
Leacock township ; Lydia, wife of Martin Ebersole, 
of Paradise township; Amanda, wife of Walter 
Mays, of East Earl township ; and Adam, a farmer 
of East Earl township. 

NATHANIEL ELLMAKER, lawyer, philan- 
thropist and Christian gentleman, was born in Har- 
risburg. Pa., April 27, 1817. He was descended 
from that sturdy German stock that came to Penn- 
sylvania early in the eighteenth century and did so 
much to give tone and direction to Pennsylvania 
during its formative period. The first comer of the 
name was Leonard EUmaker, who reached Lancas- 
ter county in 1724. He became a prominent and 
well-to-do citizen. His son, Nathaniel, became still 
more prominent in the afifairs of the Commonwealth, 
being honored with election to the State Senate in 
1796. He was a man of more than average ability, 
of much independence of character, great probity, 
^nd an unswerving lover of truth. Still more promi- 
nent in public affairs was Amos EUmaker, son of 
the last named, who was born in Lancaster county 
Feb. 2, 1787. From boyhood he manifested a ten- 
dency toward something higher than the rural life 
to which he was bom, and his father wisely allowed 
him to follow the bent of his inclinations by sending 
him to Princeton College, where he was graduated. 
Later he studied law. He began the practice of his 
profession in the city of Harrisburg. He was ap- 
pointed prosecuting attorney of Dauphin county, 
and was thrice sent to the State Legislature by the 
same constituency. In 1814 he was elected to Con- 
gress, but declined to serve, having been appointed 
President Judge of the district composed of Dau- 
phin, Lebanon and Schuylkill cotinties. Still higher 
honors awaited him. Resigning his judgeship, he 
was made Attornev General of the Commonwealth. 

He resigned that position also, and in 1821 came to 
Lancaster, where he resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession. His success was remarkable. He became 
prominent in politics also, and he was the Anti-Ma- 
sonic candidate for the Vice-Presidency in 1832. 
Two years later he was a candidate for the United 
States Senate, his vote being next to that of James 
Buchanan,, who was the successful candidate. He 
declined the position of Secretary of War, tendered 
him by President Monroe. Amos EUmaker was the 
father of Nathaniel EUmaker, whose name intro- 
duces this article. 

With such a father, and under such training as 
his home life so generously gave, young EUmaker 
naturally developed those sterling traits of character 
which became so conspicuous during his long and 
useful later career. As already said, Nathaniel Ell- 
maker was born in 1817 in Harrisburg, where 
his father at that time resided. His early education 
was carefully attended to at his own home. Upon 
his father's removal to Lancaster, in 1821, home in- 
struction was supplemented by the private schools 
of that city. Still later he attended the well-known 
school at Lititz, taught by that eminent instructor, 
John Beck, In due time he graduated from thence 
to complete his education at an academy of high re- 
pute in Burlington, N. J. Young EUmaker was 
bright and quick, and emerged from that institution 
with a mind well equipped for the battle of life which 
he was soon to enter. 

Making choice of the law as his life work, he 
took the full course at the Yale College Law School. 
At its conclusion he entered the ofi&ce of his illus- 
trious father, where the real practical duties of his 
profession were fully and quickly mastered. On 
May 2, 1838, his aspirations were finally realized by 
his admission to the Lancaster Bar, which he was 
destined for a period of sixty years to adorn with 
his legal abilities and eloquence, and to uplift by his 
dignity and high personal character. Ably equipped 
as he was for the duties of his profession, he quickly 
acquired a large practice at a Bar noted for its 
strong lawyers. In conducting the business of his 
large clientage he was continually brought into those 
intellectual combats in which the strong lawyer, 
conscious of his powers, delights. The eloquent Col. 
Eraser, the learned and sarcastic Stevens, the well- 
read Franklin, and a host of other eminent celebri- 
ties, were the men young EUmaker was time and 
again called upon to meet in legal combat, nor did 
these veterans always escape without marks of the 
legal fray. He sought rather than shunned them, 
for he well knew that the highest honors were won 
in honorable battle with the giants of his profession, 
and not with its weaklings. He became a favorite 
with the people of the county, as his father had been 
before him, and his practice in the Common PleaS 
was large and lucrative. His wide legal knowledge, 
united with his elevation of character and suavity 
of manner, made him a dangerous opponent before 
a jury. His love of justice, and his natural hatred 

^^7^-b.^^--^- ^Ye^ 



of wrongdoing in all its forms, impressed themselves 
on the community, and his clients generally were of 
the best class in it. This confidence was transmitted 
from father to son, and to be once his client was to 
remain so always. His practice in the Orphans' 
court, than which there can hardly be a higher test 
of confidence, was admittedly the largest ever en- 
joyed by a member of the local Bar. 

Mr. Ellmaker, as may be inferred from what has 
already been said, never took a retainer in a case 
which he knew to be unjust. For this reason, no 
doubt, was his early resolve never to act for cor- 
porations, where perhaps such cases might confront 
him, and to the last he preferred to stand with the 
people, refusing all corporation business. That de- 
termination cost him much money. But what of 
that ? His conscience remained calm and serene, and 
that was greater reward to him than great gains won 
in an unworthy cause. Pages might be written of 
those noble traits of character which marked every 
step of his career in his long and useful life. It is 
certain that Mr. Ellmaker imbibed his lofty ideas of 
propriety and duty from his illustrious father, in 
whom they were also conspicuous. 

In addition to the claims of an arduous profes- 
sion upon him, Mr. Ellmaker found time to do a 
large amount of miscellaneous reading. The result 
was that few men were so thoroughly informed of 
what was going on in the .great world of to-day as 
he was. His general knowledge had a wide range, 
and was fullv at his command, making him an ad- 
mirable companion in social life. 

Although his father was in public life as states- 
man, politician and a holder of high party trusts, he 
cautioned his son from pursuing a like course. The 
request was heeded, and, although from his being 
so well known to the public, and a member of the 
dominant party, almost any local political honor was 
within his easy reach, he turned aside from the allur- 
ing temptation and remained until the end an ardent 
lover of his first mistress, the law. 

Mr. E'llmaker was at once one of the most lib- 
eral and most modest of men. His hand and his 
purse were ever open to the calls of charity. Every 
worthy organization in the community had in him 
a friend and a patron. His benefactions were lib- 
eral, but they seldom reached the public ear, and 
only when publicity was unavoidable. Truly his 
charity was of the kind spoken of by the Master 
when he said, "Let not thy left hand know what thy 
right hand doeth," and many a deserving local char- 
ity has had cause to regret his departure. 

Nathaniel Ellmaker was married to Cecilia 
Hager. daughter of Christopher Hager, a prominent 
merchant of Lancaster. No children came to bless 
this happy union. The widow is still living. Mr. 
EUm.aker's early religious affiliations were with the 
Episcopal Church, but later he united himself with 
the Lutheran Church. 

It is difficult in a brief sketch like this to do full 
justice to a' life so pure and beautiful as that of 


Nathaniel Ellmaker. Although he was decided and 
firm in his opinions, they were advanced in a man^ 
ner not calculated to wound or give offense, but his 
sense of right was so strong that nothing could 
swerve him from it. In accepting a legal work, he 
made it his aim never to defend a case he believed 
unjust. He believed in the justice of it so strongly 
that his sincerity impressed itself upon the jury, and 
carried the day. Although reluctant to intrude his 
opinions upon the public, any public scheme intended 
to deceive or defraud was pretty sure to be sharply 
antagonized by a communication from his pen in the 
public journals. In all the relations of life Mr. Ell- 
maker was justly regarded by the community as a 
high-toned, upright, conscientious gentleman; a 
model man, in fact, of whom no praise was too 
strong and no words too eulogistic. We can only 
say the world was better because of his having lived 
in it, and poorer because of his departure. 

To those who knew Mr. Ellmaker in his lifetime,, 
or had dealings with him, his personal character 
could not have failed to become well known. To 
those, however, of the next generation, for whom 
this book rriust be principally intended, his person- 
ality cannot be so readily comprehended without a 
brief sketch of the man himself. 

In stature he was six feet or over, weighing in 
his best days i8o pounds or more, had a light com- 
plexion, light hair, worn short, a face cleanly shaven, 
an honest, open countenance, kindly manners, free 
from all affectation, guile or trickery, a hand shapely 
as a lady's, with a clasp friendly and true. He was 
brisk in his movements, walked fast, and frequently 
cautioned himself against undue haste in his work 
by repeating the admonition, "The more hurry, the 
less speed." He dressed in good taste, without any- 
thing flashy or loud ; carried his watch on a braided 
guard, without seal or ornament. 

Whatever talents may have come down from his 
distinguished father, much of his physical and 
mental activity and love of the humorous, no doubt, 
he inherited from his mother, who was in all respects 
a superior woman. She was the daughter of Thomas 
Elder, in his time a leading lawyer of the Dauphin 
County Bar, under whom his father, Amos Ell- 
maker, studied law. 

Although raised in two cities, Harrisburg and 
Lancaster, it should be remembered that Mr. Ell- 
maker stored up vitality for after life by spending 
much of his vacation time when a boy in the country, 
partly with his grandfather, Thomas Elder, visiting 
the latter's farm in Dauphin county, but oftener with 
his relatives and friends down in the Earl townships, 
taking part in the work that was to be done, assist- 
ing in a country store, driving an ox team, and help- 
ing wherever he could be useful. There he formed 
friendships that lasted all his life, and funny things 
happened to him, of which he loved to tell in after 
years, one of which only we have space to relate — ■ 
though we cannot tell it in his humorous manner. 
He was on a visit to his favorite coiisin and attended 



church with him. When service began, the singers, 
after several efforts, failed to start the hymn. Then 
an old Presbyterian elder took the matter in hand 
and started the hymn, but by mistake started it in a 
metre too long for the verses ; nothing daunted, how- 
ever, he stuck to it bravely, repeating parts of the 
verses where the metre was too long, in a most 
laughter-provoking manner, to the end. The 
cousin, who had given Mr. Ellmaker a front seat, 
kept his eyes with a long-drawn face on Mr. Ell- 
maker, who was struggling hard against an explo- 
sion of laughter, while some of the younger folks 
behind him were tittering — all of which the cousin 
greatly enjoyed. On the way home from church, 
each man driving his own team and accompanied by 
his wife, the cousin commenced racing, driving 
around and past Mr. Ellmaker several times. When 
at home Mr. Ellmaker threatened to report him to 
the church for racing on Sunday, whereupon the 
cousin declared he did not race, but that his horse 
had run away with him. In some such manner the 
two cousins, when old in years, still young at heart 
and in friendship true, innocently enjoyed themselves 
whenever they met. 

Mr. Ellmaker did not delight much in the subtle 
intricacies of the law, outside of a well-prepared 
brief of the authorities needed to support his case. 
He would have the witnesses called together, ex- 
amined, and their testimony taken down before the 
trial, and if possible have everything ready when the 
case was called. After the jury was selected, case 
opened, and witnesses called, his abilities came into 
play. Fully convinced that his client's case was a 
just one (as already stated, he would not take a case 
that he did not consider just), the expression of his 
face and demeanor fully indicated that fact, and no 
doubt often helped to impress the jury with a simi- 
lar opinion. There was no levity, no laughing mat- 
ter, with him, but a serious watchfulness, searching 
questions to a witness, and telling replies to oppo^ 
site counsel, "shots on the wing" when opportunity 
offered. When he objected to the evidence offered 
he cited his authorities, stated his reasons without 
delay or any display of oratory, and, if overruled, 
took his exceptions and let the trial go on. When 
the testimony was closed, and it came to addressing 
the jury, then his reserve force would show itself. 
The Bar knew this, and when an important case in 
which he was engaged was to be won, and he could 
be given the last speech, he would generally win it. 
He would move the jury by his sincerity of manner 
and earnestness of pleading, while he would de- 
molish his opponent's case by his irresistible ridi- 

Judge Brubaker declared him a dangerous man 
before a jury; and Col. Dickey, who was engaged 
both with him and against him in a number of 
cases, said "Mr. Ellmaker was the strongest man 
in his day before a jury at the Lancaster Bar." 
Give him a case of an innocent maiden against her 
false-hearted lover, for a breach of promise of mar- 

riage; or a suit against a rich railroad company, 
for running down the wife of a market farmer and 
mother of his children, and there was no telling 
how high the verdict would be. Once a high ver- 
dict case was sent back by the Supreme court prin- 
cipally on that account, and the second verdict was 
higher than the first. In another suit against a rail- 
road for damages the company moved for a change 
of venue, alleging that a fair trial could not be had 
in the county. It was but a short road, and the idea 
that it would affect the entire population of the coun- 
ty he made to appear so ridiculous that he had mem- 
bers of the Bar shaking in their seats with laughter, 
the court refused the application, and the company 
thought best to settle their case. 

As already stated, Mr. Ellmaker took an inter- 
est in public affairs, especially anything that closely 
affected his own community. He was one of the men 
who, with Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg and Bishop Bow- 
man, had the manner of the ringing of the church 
bells changed from the old way of ringing them all 
at the same time, causing a deaferiing and confused 
clangor, which, if not noisy enough to waken the 
dead, was at least sufHcient to hurry the sick and 
dying out of the world. The mode was changed 
through their efforts to an alternate ringing, as prac- 
ticed up to the present day. 

Politically Mr. Ellmaker was a Silver Gray, 
Henry Clay, Whig, and opposed to the Ultra-Aboli- 
tionist, but joined the Republican party and voted 
for Lincoln, and when the news came that Fort 
Sumter had been fired upon all former party lines ■ 
were wiped out with him — the Union party embraced 
both. R.epublican and Democrat, all joined to save 
the Union, and a mixed county ticket was nominated 
by the committee of which he was an active member. 
He was one of the solicitors instrumental in having 
the non-combatant people, who thought it wrong to 
bear arms (many of whom were his clients), ex- 
cused from the war draft. 

Mr. Ellmaker was a broad churchman, and said 
one of the pleasant sights he loved to behold was 
Bishop Bowman, the Episcopalian, Parson Baker, 
the Lutheran, and Father Keenan, the Catholic 
priest, walking together to visit the public schools, 
of which they were directors. 

In his home life the wish of the German poet was 

O, zarte Sehnsucht, sueszes Hoffen, 
Der ersten Liebe goldne Zeit ! 
O, dasz sie ewig gruenen bliebe, 
Die schoene Zeit der jungen Liebe. 

Between him and his life's .partner love never 
grew old. It was beautiful to see. Wherever one 
went the other went — whether to cross the ocean to 
visit foreign lands, to climb the Alps, or search 
among the old German Church records ; whether to 
rest from their year's labors and enjoy life for a 
season along the seashore, or among the mountains ; 
or whether confined to the sick room ; wherever the 



one was, there the other was sure to be, in faithful 
attendance while life lasted. 

In i860 he and his wife built their charming 
country home, the beautiful "Friedenthal," now 
thickly embowered among the stately trees they 
planted, and sacredly guarded and kept by his sur- 
viving life partner, in all respects as he loved to see 
it. No gun was then, or is yet, allowed to be fired to 
disturb the wild birds that come in the spring to 
build their nests, rear their young, sing their songs, 
and spend the summers ; thrushes pick up crumbs at 
the kitchen door, and Phoebe sometimes chooses a 
place for' her nest under the roof of the library porch. 
In this lovely place they shared their generous hos- 
pitality in an unostentatious and befitting manner. 
The old and young, learned and unlearned, priest 
and layman, rich and poor, were kindly welcomed 
and entertained, not in large assemblies with music 
and dancing, but in smaller parties, wisely chosen to 
be congenial to each other. A Sunday-school was 
for a time taught by the mistress, and a German 
class met at stated evenings, where college profes- 
sors and learned ministers took part in the study 
and discussion of the German classics, and fre- 
quently became engaged in warm disputes as to the 
proper interpretation of word or sentence, to the en- 
joyment of the host and hostess. Having no offspring 
or their own, nephews and nieces in part supplied 
the place, and uncle and aunt enjoyed their com- 
pany, and even sometimes took part in their plays 
and amusements. One autumn day, for instance, 
the children suggested that uncle should take them 
chestnut hunting. Doubting whether any nuts could 
be found, and to avoid disappointing them in their 
expectations, he provided himself with nuts from the 
kitchen, and when under the trees dropped them un- 
noticed by the children among the fallen leaves and 
allowed the children to pick them up. On returning 
home, however, it was discovered, to the surprise of 
both uncle and children, that the nuts were boiled, 
and uncle had to own up to what he had done, to 
the great merriment of the children ; he enjoyed the 
joke as much as they, although it had been somewhat 
turned upon himself. 

Nothing better need be written of Mr. Ellmaker 
than to quote from v/hat was said by his brother at- 
torneys at a Bar meeting held soon after his death : 
"For sixty years of practice at the Bar," they said, 
■"he had all the time maintained the highest standard 
of professional honor. His private life was pure and 
simple, and his integrity and fidelity were never 
doubted by either his professional brethren, by his 
clients, or by the community in which he lived. He 
was alwavs'kind and courteous, full of pleasantries, 
and entertaining, and, whether grave or humorous, 
in all he said or related, there was never anything 
unseemly. Nothing ever passed his lips that could 
not have been spoken with propriety in the most 
polite circle or uttered in the hearing of innocent 

JOHN B. ESHLEMAN, Esq., one of the best 
county commissioners that Lancaster county has 
ever known, comes from an old and honored family. 
His grandfather, David Eshleman, was born in one 
of the Hempfields, and died in West Hempfield in 
September, 1834. He married Maria Summy, and 
their children were: Anna, who died in 1834, un- 
married; Jacob S. ; Benjamin, deceased; Peter, now 
living in Grant county, Ind. ; David, and Martin, 
both of Lawrence county, 111. ; John, deceased ; 
Henry, living in Lancaster county ; Elizabeth, widow 
of Joseph Musser; Mary, deceased; Barbara (Mrs. 
Wilhelm), now deceased, and Elizabeth, living in 
Clark county, Ohio. The father of this interesting 
family was a farmer in West Hempfield township. 
Jacob S. Eshleman, father of John B. Eshleman, 
was born in Hempfield township and was a far- 
mer. He was a prominent citizen and held the of- 
fice of supervisor and other positions of trust. He 
married Fannie Greider Bruckart, and his other 
children besides our subject were: Mary, who died 
in childhood ; Elizabeth, widow of the late John L. 
Gingrich, of West Donegal township, Lancaster 
county ; Jacob, who died Dec. 24, 1864, in the Rebel 
prison at Salisbury, N. C, while serving in the Un- 
ion army as a member of Company B, 45th P. V. I. ; 
Samuel, of West Hempfield township ; Anna, wife 
of Ephraim Bard, of West Hempfield township; 
Martha, deceased wife of Fred Johns, of Lancaster ; 
Peter, of West Hempfield, and Eugenie, deceased. 
John B. Eshleman was born Feb. 11, 1839, in 
West Hempfield township, and has spent the greater 
part of his life there, where he was educated in the 
public schools. He began teaching in 1857, and 
taught in that township and in Columbia borough 
for thirty-six years. In 1880 he was elected to the 
Legislature. He served one term as justice of the 
peace in West Hempfield township. In 1893 he was 
elected a county commissioner, and so well did he 
perform the duties of that responsible office that the 
Republicans of Lancaster county — to whose inter- 
ests he has been devoted for many years — re-elected 
him, by a magnificent majority, to a second term, 
and he had the honor of being the president of the 
board of commissioners during the entire period. 

Mr. Eshleman was married, in West Hempfield, 
to Miss Martha B. Kauffman, a daughter of David 
and Susan (Bishop) Kauffman, and the children 
born of this union were: Minnie, wife of Fred B. 
Daum, living in Philadelphia ; Susan, wife of Georga 
M. Weller, of West Hei-npfield ; Stella, wife of Mor- 
ris Witte, of West Hempfield; J. Guy, sten- 
ographer with Hon. W. U. Hensel at Lancaster, Pa., 
and Clara N., at home. 

Mr. Eshleman is a P. G. of Susquehanna Lodge, 
No. 80, I. O. O. F., of Columbia, and a P. C. P. 
of Shawnee Encampment, No. 23, also of Columbia ; 
he has been and is now a trustee of both and a repre- 
sentative to the grand bodies of both organizations* 
He is also identified with Olivia Lodge (Rebekahi 


Degree, Odd Fellows), of Wrightsville, and Lan- 
caster Canton. His family attend the United 
Brethren Church. 

An earnest Republican, yet never officiously ob- 
truding his views on others; a Christian gentle- 
man, and with a public record (officially) of which 
any man might well be proud, John B. Eshleman is 
naturally a strong man — politically, socially and in 
the business world, and in his present retirement 
from office he carries with him the well wishes of 
hosts of friends and admirers. 

ceased. For a number of years the late Capt. Henry 
N. Breneman, whose death occurred Oct. lo, 1901, 
was a very conspicuous figure in Lancaster county, 
having worthily held offices of trust and responsi- 
bility in military, official and business life. 

Henry Neff Breneman was born on the old 
homestead in Strasburg, Lancaster county, Jan. 13. 
1830. The family is of Swiss origin and the grand- 
father of the late Henry Breneman was Rev. Henry 
Breneman, a preacher of the Old Mennonite Church. 
The parents of Capt. Breneman were Henry and 
Elizabeth (Neff) Breneman, the former of whom 
was a miller and farmer near Strasburg. His chil- 
dren were as follows : Anna, deceased, married 
Daniel Herr, who is also deceased; EHzabeth mar- 
ried Henry Musser, and both are deceased ; Susan 
married Amaziah Herr of Strasburg, and is de- 
ceased ; Henry N., of this sketch. 

The early education of Capt. Henry N. Breneman 
was acquired in the public schools, and he finished 
in the Lititz Academy. At the age of twenty-one 
years he went to learn the milling business at the 
mill at Camargo, owned by his father, remaining 
there five years and subsequently engaging in the 
mercantile business in the store of Henry H. Bren- 
eman & Co., in Camargo. He then engaged in 
farming, and until he came to Lancaster was a 
resident of Strasburg township, except for one year, 
when he was a resident of Strasburg and was a 
member of the firm of Herr, Breneman & Co. In 
1866 he engaged in the manufacture of agricultural 
implements, erecting a factory near his house, and 
carried on both this enterprise and farming for some 

Capt. Breneman took an active part in Republi- 
can politics, and served his town as assessor, school 
director for twelve years, and justice of the peace 
for fifteen years. During the Civil war he served 
as 1st Lieut, of Co. G, 22d P. V. I., until compelled 
to return home by reason of illness. Immediately 
after the battle of Gettysburg, he raised and became 
captain of a company of three months' men, which 
was attached to the 15th Regiment of Pennsylvania 
Militia as Company B. In 1875 he was elected 
sheriff of Lancaster county, serving three years. 

On May 24, 1894, Capt. Breneman removed with 
his family to Lancaster, after which time, in part- 
nership with his son, Joseph, under the style of 

H. N. Breneman & Son, he became prominent as 
a builder and contractor. This firm did much con- 
tract work in Lancaster and the adjacent country^ 
their most notable buildings in this city being the 
Court House annex, the "Lincoln Hotel," the silk 
mills and the new "Wheatland Hotel" on North 
Queen street. 

On March 17, 1858, Mr. Breneman was married 
to Anna M., daughter of the late Joseph Potts, of 
Strasburg, and she and nine children survive* as- 
follows : Winona S., wife of Abraham F. Strickler,. 
of Lancaster township ; Dr. Park P., a practicing 
physician of Lancaster ; Anna M. ; Joseph P., a con- 
tractor of Lancaster ; Elizabeth B., wife of Milo B> 
Herr, of Lancaster ; Maud M. ; Herbert N., as- 
sistant superintendent of Motive Power of the C. 
M. & St. P. R R. ; May, at home, and Li da L., at 
home. Capt. Breneman was a member of Washing- 
ton Lodge, No. 156, F. & A. M., of Quarryville, and 
the Lodge of Perfection, and Lancaster Com- 
mandery. Knights Templar, of Lancaster. By na- 
ture he was kind and genial and was much be- 
loved by all who knew him. Although during his 
last years he was no longer active in politics, his- 
former efficient services were always remembered. 

Mrs. Anna M. (Potts) Breneman was born ia 
the village of Lampeter, daughter of Joseph and 
Eliza (Miller) Potts, of Lancaster county. For a 
number of years Mr. Potts carried on a lumber busi- 
ness in Strasburg, but for seven years prior to his- 
death he was a farmer of Strasburg township. Het- 
held many of the town offices, and was long one of 
the school directors. He was born in 1813 and died 
in 1856. The mother of Mrs. Breneman was 
born in 1813 and died in 1880. Both par- 
ents were laid to rest in the Strasburg cem- 
etery. Two children were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Potts : Anna M., who became Mrs. Breneman ; 
and Joseph, unmarried, who lives retired in Stras- 

BROWN. Among the early settlers of Lan- 
caster county were the Browns, generally known as- 
"the Browns of Nottingham." As early as the year 
1680, James and William Brown, of England, mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends, immigrated to Amer- 
ica and settled near Marcus Hook, on the Delaware 
river. James married Honour Clayton, and they 
had six children, four sons and two daughters, of 
whom their third son, Jeremiah, was the ancestor of 
the family we propose to follow. 

In the year 1669 a colony of Friends took up 
eighteen hundred acres of land in Nottingham, 
Chester county, forty miles from Marcus Hook. 
WilHam Penn donated them forty acres of land for 
a meeting house, graveyard, etc. Among those 
Friends were James and William Brown, befora 
mentioned, and from these brothers have descended 
most of that name now residing in the southern ends 
of Chester and Lancaster counties, Pa., and the 
northern end of Cecil county, in Maryland. 



Jeremiah Brown, third son of James, in 1710, 
Tnarried Mary Cole, of Nottingham, and became the 
father of Patience, Jeremiah, Joshua and Isaac. 

In the year 1758, Joshua Brown, son of Jere- 
miah, purchased five hundred acres of land in that 
part of Little Britain now known as Fulton town- 
ship, Lancaster county, and removed thereto, his 
■eldest son, Elisha, remaining on the farm in Not- 
tingham. On this farm, situated in the Conowingo 
valley, a substantial brick dwelling house was erect- 
ed, which has braved the storms of more than a 
century. Joshua Brown was an eminent minister 
in the Society of Friends, and for the love of the 
gospel traveled extensively to all the meetings of 
the society in the different colonies. During the 
time of the Revolutionary war he felt it his duty to 
^isit Friends at Winchester, Virginia, who had been 
Vanished from their homes in Philadelphia for no 
crime but their faithful adherence to their' well- 
Tcnown peace principles. While on that visit one of 
their number died. After attending his funeral, and 
•encouraging Friends to faithfulness under their suf- 
fering, he, in company with Achilla Douglas, of 
Virginia, proceeded to visit the meetings of Quakers 
in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina 
and encourage Friends during that trying period to 
stand fast to their Christian testimony against all 
wars and fightings. In the latter State the two were 
arrested by the authorities as spies and cast into 
prison. Friend Brown showed the officers his cre- 
dentials of unity with his friends at home and the 
object of his mission among them. After a thorough 
investigation, the judge of the court admitted he 
lielieved them to be innocent men ; he nevertheless 
committed them to prison. The jailor and his wife 
were kind to them, and soon they were allowed the 
freedom of the town by day, returning to the jail 
in the evening to lodge. They held religious meet- 
ings in the court-house frequently, which the citi- 
zens attended with openly expressed satisfaction. 
The prisoners were offered their release on condi- 
tion "they would leave the State, never to- return." 
This they could not conscientiously consent to, and 
after a detention of about six months they were 
■discharged. Notwithstanding this long and unex- 
pected imprisonment, Joshua felt it a religious duty 
to visit the meetings of Friends in the Carolinas and 
Virginia. This valuable Friend and undaunted 
Christian died on Oct. 15, 1798, in the eighty-sec- 
ond year of his age, a faithful minister of the gos- 
pel for forty-eight years. 

Joshua Brown was born March 5, 1717, and 
Oct. 15, 1736, married Hannah Gatchell, who bore 
him eleven children, of whom ten grew to ma- 
. turity. Of these, four, Mary (intermarried with 
Vincent King), Jeremliah, Isaiah, and Joshua, set- 
tled and remained on the homestead or in the neigh- 
iDorhood. Vincent and Jeremiah King, sons of Mary 
(Brown) King, were noted physicians. Jeremiah 
purchased of his father his grist and saw-mill, which 
he enlarged, and it ultimately became the chief 

merchant mill in southern Lancaster county. Isaiah 
was a humble blacksmith, who inherited forty acres 
of land, a part of his father's farm ; he died in the 
year 1805, leaving one son, who subsequently re- 
moved to Illinois. Joshua, the youngest son, died 
in 1823 on the mansion farm, leaving no children. 

Jeremiah Brown, as has been stated, purchased 
his father's mills and a portion of his farm. He 
was a man possessed of great energy and persever- 
ance and was eminently successful in business. His 
supplies of grain at that time were chiefly drawn 
from the rich valleys of the Pequea and Conestoga, 
in Lancaster count;^, and the Codqrus valley in 
York county, from whence it was carted, in wagons 
to the mill, and the flour in turn carted thirty miles 
to Christiana Creek, Del., where i*- was shipped 
to Philadelphia, then the nearest and most expedi- 
tious route to a market. About the year 1800 he 
purchased the extensive Slate Hill, at Peach Bot- 
tom, in Lancaster countv, on the Susquehanna river, 
and commenced the manufacture of roofing-slates. 
From these quarries, the first opened in this sec- 
tion of the State, he furnished the slate which yet 
covers the State capitol at Harrisburg, the Friends 
Asylum for the Insane at Frankford, numerous pub- 
lic buildings in Baltimore, Washington, Alexandria, 
and Fredericksburg in Virginia. These quarries he 
continued to work successfully until the year 1827, 
when he relinquished them to his three sons, Levi, 
Jeremiali and Slater Brown, who continued to work 
them until a recent period. He was several times 
chosen a member of the Legislature of his native 
State while its sessions were held in the borough of 
Lancaster, and during his term was instrumental in 
procuring the passage of several acts of vast bene- 
fit to his constituents. 

In the year 1810, he, with others, established the 
Farmers' Bank, at Lancaster, an institution which 
to the present time, has stood the test of all financial 
struggles with unblemished credit ; and at the time 
of his decease, in 1831, he was perhaps its largest 
stockholder, holding in his own name, one thou- 
sand shares of its stock. Although active and en- 
ergetic in business, he did not neglect his religious 
duties. During a long life when health permitted, 
he was diligent in his attendance upon all the meet- 
ings of the Society of Friends and for many years 
was an esteemed elder in the church. Near the close 
of- his life he built, at his own expense, the present 
commodious brick meeting-house at Penn Hill, 
which from all appearances may stand another cen- 
tviry a monument of his liberality and devotion to the 
principles and testimonies of the Society of which he 
was a lifelong and consistent member. He died July 
7, 1831, aged nearly eighty-two years. 

His children, Sarah, Levi, Hannah, Deborah, 
Jeremiah, and Slater Brown, all married and set- 
tled near their native home ; many of their descend- 
ants to the third and fourth generation reside in 
the township and vicinity. Sarah married Timothy 
Haines. Hannah married Isaac Stubbs, mother of 



Dr. J. B. Stubbs, who will be represented on an- 
other page. Of the three sons, Levi was a retired 
man, a miller and farmer, much esteemed, who died 
in 1846, aged about seventy years. Slater, the 
youngest son, inherited the paternal mansion, farm, 
and mills, was successful in business, and took an 
active part in political affairs ; for some years he 
served as one of the prison inspectors of the county ; 
his death occurred on the Sth of June, 1855, aged 
sixty-eight years. 

Jeremiah Brown, son of Jeremiah, was born 
April 14, 1785 ; he married, "May 14, 1807, Ann, 
daughter of Roger and Rachel Kirk, of Nottingham'. 
Enjoying a robust constitution, in early life he was 
placed in his father's mill to learn the trade, in 
which capacity it was necessary mUch of the time 
for him to continue half of the night season; at 
other times he drove one of the teams, hauling 
wheat to and flour from the mills. He was a man 
of good natural abilities and sound judgment, and in 
early life was frequently chosen for responsible posi- 
tions in the neighorhood. 

In the year 1826 he was elected a member of the 
State Legislature on the Federal ticket, and served 
to the satisfaction of his constituents during that ses- 
sion, which will be remembered as the one in which 
the State inaugurated "her great system of internal 
improvements." The following year he was again 
nominated, but owing to the breaking up of the 
old- political parties in that year, many Federalists 
joined in the Jackson excitement and by a very few 
votes he was defeated by Hon. George B. Porter, 
a leading Democrat, afterwards Governor of Mich- 
igan. In the year 1836 he was placed at the head 
of the ticket and chosen a member of the conven- 
tion to revise the Constitution of the State. In 
the year 1840 he was nominated and elected a mem- 
ber of Congress for Lancaster county, in connection 
with Hon. Francis James, of Chester, and Hon. 
John Edwards, of Delaware county, those three 
counties forming the Congressional district. In 
1842 he was again unanimously nominated, and 
with his colleagues re-elected to the xxviith 
Congress. Although not accustomed to public 
speaking, he was assiduous and diligent in his com- 
mittee rooms, where, after all, the effective work is 
accomplished. During his term of service the well- 
known "tarifiE of 1842" was enacted, in support of 
which he took a conspicuous part, and which, during 
its continuance, proved so beneficial to the extensive 
manufacturers of his district. 

Having completed his second term of Congress, 
he devoted himself to his private affairs until the 
year 1850, when he was nominated and elected as- 
sociate judge of the courts of Lancaster county for 
the term of five years, which position he filled to the 
entire satisfaction of his fellow-citizens. In the year 
1855 he was solicited to be a candidate for re- 
election, but on account of enfeebled health and 
advancing years he declined the honor and retired 

to private life. His valuable life closed the 2d day 
of March, 1858, in the seventy-third year of his 

Judge Brown left seven children: Kirk and 
Edwin, now deceased ; Hannah, deceased wife of 
Samuel C. Wood, who resided on the mansion farm ; 
Rachel K., deceased, who removed with her chil- 
dren and their families to Kansas; Deborah H., 
(widow) residing with her son in the adjoining 
township of Little Britain; Alfred M. Brown, re- 
siding on his farm; and Levi Kirk, mentioned be- 

Levi Kirk Brown^ whose death occurred in 
Goshen, April 28, 1899, was one of the most widely 
known men in his own and in Chester counties. 
He was born June 27, 1814. At that time his father, 
Jeremiah, conducted a merchandise store at Goshen, 
but the latter's election to the legislature, placed 
the responsibility for the management of the store 
on Levi, who remained there until 1835. Three 
years later ne removed to Oxford and purchased a 
portion of the hotel property formerly owned by 
his uncle, Timothy Kirk. He conducted a general 
store business in the building now known as the 
"Octoraro Hotel" for five years. Mr. Brown after- 
wards sold the property to Rev. John* M. Dickey 
for the Oxford Female Seminary. While a resident 
of Oxford he was elected a member of the first 
council of this town, in May, 1838; he was re- 
elected the following year; in 1840 was elected 
burgess, and the next year he was re-elected to the 
council. From Oxford he went to West Chester 
and engaged in store keeping with his brother Lewis. 
During his residence there he purchased the "Ches- 
ter County Hotel," changed the name to "Brown's 
Mansion House," and conducted it as a temper- 
ance house about four years. Mr. Brown after- 
wards engaged in business in Philadelphia and 
Baltimore. In 1853, ^t the desire of his father, who 
was growing feeble, Mr. Brown returned to Goshen 
and managed affairs at the old homestead. 

After his retuirn to Goshen, Mr. Brown became 
one of the most prominent and useful citizens of the 
lower end of Lancaster county. He was a man of 
good judgment and many people sought his advice 
in legal, financial and other matters. He settled 
nearly a hundred estates and assisted in many ac- 
counts. He was a director of the National Bank 
of Oxford for about twenty-eight years, and a 
director of the Conowingo Bridge Company for 
about twenty-three years. For nine years he was 
supervisor of the new system in mending roads in 
Fulton township, for which purpose Mr. Brown, 
Henry Carter and Lewis Haines had a special law 
enacted. Mr. Brown was a member of the Society 
of Friends for many years and served as clerk and 
assistant clerk of the Baltimore Yearly Meeting for 
about twenty-eight years. For many years the de- 
ceased was interested in the welfare of the Indians, 
and at the time of his death he was secretary of 



the Seven Yearly Meetings on Indian Affairs. 
Several times he visited in an official capacity the 
Indians in Nebraska and Dakota. 

In 1835 Levi Kirk Brown married Hannah C. 
Moore, who was born in Cecil county, Md., in 1816, 
and died July 29, 1893. Of their children the fol- 
lowing survive : WilHam H., of Philadelphia, chief 
engineer of the Pennsylvania Railway Company; 
Jacob K., of Goshen; Charles E., of Philadelphia; 
Theodore F., of Pittsburg, assistant auditor of the 
Union Freight Line at Pittsburg; Mrs. Mary L. 
Havaland and Annie S., both at home. 

Jacob K. Brown was born in Oxford, Chester 
county, Sept. 5, 1842. He grew to manhood on 
the home farm, which he now owns. His educa- 
tion was acquired in the well equipped public schools 
of Lancaster county. Early trained to agricultural 
pursuits, he has continued to follow farming as his 
life work, cultivating the home place, which con- 
sists of 13s acres of fine land, well improved with 
substantial buildings. The general appearance of 
the place proves its owner a first class thorough 

On Sept. 22, 1874, Jacob K. Brown married 
Sarah Lamborn, and three children have brightened 
their home: Mary Edna, and Chester L. are at 
home; Edith died in childhood. The Republican 
party has found in Mr. Brown a staunch adherent, 
and he takes a keen ' interest in all that pertains to 
the public welfare. 

SAMUEL KENEAGY, M. D. Samuel Ken- 
eagv was born June 20, 1820, and was the son of 
Henry Keneagy. He received an ordinary school 
education and finished at the Strasburg Academy, 
after which he began to read medicine in the ofHce 
of Dr. F. S. Burrowes, in Strasburg, in 1842. Sub- 
sequently he attended the sessions of the Jefferson 
Medical College at Philadelphia, from which he 
graduated in the spring of 1844, and then began the 
practice of medicine in Strasburg. He took a warm 
interest in politics and in 1858 he was elected a 
member of the Pennsylvania Legislature, to which 
he was also re-elected. During the Civil war he 
was surgeon in the 50th Pennsylvania Regiment, 
after which, in 1868, he accepted a professorship of 
Anatomy in the State Agricultural College, located 
in Center countv, Pa. The Doctor was one of 
the earlv members of the County Medical Society, 
and also of the State Medical Society. 

SMITH ARMOR, M. D. The medical history 
of Lancaster county includes the names of practi- 
tioners who for many years have been professionally 
associated with their respective localities. Among 
those at Columbia whose lives have been devoted 
most successfully to the healing art is Dr. Smith 
Armor. Almost a full half century measures the 
limits of his professional engagements and his 
career is most intimately related to the human wel- 
fare of Lancaster county. 

Dr. Armor is a native of Delaware. He was 
born near Wilmington, in .Feb., 1824, the son of 
James and Ann (Lyman) Armor, and the grand- 
son of William Armor, a native of Scotland, of 
Scotch-Irish extraction, whose latter days were 
passed in farming in the State of Delaware. 

James Armor was born in Delaware, in 1780. 
Reafed on a farm, he followed that vocation through 
life. During the war of 1812, he helped enlist a 
company of soldiers and was commissioned lieuten- 
ant, serving with that rank. He died in 1843, aged 
sixty-three years, his wife surviving until 1878, then 
passing away at the ripe old age of eighty-seven 
years. To James and Ann Armor were born these 
children: Ferris, who was a school teacher of 
Beaver Co., Pa. ; John ; James ; Thomas, of Em- 
poria, Kan. ; Eleanor, and Smith. All are now de- 
ceased except Smith. 

Smith Armor spent his boyhood days on the 
home farm but his mind was active and he aspired 
to a professional career. The Wilmington Acad- 
emy gave him a good education and largely by his 
own efforts he won his way through one of the 
early medical institutions, the Hahnemann School 
of Medicine of Philadelphia, graduating in 1851 at 
the age of twenty-seven years. Spending a year 
in travel, the young physician settled in 1852 at 
Marietta, Lancaster county, where he practiced suc- 
cessfully for four years. Then in 1856 he came to 
Columbia, where he has since followed the practice 
of his profession, rapidly winning the recognition 
which his professional attainments warranted and 
holding the confidence and esteem of his large 
clientage to the present day. 

Dr. Armor married at Columbia, Pa., in 1853, 
Sarah Martin, who was born in Muncy, Pa., in 
April, 1824, daughter of William A. Martin. To 
Dr. and Mrs. Armor were born two daughters: 
Chellie ■ A., who married Denison Reeside, a real 
estate agent, and is now a widow residing in Balti- 
more, Md. ; and Elizabeth H., who lives at the old 
home with her father. 

In politics Dr. Armor is a Republican, but prior 
to the administration of President Buchanan he was 
a Democrat. In religious afSliations he is a member 
of the Presbyterian Church. He has shared largely 
in the social and public life of Columbia, has at- 
tained a commensurate financial reward for his 
active and invaluable professional service, and holds 
a revered place in the affections of his fellow towns- 

JACQUES Le tort was a French-Canadian 
Indian trader, who first located on the Brandywine, 
but subsequently established a trading post in 
Conoy township. His wife took up 900 acres 
of land in Donegal township, near Sparks' 
Mill, which afterward came into the possession of the 
Zeigelers and Stehmans. He afterward moved to 
the spring bearing his name in Cumberland county, 
near Carlisle. In 1727 it was reported to the Pro- 



vincial council that Le Tort and some others had 
built trading posts near the Conestogue and were 
seeking for minerals. Le Tort was accused of hav- 
ing done some misdemeanor and had been sum- 
moned in 1694 to appear before the council. He 
was arrested and his goods seized, but subsequently 
they were returned, he giving bail in £500 with 
securities thereon. 

whom no physician in the interior of the State of 
Pennsylvania is better known, was mayor of the city 
of Lancaster from the spring of 1899 ^"til April, 

The history of the Muhlenberg family is an ex- 
ceedingly interesting one. Frederick Augustus 
Muhlenberg, M. D., was the youngest child of Rev. 
Dr. G. Henry Ernest Muhlenberg, a celebrated botan- 
ist, called the Linnaeus of America, and was born 
March 14, 1795, in the city of Lancaster, where his 
father was pastor for thirty-five years of the Evangel- 
ical Church of the Holy Trinity. His preliminary 
education he received in the German and English 
private and parochial schools of his native city and 
under the tuition of his father, who was a university 
scholar and a gentleman of high culture, refined tastes 
and exalted character. After the completion of his 
preparatory studies Frederick A. Muhlenberg was 
placed as a student of medicine in the oiifice of the 
eminent Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia. Rev. 
Dr. Muhlenberg was personally acquainted with Dr. 
Rush, had been associated with him in works of 
general benevolence and patriotism, and had a high 
appreciation of his ability as a physician and his ex- 
-cellence of character. The son entered his office 
probably in the year 1812, and continued with him as 
private pupil, also hearing his lectures in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, until the spring of 1814, on 
April 4th of which year he received the degree of 
M. D. from that justly celebrated institution, graduat- 
ing with high honors, diligently won. After his 
graduation from the University of Pennsylvania he 
returned to his native city, with the view of entering 
upon his profession, and, his father dying one year 
later, May 23, 181 5, he was thrown upon his own 
resources. On Feb. 6, 1816, Dr. Frederick A. 
Muhlenberg married Miss Eliza Schaum, a grand- 
daughter of Rev. John Helfrich Schaum, one of 
the early ministers of the Lutheran Church sent 
over from Halie ; he came to America in the year 

Dr. Muhlenberg devoted himself with all the 
energy of his nature to the noble profession he had 
chosen for his Hfework, and in the discharge of the 
duties connected therewith, in the department of 
general practice and surgery, which then were inti- 
rnately allied, he spent fiifty years of the best part of 
his life ministering to his fellow men, and alleviating 
the ills that "flesh is heir to." In this long period 
of practice he built up for himself a widespread repu- 
tation and a competent support. In 1821-23 the Doc- 

tor served as prothonotary, having been appointed 
by Gov. Heister, and his occupancy of this office 
brought him in contact with the best, of the leading 
legal and literary gentlemen of Lancaster — a cir- 
cumstance which improved his mind and widened his 
influence. He was afterward appointed register of 
wills by Gov. Shulze, and served two terms. As 
president of the Lancaster Bank, with James Evans, 
Esq., cashier, he aided in rescuing that institution 
from destruction, and in raising it to a high degree 
of usefulness and prosperity. With other gentlemen, 
he interested himself for the improvement of the 
Conestoga, by a series of locks, to bring it into con- 
nection with tide water, for commercial purposes ; 
and he used his influence and contributed of his 
means to make this enterprise a success. The money 
was lost, but the improvement remains. In early 
life Dr. Muhlenberg was also much interested in 
politics, being connected with the Democratic party, 
and along with Mr. Buchanan he aided in promoting 
the measures of that organization so long as they were 
in his judgment calculated to pi-omote the general 
good. He was also a member of the military com- 
pany which in 1812, with Mr. Buchanan as cap- 
tain, went to Baltimore to volunteer 'its services in 
defense of that city on the appearance of the British. 
Oh their arrival at Baltimore, however, the danger 
was past. Dr. Muhlenberg remained a steadfast 
friend of James Buchanan until, as President, he 
took sides with the South in the Kansas trouble, 
and failed to oppose with the necessary vigor the 
efforts of the Secessionists to dismember our country. 
Love of country then impelled the Doctor to forsake 
the friend of his youth and the party favoring such 
pernicious doctrines. In the great RebelHon his 
voice gave no uncertain sound. He could not prefer 
party to the welfare of his country. Descended from 
a grandfather — Rev. Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg — 
who was called an "arch rebel" by the British when 
they were encamped around his residence, in the 
neighborhood of Valley Forge, and occupying Phila- 
delphia : the nephew of Major Gen. Peter Muhlen- 
berg, who had served in the Revolution with dis- 
tinction, from its commencement to its brilliant close 
at Yorktown ; named after another uncle, Hon. Fred- 
erick Augustus Muhlenberg, who had been obliged 
to flee from New York on its occupancy by the 
British troops, and was afterward speaker of the 1st 
and Illd Congresses of the United States ; conscious 
also that his own father had several times been 
obliged to flee from Philadelphia in disguise in order 
to escape falling into the hands of the invaders of 
our country, and had lost in consequence nearly all 
of his property — by nature and by education all the 
pulsations of the Doctor's heart were for that glorious 
TJnion which had been secured at such sacrifices. 
Without hesitation he united with the war party to 
preserve the Constitution and the Government. His 
aid was solicited and given in the organization of the 
Union League, and he became its first president. 
Throughout the entire struggle he and all of his 



name were found on the side of their country, and 
none rejoiced more than he did on the final triumph 
of the cause of the Union. 

Dr. Muhlenberg found time also, dsepite his close 
attention to his practice, to which he gave an abso- 
lutely unselfish devotion, to promote the cause of 
liberal education in the community. In connection 
■with several other gentlemen of Lancaster, of differ- 
ent denominations, he brought about the establish- 
ment of a public school for the benefit of the poor of 
the city, and one of his nieces was principal, for a 
long period, of the female department of this school. 
Subsequently he helped materially in the progress 
and success of the Lancaster County Academy, of 
which he was one of the trustees. This institution 
was afterward merged into Franklin College, .incor- 
porated in the year 1787 by the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania, for the benefit of the Germans and their 
•descendants, at about the same that the public-school 
system was introduced into Lancaster. The Doc- 
tor's father had been an early trustee and president of 
Franklin College, and the son, aided by other public- 
spirited gentlemen of Lancaster of the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches, managed its finances with such 
care and ability that the institution was put upon a 
very substantial footing. It was owing largely to 
his efforts and influence that it was finally united 
with Marshall College, the removal of which from 
Gettysburg to Lancaster was successfully effected. 
The college has since been known as Franklin and 
Marshall College. 

Dr. Muhlenberg was a potent factor in the wel- 
fare of the Lutheran congregation of the Holy Trin- 
ity, in Lancaster, where for years he officiated as a 
member of the vestry, either as trustee or elder. It 
was in a great measure due to his advocacy that 
English preaching was introduced into that church. 
The Doctor was twice married, the first time to 
Miss Eliza Schaum, before mentioned, and the sec- 
ond time to Miss Ann Eliza Duchman. He had five 
children by the first marriage, and nine by the 

Dr. Plenry E. Muhlenberg, son of Dr. Frederick 
A., read medicine with his father and Dr. Benjamin 
Rtish, and took his degree at the University of- Penn- 
sylvania with the class of 1838. After graduation 
he became associated with his father, and soon won 
a large and lucrative clientele. In addition to his 
private practice, he was consulting and visiting phy- 
sician to the Lancaster County Hospital. He was an 
active member of the Board of Councils, and also 
a member of the County Medical Society. In 1869 
lie was appointed, by President Grant, collector of 
Internal Revenue of the 9th District, which office he 
held until his death, in July, 1877. He married Miss 
Catharine Cameron, daughter of the late John Cam- 
eron, a distinguished Pennsylvanian. Of their fam- 
ily, three sons and two daughters are living. Major 
John Cameron Muhlenberg is paymaster in the 
United States army, stationed at Omaha, in the De- 
partment of Missouri ; Charles E. is connected with 

the Dayton Cash Register Co., of Dayton, Ohio; 
Annie A. is the wife of Major J. P. Cress, in the 
Ordnance Corps, United States Army, stationed at 
St. Louis ; and Miss Mary E. is living in Lancaster, 
Pa. Another son, William C, who was a first lieu- 
tenant in the 2d LTnited States Infantry, died at 
Boise City, Idaho. 

Henry E. Muhlenberg was born in the old family 
home in West Orange street, Lancaster, Jan. 18, 
1850, son of Dr. Henry E. and Catharine (Cameron) 
Muhlenberg. After receiving a partial education in 
the public schools of Lancaster and in Yeates Insti- 
tute he was appointed, by Congressman Thaddeus 
Stevens, to a cadetship at the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, and remained there three and one-half 
years, at the end of which time he resigned and re- 
turned home to read medicine with his father. In 
187 1 he was graduated from the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and then went to Texas as a member of 
an engineering corps, helping to make the preliminary 
survey of the Texas & Pacific Railroad. Returning 
to lancaster. Dr. Muhlenberg remained at home a 
little over a year, and then entered the United States 
Marine Hospital service, in which he continued about 
four and one-half years, doing duty in New York, 
Boston and Philadelphia. Returning to Lancaster 
in July, 1877, at the death of his distinguished father, 
he took up the work of that very successful physician 
and surgeon, and the mantle of the dead father fell 
on worthy shoulders. After practicing for a time in 
the office wEich had been so long occupied by his 
father, in West Orange street. Dr. Muhlenberg, in 
i88t, removed to South Prince street, next door to 
the "Stevens House," and there he has ever since been 
located, enjoying one of the most extensive practices 
ever accorded to a physician in Lancaster. A stanch, 
energetic Republican, Dr. Muhlenberg served as phy- 
sician to the county alms-house and hospital for two 
terms, 1872-73 ; and during President Cleveland's 
first administration he was held over as a member of 
the Board of Examining Pension Surgeons of Lan- 
caster, of which body he was treasurer, having been 
first appointed a member of the Board by President 
Grant. He also served one year as a member of the 
common branch of the city council from the Fourth 
ward, and in February, 1899, was elected mayor of 
Lancaster by the largest majority ever given a Re- 
publican for mayor in Lancaster, his majority having 
been 1,011. He at once began the work of conduct- 
ing the administration on independent principles, 
and, as a result, there were notable depart'ires from 
previous administrations of the highest office in the 
gift of the people of this city. He retired from this 
incumbency in April, 1902. 

Dr. Muhlenberg was married, in 1879, to Miss 
Emma J. Fell, daughter of the late John P. Fell, a 
contractor of Wilkesbarre, Pa. They have no chil- 
dren, and make their home at the "Stevens House," 
next door to the Doctor's commodious offices. These 
offices are particularly interesting because of Dr. 
Muhlenberg's rare and valuable collection of old 



china and antique furniture — a collection that has no 
counterpart m this section of the country. The an- 
tique chairs in his front (or receiving) office are the 
same that stood in the office of the Doctor's grand- 
father ; while in the private office, in the rear, is a 
table that was made in 1772, and which has no nails 
in it, the parts being put together with wooden pegs. 
In the same room stands a quaint little table that came 
from the celebrated monastery at Ephrata. The Doc- 
tor is a Lutheran in religion, and is a member of the 
Masonic Fraternity, affiliating with the Blue Lodge, 
Chapter and Commandery, holding membership in 
the latter body in Philadelphia. He is also a member 
of the Elks, the Eagles, the Young Republicans and 
the Hamilton Club. Progressive and aggressive in 
all things, Dr. Muhlenberg was the first physician 
in Lancaster to administer antitoxin in the treatment 
of diphtheria. In social, professional and political 
affairs he is thoroughly independent, having opinions 
of his own and being possessed of the courage of his 

LEWIS J. KIRK, a member of the Board of 
Commissioners of Lancaster county, is one of the 
most intelligent and conscientious officers who have 
ever held this prominent position. 

The Kirk family belongs to the best blood of 
Lancaster county, one not dependent upon a royal 
ancestor, but honored through a long line of hon- 
est, industrious and intelligent men and women. 
Grandfather Roger Kirk was born in 1752, owned 
large estates and became an affluent mill owner and 
operator in Chester county, where his life was passed 
and where his memory is honored. Jacob Kirk, 
the son of Roger and father of Lewis J. Kirk, was 
born in 1775 and died Aug. 25, 1841. The well- 
known settlement of Kirk's Mills, with attendant in- 
dustries, was founded by Jacob Kirk, between 1812 
and 1816, and as early as 1814 the place had become 
important enough to have a postoffice established. 

Jacob Kirk was twice married, his first wife 
being Sarah England, his second, Hannah H., a sis- 
ter to the first wife. The children of the first mar- 
riage of Jacob Kirk were: John, born in 1804; 
Mary, born in 1805 ; Roger, born in 1807 ; and Han- 
nah, born in 1809. The children of his second 
marriage were: Sarah, born in 1817, married to 
Lewis Haines ; Rachel E., born in 1820, wife of 
Timothy Haines ; Elizabeth, born in 1822, unmar- 
I'ied ; Levi, born in 1825, unmarried ; Mary, born in 
1827, who married William P. Haines, a nephew of 
Lewis and Timothy Haines ; and Lewis J., born in 
1829, all of the family except the youngest having 
passed off the stage of life. 

Lewis J. Kirk was born at Kirk's Mills in 1829, 
and was educated in the public schools and in the 
academy at Kennett Square, Chester county. His 
first business enterprise was in the line of mer- 
chandising and milling and he still retains possession 
of a mill property. In 1857 he took an extended 
trip in Europe, a visit which was a source of great 

pleasure and profit to a man of his intelligence. 
Mr. Kirk has not only been regarded as a repre- 
sentative citizen of his locality, but of the whole 
county, through which he is well known as a most 
honorable, upright and law upholding citizen. 

Although a stanch Republican, R^r. Kirk has 
accepted few political honors. As township auditor 
he met every public demand, and on Sept. 20, 1901, 
•he was appointed by Judge Livingston to fill a 
vacancy in the board of county commissioners. This 
unsolicited appointment met with the heartiest pub- 
lic approval, and to the satisfaction of his fellow- 
citizens Mr. Kirk accepted the honor, was sworn 
into office on September 23d, just three days after his 
appointment, and has given to the office the same in- 
telligent and careful attention that he has invariably 
bestowed upon his private affairs, keeping up the re- 
cord made by his exemplary father in the House of 
Representatives of the State. 

The Kirk family has been long a leading one 
in the Society of Friends and Lewis J. was reared 
in this simple faith. His marriage was on May 
12, 1864, to Miss Adaline Caldwell, a daughter 
of the Hon. James A. Caldwell, a member of the 
Pennsylvania Senate, and Adaline (Maxwell) Cald- 
well, who was a granddaughter of Gen. Steele. The 
following children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Kirk r 
Robert C, born July 10, 1866; Mary Adaline, born 
May 10, 1870; and Natalie, born July 4, 1872, who 
passed out of life Aug. 18, 1875. 

A dignified, intelligent gentleman, Lewis J. 
Kirk is deservedly a strong man, personally, politi- 
cally, and religiously one who enjoys the confidence 
of all with whom he comes in contact. 

JOHN B. KIEFFER, Ph. D., of Franklin and 
Marshall College, enjoys the distinction of having 
been largely instrumental in enlisting the interest 
of the eminent philanthropist. Gen. De Peyster, to 
the extent of securing from him the magnificent 
library building which now adorns the campus of 
Franklin and Marshall College. 

Rev. Ephraim Kieffer, Dr. Kiefifer's father, was 
the son of Joseph Kieffer, who was the son of Ab- 
raham Kieffer, who was the son of Dewald Kieffer, 
who was the son of Abraham Kieffer, who was the 
son of Dewald Kieffer, of Kettenheim, Germany. 
The progenitor of this branch of the family — the 
Doctor's great-great-great-grandfather — came to the 
shores of America, in the ship, "Two Brothers," in 
1848. He settled in Berks county. Pa., and his 
grandson, Dr. Kieffer's great-grandfather, Abraham 
Kieffer, after serving two or three terms of enlist- 
ment in the Revolutionary Army, located in Franklin 
county, Pa., where he acquired considerable prop- 
erty, and left behind him seven sons and seven 
daughters, the ancestors of a large portion of the 
prolific race of Kieffers. 

It is said, however, that the Kieffers were or- 
iginally French, and not German, and that during 
the Huguenot troubles in France a Michel Tonelliers 



was driven from that country, and settled in Ger- 
many. The better to conceal his identity he trans- 
formed his name into Kieffer, and, marrying a 
German woman, became the ancestor of all the 
Kieffers in America. The name has various spell- 
ings, such as Kieffer, Kiefer, Keefer, Kifer, Kuever, 
and possibly Cuvier. 

Rev. Ephraim Kieffer married Eleanor Spang- 
ler, only daughter of Martin and Lydia (Gardner) 
Spangler, of York, Pa. She died in Mifflinburg, 
Pa., in 1847 leaving six children. Of these one 
died in infancy, and the rest are as follows: 
Hannah M. Cornelius; John B. ; Rev. J. Spangler, 
D. D., for more than thirty years the pastor of the 
Reformed Church at Hagerstown, Md. ; Mrs. Lydia 
J. Furst, of Cedar Springs, Pa. ; and Rev. Henry 
M., D. D., the pastor of the historic Reformed 
Church at Easton, Pa., and author of the "Recol- 
lections of a Drummer Boy." 

Dr. John B. Kieffer was born in Bellefonte, Pa., 
Oct. 20, 1839. His preparation etc., -for college was 
made in the old academy at Mifflinburg, and mainly 
under the instruction of Aaron C. Fisher. ' He en- 
tered the Sophomore class in Heidelberg College, 
Ohio, in the fall of 1857, where he came under the 
influence of Prof. E. E. Higbee, and was graduated 
with the first honors of his class in i860. In the 
fall of the following year, Prof. Higbee having 
resigned his professorship, the trustees of the in- 
stitution persuaded young Kieffer to abandon his 
resolution of enlisting in the Union army, and to 
assume the charge of the department of ancient 
languages, of which he became professor the follow- 
ing year. This position he held four years, and then 
at the earnest request of his father, who wished him 
nearer home, and of Dr. Higbee and Dr. Harbaugh, 
professors of Church History and of Dogmatics in 
the Theological Seminary at Mercerburg, Pa., he 
returned to his native State, and took charge of the 
department of Ancient Languages in Mercersburg 
College. There he was associated for years with 
Dr. Thomas G. Apple, who later became the presi- 
dent of Franklin and Marshall College, and after 
thirteen years of faithful labor at Mercersburg, was 
elected to the chair of Ancient Languages in Frank- 
lin and Marshall College. This was in 1878, and 
since that time he has been actively associated with 
the work of that institution. From 1878 to 1886 
he was professor of Latin and Greek, and since 
1886 has been professor of Greek. In 1888 he took 
charge of the Library of the College in addition to 
his other duties. He is a member of the American 
Philological Association, and of the British Society 
for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. For fifteen 
years he has been treasurer of the Association of the 
Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Middle 
States, and of Maryland. In 1884 he received the 
degree of Ph. D. from his Alma Mater, Heidelberg 
College, and on the same day the same degree from 
Franklin and Marshall College. 

Dr. Kieffer was married in 1878 to Miss L. M. 

B. Troupe, then of Mercersburg, and formerly of 
Clear Spring, Md., and a daughter of Joseph and 
Sarah (Cushwa) Troupe. To this union was born 
one child, Josephine B., member of the class o£ 
1902, of Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. 

DARE. The Dare family of Colerain township, 
Lancaster Co., comes of an ancestry dating far 
back. As early as 1686 William Dare was an 
innkeeper in Philadelphia, where his house was 
known as the "Blue Anchor." The family of Alki- 
mah Dare, who married Ann Dickey, was as fol- 
lows: (i) Reuben, born 1804; died 1812. (2) 
Charles, born 1785; died in infancy. (3) George 
T., born at the Lazaretto, near Philadelphia Nov. 
30, 1806, married Ann Dickey, and died Nov. 13, 
1890, at San Diego, Cal. ; he studied medicine and 
followed his profession in Colerain for many years. 
(4) John Kelsey, born Oct., 1809, died 1859. (.S) 
Ann, born March, 1812, married Mahlon Pusey, 
and died April, 1867. (6) Edward P., born May, 
1815, died December, 1893. (7) Mary C, born 
April, 1818, married William Whitesides, of Cole- 
rain, and died September, 1876. (8) James M., 
born November, 1820, died April, 1864. (9) Fran- 
ces M., born April, 1824, is still living. (10) E. O., 
born May 3, 1827, is living in Harrisburg. Mr. 
Dare is noted for his phenomenal memory, being 
able to recall dates and incidents of long ago with 
wonderful exactness. 

ELISHA W. BAITY, M. D. Among the promi- 
nent citizens of Christiana, Lancaster county, is Dr. 
EHsha W. Baily, who for many years has been iden- 
tified with the interests of this part of the great State 
of Pennsylvania, and is well and favorably known. 
His present residence is in Sadsbury township, but 
two miles from the thriving borough of Christiana. 
He was born in Londonderry township, Chester 
covmty, Oct. 17, 1821, a son of -Israel and Hannah 
(Baily) Baily, the former of whom was a farmer and 
also an auctioneer in Chester county, where both 
passed out of life, the father in 1823, and the mother 
in 1868, at the age of sixty-eight years, having been a ■ 
consistent member of the Hicksite branch of the So- 
ciety of Friends. The mother was twice married, the 
children of the first union being Byard, who died at 
the age of nineteen; Susan, who married Kersey 
Speakman, and died in 1850; and Elisha W. The 
second marriage of the mother was to Joshua Speak- 
man, and the children born of this marriage were: 
Col. Franklin B., who during the Civil war was the 
distinguished commander of the 133d P. V. I., and 
died Sept. 9, 1901, the proprietor of the "Coatesville 
Hotel ;" and D. Hannah, who is the widow of Harry 
Jones, of Coatesville. 

The Baily family in America originated from 
three English brothers of the name, who in early 
days settled in New York, Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, descendants of these brothers having made the 
name known all over the Union. The grandfather 



•of Dr. Baily lived in early life in Chester county, 
where he became a farmer and where his last days 
were spent. Both grandfathers bore the name of 

Like very many other men who have attained 
prominence later in life, Dr. Baily was reared on a 
farm, and was under the guidance of a good and 
pious mother until the age of sixteen years, receiving 
his preparatory education in the common schools of 
his locality. Then he became a student in the Union- 
ville Academy, where Bayard Taylor was one of his 
schoolmates, and later he studied mathematics under 
Dr. Baily, of 'Andrews Bridge, Lancaster county, and 
then engaged in school teaching. For two years he' 
followed this profession, in the meantime reading 
medicine under the. wise tuition of this same Dr. 
Baily, and in the course of time became a private 
student with the distinguished Dr. Pancost, in Jeffer- 
son Medical College, in Philadelphia. In 1844 he 
graduated from this great institution and located 
for his first practice in Atglen, Pa. In 1856 he re- 
moved to Bloomfield, Perry county, where he was 
successfully practicing in 1861, when the outbreak 
of the Civil war changed the future of so many lives. 

At this date. Dr. Baily took medical charge of 
Camp Curtin for three months, then with the 47th 
P. Y. I., under Gen. Brannon, took part in the army 
movements until 1863, when he was made a member 
of Gen. Woodbury's staff. He had general charge 
of the Island of Key West, and was health officer 
while on Gen. Woodbury's staff. In the spring of 
1864 Dr. Baily was placed in charge of a hospital 
boat on the Mississippi river where he continued un- 
til July, alleviating the miseries he could not cure, 
of the brave men placed in his care. From here he 
was sent through the Shenandoah Valley, with Gen. 
Sheridan, taking an active part in the battles of Win- 
chester and Cedar Creek, remaining until the close 
•of the war, being finally mustered out at Harrisburg, 
No greater heroes lived through those years than the 
armv physician and surgeon, and the history is yet 
to be written which will do them justice. The won- 
ders they accomplished and the miraculous cures 
that followed their necessarily hurried surgerv 
marked a degree of skill which is not surpassed, al- 
though modern discoveries have given the medical 
and surgical staff of the present day so many ad- 

Dr. Baily resumed his practice among the good 
people of Atglen, and in 1873 was honored by his 
fellow-citizens with election to the Legislature, where 
he spent four years, representing his constituency 
with great credit. Again he resumed practice, but 
failing health warned him that a change was nec- 
essary, and the next ten years were spent in Phila- 
■delphia, coming to his farm on May 31, 1892, trust- 
ing that the pure air and country exercises would 
restore him to former robustness. In this hope he 
has been joined by a wide circle of attached friends. 

Dr. Baily was married on Nov. 10, 1852, in the 
city of New York, to Mar}- A. Cook, who was born 

at Point Pleasant, Ocean county, N. J., a daughter 
of Thomas and Ann (Williams) Cook, farming peo- 
ple of New Jersey, where their lives were passed. 
On Jan. 8, 1903, Mrs. Baily passed her seventy-third 
birthday. On Nov. 10, 1902, the good Doctor and 
his wife celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their 
marriage, and received the hearty congratulations 
and good wishes of a host of prominent people. Dr. 
and Mrs. Baily had one daughter born to them, Ella, 
who married George Martin, and died at the age of 
thirty-two years ; she left behind two children, Nor- 
man and Zelda, who have been adopted by Dr. Baily 
and bear his name. Norman is attending the West- 
chester State Normal School, and Zelda the Chris- 
tiana high school. 

In his political affiliations. Dr. Baily has always 
been a stanch supporter of the Republican party, and 
he is in full accord with the administration, although 
he is no officeholder. For many years he has been 
connected with the Masonic fraternity, and was 
master of the Adams Lodge, in Perry county, and 
has ever taken an active interest in its affairs. Al- 
though not a member of any especial religious or- 
ganization. Dr. Baily takes an interest in all benevo- 
lent and charitable work, freely contributing to the 
support of many enterprises. Although not in active 
practice he has kept pace with the strides made in his 
science, leaving, however, to younger aspirants the 
tests of medical skill in which he once excelled. In 
his neighborhood he is well known, his pleasant per- 
sonality making him a delightful host. Few men 
are more universally esteemed. 

was born in Lancaster, Pa., July 24, 1846, son of 
Henry Clay and Anna Maria (Burg) FonDersmith. 
At the age of nine years he removed with his parents 
to the borough of Columbia, and there during the 
following six years attended the parish schools, and 
also acquired a commercial education in the dry- 
goods establishment of his father. 

At the early age of eighteen years Mr. FonDer- 
smith responded with alacrity and enthusiasm to the 
call of his country for defenders. He became cor- 
poral at the time of his enlistment, and returned a 
sergeant, in Co. E, 195th P. V. I. At the close of 
his term of enlistment he returned home, where he 
was promptly offered a position in the Columbia 
National Bank, as messenger boy and man of all 
work that might offer. At the expiration of two 
years in that employment his attention to his duties 
and his efficiency as an all-around assistant resulted 
in his election as a regular clerk, and a little later in 
his promotion to the more responsible position of re- 
ceiving teller. 

In those days the, visitation of the pay car on rail- 
road lines had not yet materialized. The Pennsyl- 
vania Railway Company was accustomed to have the 
banks along the line which were its depositories pay 
the employes nearest at hand, and it often fell to the 
lot of young FonDersmith. to pay the monthly wages 



to the construction gangs at work on the main line 
between Columbia and Philadelphia ; in this work he 
left Columbia as early as s o'clock in the morning, 
returnmg late in the day. The men who were em- 
?x7'^^'^-n^* *^ excavations at Powelton avenue, in 
West Philadelphia, were among the number. The 
payments were generally $50,000 every month. 
What a contrast with the business of that road to- 
day ! 

In February, 1869, Mr. FonDersmith was 
ottered and accepted a situation in the Farmers Na-' 
tional Bank, at Lancaster, combining the duties of 
discount clerk Math that of receiving teller. He re- 
mained in that responsible dual position until March, 
1882. In the latter year the Fulton National Bank 
of Lancaster was chartered, and he was at once 
elected cashier of the new organization, which re- 
ceived under his careful direction the powerful 
impetus which carried it forward with such marked 
success. But once more his old love, the Farmers 
National Bank, needed a competent and able man at 
its head as cashier, and the directors at once extended 
him a call to assume that position, and in December, 
1886, he returned to this, the oldest and largest 
banking institution in the county, where he remains 
to this day. 

A little incident connected with his return to the 
Farmers Bank shows in such an emphatic manner 
the confidence and esteem in which he is held by the 
directors of that institution that reference to it here 
seems eminently appropriate. A few weeks after 
re-entering upon his duties he went before the board 
and reminded them that his bond had not yet been 
presented and filed. The board, in answer, replied 
that no outside bond would be required ; that it, as a 
body, would go his bond ; they did so, and thus the 
incident was closed. It would be difficult to present 
a stronger example of confidence and regard between 
employers and employe than the one just cited. 

It will be seen from the brief outline here given 
of Mr. FonDersmith's career that he has had a thor- 
ough training as a financier. He has filled every 
position in an ordinary bank, from general utility 
boy to the responsible one of cashier, and there is no 
position in a bank which he cannot fill, and fill well, 
in an emergency. No banker in the county of Lan- 
caster is so well' known as he. For more than thirty 
years he has been in close contact with the most 
influential men of finance and trade, and few have 
exercised a greater influence on both. His general 
personality and affability have won him a wide circle 
of friends" a'nd universal public esteem. 

Although Mr. FonDersmith has been a lifelong 
Republican in his political affiliations, he has never 
been induced by the pride of place or the emoluments 
of office to enter upon a political career, being 
another consoicuous example of that class of men 
who, while discharging all the duties of good citizen- 
ship, nevertheless refuse to be drawn into the mire 
of politics. By education and by preference he has 
always been in hearty communion with the Lutheran 

Church, and she in return has bestowed her lay hon- 
ors upon him. He is a member of the vestry of 
Trinity congregation and an elder. He is also a 
member of the board of trustees of Muhlenburg Col- 
lege, one of the educational institutions of the Lu- 
theran Church. Among other positions of honor 
and trust, he is a member of the board of home mis- 
sions attached to the Lutheran Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania ; one of the board of trustees of the Ann C. 
Witmer Home, one of the charitable institutions of 
Lancaster, to which he has stood in close relation 
since its organization ; and is a member of the board 
of directors of the Y. M. C. A., and chairman of 
the educational course. He was one of the organiz- 
ers of the Plamilton Watch Company, and is largely 
interested in the same. From 1883 until 1899 he 
was one of the owners and operators of the large 
paper-mill on the Conestoga river, at Eden, an 
establishment noted for the excellence of its product. 
He has for years been a director of the Marietta 
Turnpike Company. He is at the present time presi- 
dent of the Lancaster Board of Trade, and was 
largely instrumental in the founding of that organi- 

In Masonic circles Mr. FonDersmith has been 
prominent for years, being a member of nearly all 
the affiliated organizations, and having held the 
highest official rank in them all. 

Mr. FonDersmith has always been recognized in 
the community as one of its most public-spirited citi- 
zens. Foremost in every good and laudable work, 
both his time and money have ever been forthcom- 
ing when circumstances called for them. Few men 
in the commAinity have so freely placed their per- 
sonal services at the command of the public, and 
none have been more faithful in the discharge of the 
duties and responsibilities placed upon them. 

It may be mentioned in this connection, as an in- 
stance of Mr. FonDersmith's progressive character, 
that when the scheme for the introduction of electric 
light into Lancaster was f.rst broached, in 1886, he 
was the first man approached to lend his endorse- 
ment to the project by a subscription to the stock of 
the company then formed, and he subsequently be- 
came one of the largest stockholders, until its con- 
solidation with the Lancaster Arc Light Company, 
in 1888, and ultimately with the Edison Illuminating 
Company, in 1889. 

With no local enterprise, perhaps, has Mr. Fon- 
Dersmith been more closely identified than with that 
noble charity, the Lancaster General Hospital. He 
was one of its founders, in 1893, and has been most 
intimately connected with it ever since ; he has been 
its treasurer since its organization, and is also a 
director and member of the executive committee. 
Its establishment upon a permanent basis was, as 
is well known, a difficult and thankless work, and 
was achieved through the tireless and persistent 
efforts of Mr. FonDersmith and the few good men 
and true co-operating with him. Nothing that he 
has done, perhaps, in his long and busy career can 



afiEord him more pride and pleasure than his suc- 
cessful labors in this good cause. 

In 1877 Mr. FonDersmith was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Annie Downing Truscott. No chil- 
dren have been born of this union. 

inent member of the Lancaster Bar, is distinguished 
by reason of an old and honored ancestry, paternal 
and . maternal, as well as by his own professional 
work, which has made him one of the leaders of the 
Bar. He was born in Millersville, April 21, 1862, 
and is of English descent. He was graduated from 
the Millersville State Normal School in 1881, and 
after an academic cotirse at Yale, where he was a 
member of the class of 1885, he tatight school in 
Shortlidge's Academy, Media, for one year, and then 
registered as a law student with the late Hon. Mar- 
riott Brosius. He was admitted to practice law on 
March 8, 1889, and two years later was admitted to 
the Supreme Court, in which, as well as in the Su- 
perior Court, he has had an extended practice. For 
■one year after being admitted he was associated with 
James C. Packer, Esq., son of the late Congressman 
Packer of Sunbury, Northumberland Co., Pa. 
James C. Packer was the Solicitor of the Philadel- 
phia and Erie and Northern Central Railways, and 
Mr. Montgomery became the acting solicitor of these 
great corporations for the year of 1892, as well as 
assisting Mr. Packer in the settlement of the vast 
estates left by his father. Returning to Lancaster 
in 1893, Mr. Montgomery looked after legal busi- 
ness of his preceptor, Mr. Brosius, who had been 
elected to Congress, and this brought him into con- 
tact with an extensive clientage. 

A stanch Republican, as well as personally popu- 
lar, Mr. Montgomery was strongly urged for the 
position of coimty sohcitor, in 1891, and he has, for 
years past, been a member of the Young Republicans' 
Club. He has taken an active part for the Repub- 
lican party in every campaign since 1887, and is a 
pleasant and forceful speaker. Indeed he began 
making speeches for the Republican party when a 
law student, and owing to the unwillingness of those 
who are at the head of the party's affairs, to permit 
him to give it up, he has continued to perform this 
arduous part of campaign work. 

Mr. Montgomery was the son of Prof. John V. 
Montgomery, who married Sarah T. Wickersham. 
His mother came of Quaker ancestry — ^being a 
daughter of Caleb and Abigail Wickersham, and a 
sister of the late Hon. James P. Wickersham, for 
many years State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, and later Minister to Denmark. His father 
held the chair of penmanship and drawing in the 
State Normal School, at Millersville, from its found- 
ing to his death in 1885, with marked ability, having 
we believe, no superior in his specialty in the United 
States. The Pennsylvania State School Journal, the 
most prominent authority in matters educational in 
this State, declared that the lamented Montgomery 

was one of the forerhost educators of his time — a 
pioneer and ardent advocate of industrial education. 
Lafayette College, in recognition of his great work, 
had conferred upon him the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts. Hugh and Mary Montgomery, the 
grandparents, lived in Mechanicsburg, this county. 

On Jan. 21, 1891, Caleb Eugene Montgomery 
was married to Miss Mary Reynolds, daughter of 
the late Hon. S. H. Reynolds, the most distinguished , 
lawyer at the Lancaster Bar during the past century, 
and whose descendants wear the crest that came from 
the ancient and honored Scotch ancestry of the Rey- 
nolds family. Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery have be- 
come the parents of three children : Mary Reynolds, 
who passed away at the tender age of one year; 
Frederick Reynolds, who was twelve years old Feb. 
27, 1903 ; and Caleb Eugene Montgomery, Jr., who 
was eight years old Feb. 25, 1903. 

Mr. Montgomery is president of the Lancaster 
Country Club, of which he was a founder, a club that 
numbers in its membership the very cream of Lan- 
caster's social life, and which has built an elegant 
clubhouse and established golf links and other ath- 
letic sports at Rossmere, the superb new annex to 
Lancaster. He has also been a member of the Uni- 
versity Club of Philadelphia, belongs to the Yale 
Alumni Association of Philadelphia, and to the D. 
K. E. Fraternity of Yale. Religiously he is an Epis- 
copalian. The Montgomery home at No. 802 North 
Duke street is a center of attraction for the most cul- 
tured social life of the' community. 

MARTIN CHARTIERE. One of the foremost 
and inost noted Indian traders of Lancaster county 
was Martin Chartiere. He was a French Canadian, 
and married an Indian squaw. He established his 
permanent home with the Shawnese Indians when 
they came from the south and settled on Pequea 
creek. He spoke the Delaware language fluently, 
and had much influence with the savages. The agents 
of the Penns gave to Chartiere a vast tract of land 
extending from the mouth of the Conestoga creek 
several miles up the Susquehanna river. He built 
his trading post on this tract, which is now owned 
by the Shomans near Washington borough. He died 
in 1708, and left all his land and property to his son 
Pierre, who sold his farm in Manor to Stephen At- 
kinson in r72'/, and moved to the Yellow Breeches 
creek, and from there went to Ohio. He gave the 
English and proprietors of Pennsylvania much 
trouble during his lifetime. 

1899, there passed away at his home in Columbia 
one of its best known and most highly respected 
citizens, one who for many years had served as mas- 
ter mechanic in the railroad shops at that place. Mr. 
Baker was born in Doe Run, Chester Co., Pa., June 
IT, 1822, a son of Isaiah and Abigail (Ortlip) Baker, 
who spent their entire lives as farming people in that 
countv. Andrew O. was the fourth in order of birth 



in their family of six children, the others being Ra- 
chel, wife of James Cottier, of Coatesville, Pa.; 
Alice, deceased wife of George Booth; Anna, wife 
of Isaac Faddis, of Ercildoim, Pa.; Phineas and 
Frank, both deceased. 

Andrew O. Baker was reared by an uncle and 
spent his early life on a farm in his native county, 
where he remained until seventeen years of age and 
then entered the employ of the old State road. When 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company purchased the 
same, he remained with them for a few years and 
then went to Pittsburg, where in 1847 he became 
connected with the Pittsburg & Fort Wayne railroad, 
was made fireman in Jan., 1851, was promoted to 
engineer in 1855, ^^id. was made master mechanic in 
the shops at Columbia in Sept., 1868, which position 
he most creditably and acceptably filled until the date 
of his death. 

Mr. Baker was three times married, his first wife 
being Rachel Hill, by whom he had two children : 
William., deceased, who married Lilly Hinton ; and 
Mary, who died in childhood. His second wife was 
Eliza Dougherty, and to them were also born two 
children : Anna Jane, deceased wife of Edward Mc- 
Dowell, of Philadelphia ; and Eliza J., a school teach- 
f.r of Columbia. On Oct. 14., 1858, in Lancaster 
Mr. Baker wedded Mary B. Wright, and they had 
eight children, of whom are named : Susan, wife of 
George Supplee, a machinist of Columbia ; Nathaniel 
L., who married Amelia Fry and is a draftsman with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at Altoona, Pa. ; 
Emily W., wife of Charles G. Burton, who is con- 
nected with a music store in Philadelphia; Abigail 
O., wife of Neil Walker, a machinist of Columbia; 
Andrew, who died in infancy ; Mary, who died in 
childhood ; and Alice, wife of J. Edgar Zollinger, of 
New Haven, Conn., master mechanic of New Haven 
Iron & Steel Co. 

Mrs. Baker was born in Columbia, Pa., March 
4, 1829, a daughter of Charles M. and Susan 
(Stump) Wright, life-long residents of that place. 
The father, who was a large land owner, never en- 
gaged in any active labor. Religiously he was a 
rnember of the Society of Friends. He died in 1861, 
aged sixty-seven years, his wife, in 1847, 
aged fortv-eight, and both were laid to rest in the 
old Mt. Bethel cemetery. Their children were: 
Sarah, deceased wife of' Charles Franciscus; Mary 
B., now Mrs. Baker; Catherine, deceased wife of 
Wesley Breece ; Emily, who died unmarried ; Eliza- 
beth, deceased wife of Beverly Mayer ; and Rhoda, 
James and Charles, who all died unmarried. Mrs. 
Baker's paternal grandparents were James and 
Elizabeth (Barber) Wright, of Columbia. The 
grandfather also was a wealthy property owner and 
never engaged in any business. The maternal grand- 
parents were Frederick and Barbara Stump, who 
were born in Germany and died in Columbia. 

During all his railroad career, Mr. Baker never 
met with an accident, and was regarded as one of the 
most efficient and trusted employes of the road. Fra- 

ternally he was an honored member of Columbia 
Lodge, No. 286, F. & A. M. : Corinthian Chapter, 
No. 224, R. A. M. ; and Cyrene Commandery, No. 
34, K. T. By birthright he was a Quaker, but in 
later years attended the Presbyterian Church. By 
an honorable, upright life, he won an untarnished 
name, and the record which he left behind him is one 
well worthy of perpetuation. 

HON. GEORGE FORREST. This worthy and 
representative citizen of Lancaster is a gentleman 
who has been much in the public eye, and whose high 
character for ability and integrity has won to him 
a large circle of friends throughout his section of 
the State. He has been for long years connected 
with the business interests of the city as a tobacco 
inspector for some of the large dealers of New York. 
He has served his county in the Legislature, and his 
fine executive ability has been utilized frequently 
by his fellow citizens in different municipal offices 
of trust. 

The family of which Mr. Forrest is a member, 
is a very old one in Lancaster county; it is of Eng- 
lish descent, and the members of the family were 
in America at the time of the Revolutionary war 
and took part in that sanguinary struggle. The 
grandfather of George Forrest was Joseph, a white- 
smith, and later the pioneer harness smith of the 
county. He married Elizabeth Bruner, who was 
a daughter of Casper and Rebecca Bruner, natives 
of Germany, and also very early . settlers in the 
county, where Casper Bruner was for long years a 
manufacturer of jack screws. Joseph Forrest was 
a youth at the time of the war of 1812 and took part 
in that struggle as a drummer boy. He died in 
1854 at the age of fifty-seven years, and his wife 
died in 1830, at the comparatively early age of 
thirty-two. These early members of the family were 
highly respected citizens of the county and were 
members of the Lutheran and the Reformed 
Churches, respectively. They now lie buried in 
Lancaster cemetery. Their children were : Jacob ; 
Joseph; Mary, who married William Payne; Cas- 
per; Henry; Peter; John; and Susan, who mar- 
ried Augustus Holbaugh, of Bellfonte, Pa. Of 
this family Casper Forrest was the father of George. 
Casper Forrest, the father, was born in Lancaster, 
May 9, 1820, and on March 4, 1840, was married in 
the same place to Ann M. Milicheock. To the mar- 
riage were born: Elizabeth, deceased in 1887, was 
the wife of Henry Gentz, a large brick manufacturer ; 
Henry, deceased in March, 1882, married Elizabeth 
Helm; Samuel was accidentally killed on the rail- 
road in the year 1887; Sarah, deceased in 1900, 
was the wife of William Bransby, of Philadelphia; 
George is mentioned below ; Mary married Byron 
Cummings, a machinist of Lancaster; Susan died 
at the age of six years; William is in the tobacco 
business at Lancaster. The mother of this family 
was born near Baltimore, Md., and died in Lancaster 
July 22, 1887, at the age of sixty-six years, and is 



buried in Woodward Hill cemetery. She was the 
daughter of George and Rebecca (Roth) Milicheock, 
and was a lady of fine strength of character. 

Casper Forrest, the father of the family, was 
at a tender age bound out to serve an apprenticeship 
in the making of powder horns and as a machinist, 
in which trade he served for a period of ten years. 
He then worked at the business as a journeyman 
for a period, but gave up the trade and entered the 
flour and feed business. After a period at this, 
he in 1870 engaged in the manufacture of brick, 
which he continued for some three years. Owing 
to. an overconfidence in mankind, he was led into 
the signing of bad paper by designing parties, the 
result of which was to bring great financial re- 
verses on him. He is a man of fine grain of char- 
acter. He affiliates in a fraternal way with the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, and is a member 
of the Lutheran Church. Politically he supports 
the policies of a Democratic party. 

Hon. George Forrest was born in the town of 
Lancaster, Pa., on Manor street, in what was then 
known as Betheltown, Jan. 2, 1852. He attended 
the public schools, and after finishing the high 
school course took up the printing trade with a pub- 
lishing company, at the head of which was Stuart 
A. Wylie. He served an apprenticeship with them 
for four years, and one year longer as a journey- 
man. He then went to New Haven, Conn., where 
he ■ was in the office of the vice-president of the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany, engaged in the office work of civil engineer- 
ing for the period of a year. This employment, 
however, was not to his taste, and he went to Phil- 
adelphia, where he followed his trade for the next 
three years. He then came back to Lancaster and 
engaged with the firms of H. C. Linde and Hamilton 
& Co., leaf tobacco inspectors of New York, who 
had a tobacco warehouse in Lancaster, in which his 
brother Henry held the position of inspector. He 
served under his brother until he became an expert 
himself, and at his brother's death, in March, 1882, 
he succeeded to the position, which he has since con- 
tinued to fill. Mr. Forrest is looked upon as one 
of the best judges of leaf tobacco in this part of 
the State, his services being highly valuable to the 
company by whom he is employed. 

During his career in Lancaster, since his return 
from Philadelphia, Mr. Forrest has been quite prom- 
inent in the political life of the county and city. 
His Democracy has always been of the Jacksonian 
variety, and he has at all times been ready to engage 
in the work of organization of the different cam- 
paigns which have been waged in the county. He 
thus won recognition at the hands of the leaders, 
and his genial personahty had made him so popular 
with the people that in 1892 he was nominated to 
a place on the ticket as a representative to the Lower 
House. He received a handsome vote, and served 
with distinction during the following session. In 
the year 1890 he was elected to a position on the 

city school board, and in 1899 became secretary o£ 
that board, an office in which he has since served 
to the satisfaction of that body. In matters of fra- 
ternal interest, Mr. Forrest affiliates with the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, and has filled all 
the chairs. He has been trustee of Herschel Lodge 
for the past ten years. He is a member of Ridge- 
ley encampment. He is also a member of the- 
Artisans; of the Jr. O. U. A. M.; the B. P. O. E., 
in which he has filled all the chairs, also serving 
as trustee for three years, chairman of the Social 
Room four years, and was one of the committee 
of the Advocate of New Quarters. 

On Nov. 10, 1881, Hon. George Forrest mar- 
ried in Lancaster Clemmie C. Pool, who became 
the mother of: G. Edward and Harry Mortimer. 
Mrs. Forrest is a native of Lancaster, a daughter 
of Samuel J. and Mary C. (Stormfeltz) Pool. Her 
father was the pioneer silver plater of Lancaster. 
He died July 7, 1900, at the age of sixty-six years,- 
her mother dying in 1898 at the age of sixty-One 
years, and they both lie buried in Lancaster cem- 
etery. They were devout and highly respected 
members of St. John's Lutheran Church. Their 
children were Mary E., who married William Wiley, 
of Lancaster, Pa. ; Edward C, of the Lancaster 
cemetery; Katie, deceased in girlhood, and Clemmie- 
C, Mrs. Forrest. 

Courteous, genial and well informed, Hon., 
George Forrest is a highly respected citizen of his. 
native city, and has been prominently and honorably- 
associated with its history. 

S. CLAY MILLER, the extensive wine and 
liquor dealer of Center Square, Lancaster, is a de- 
scendant of German ancestry, and his parents were 
well known residents of Lancaster county. His 
mother's maiden name was Fanny Snyder. Mr. 
and Mrs. Miller had eight children: Mary, Jacob 
P., Fanny, Henry, S. Clay, Lizzie, Washington and 
Samuel. The father lived to be eighty-two, and the 
mother was seventy-two at the time of her death. 

S. Clay Miller was born in Manheim, Lancaster 
county, April 25, 1844, and when eleven years old 
left home to work on his uncle's farm, in Pequea 
township, the first three years receiving his board 
and clothing, and during the next two four dollars 
a month besides. When he was sixteen he was put 
in charge of a country tavern near Elizabethtown, 
where he remained for a year. He enlisted Oct. 
3, 1861, in the Union army, where his experiences 
were varied and interesting. For some months his 
command was engaged in building long fortifications 
at Port Royal, S. C, and was landed at Tybee Island 
April 9, 1S62. After a two days' engagement Fort 
Pulaski was captured, on the 20th of the following- 
May. St. John's and James Island were also cap- 
tured by this command. Mr. Miller was pushed 
overboard and nearly drowned in the St. John river, 
and was severely wounded by a spent ball which 
struck him on the left thigh in the battle of Poca- 



taligo, S. C, disabling him for some time. After 
the battle this ball was found in his pocket. On July 
i8, 1863, at the second assault on Fort Wagner, Gen. 
G. S. Strong, with Mr. Miller at his side carrying 
the colors, leaped upon the works, and both were 
swept back by a storm of shell and musketry fire 
from Fort Wagner, Fort Sumter, Fort Moultrie and 
surrounding batteries. Gen. Strong was fatally 
wounded, and recommended the gallant young sol- 
dier for promotion with almost his last words. Mr. 
Miller, if not the youngest, was the smallest soldier 
to carry the ilag. He was given a medal from Gen. 
GiUmore, dated Aug. 23, 1863, with the inscription, 
"S. C. Miller, Company H, 76th Pa. Vet. Vol. For 
gallant and meritorious conduct. Q. A. Gillmore, 
Major General." On the reverse is a representation 
of Fort Sumter, surrounded with water. The 76th 
Pennsylvania arrived at Bermuda Hundred, on the 
James River, May i, 1864, and in June Sergt. Miller 
was the first to plant the flag on the enemy's works 
in the destruction of the Richmond and Petersburg 
railroad. Young Miller was wounded in front of 
Petersburg ten days later, and on the 22d of July 
was promoted to color-bearer sergeant. At Drury's 
Bluff, when the Union men were driven back, Sergt. 
Miller was one of the last to leave the line, and saved 
his colors under very creditable circumstances. This 
was the famous engagement when Gen. Butler was 
caught in the fog. A retreat being ordered, Sergt. 
Miller reported a squad of Union soldiers captured 
by the Rebels, and rallied men enough to charge 
back and save the eight men from Rebel prisons. 
At the mine explosion, on July 30th, Miller, the boy 
soldier, was knocked and tramped on by a stampede 
of the colored troops, but managed to save his colors 
under heavy fire. On Aug. 14, at Deep Bottom, he 
was wounded by a shell, and sent to the hospital at 
Fortress Monroe for two months, but rejoined his 
regiment in front of Petersburg as soon as he was 
able to do so, and an hour and a half after his arrival 
in the trenches was struck on the neck by a flying bit 
of a shell, which hardly more than broke the skin 
however. This young officer carried the colors in 
nearly all the engagements in which his regiment 
participated, e?ccept those that occurred while he was 
lying in the hospital. Some of his escapes were in- 
deed miraculous. Four times he was hit by bullets, 
and he was swept off the parapet by the bursting of 
a shell and knocked back into the trench with the 
flag in his hand. The 76th Pennsylvania suffered 
severely during the war, losing over six hundred 
out of its original complement, in killed, wounded 
and missing. Major Reinoehl said that on the night 
he formed his command for the charge on Fort 
Wagner four hundred were in the lines, and only 
two hundred came back. Sergt. Miller has a letter 
of commendation from Gen. Littel, Major Wdham 
Diller and Major A. C. Reinoehl, former officers 
of the regiment. 

Upon the death of Major A. C. Reinoehl, post- 
master at Lancaster, Mr. Miller was appointed his 


successor, the honor coming as a tribute to his record 
as a soldier and his worth as a citizen. The appoint- 
ment came through Congressman Brosius, who had 
been waited upon by a committee of prominent Lan- 
casterians, urging the claims of Mr. Miller over 
and above those of a goodly number of very excel- 
lent men who were candidates for the position. Mr. 
Brosius (himself a soldier) recognized the merits 
of this citizen-soldier, and gave him the office, ta 
which he was inducted March i, 1901. 

Mr. Miller was married in March, 1869, to Miss 
Louise, a daughter of William Rudduck, of Phila- 
delphia, formerly of London, England, and to this 
union were born five children: Leon R., who is 
an engraver; Herbert C, a note clerk in the Lan- 
caster Trust Co. ; Mabel L. ; Effie I. ; and Louise B. 
All except Leon are at home. The family are in the 
membership of St. James Episcopal Church. Mr. 
Miller is a prominent Mason, and has taken the 
Thirty-second degree in the fraternity, passing of 
course through all the intervening organizations- 
He is also a member of the Royal' Arcanum, the 
Hamilton Club, the Young Republican Club, the 
Elks, Admiral Reynolds Post, No. 405, G. A. R., and 
the Union Veteran Legion. Mr. Miller has been 
chief marshal of many Republican parades, and 
handled them well in the Garfield, Harrison and Mc- 
Kinley campaigns. Fie planned the great battle be- 
tween the two local posts of the G. A. R., which was 
fought in Conestoga Park about five years ago, he 
commanding the Confederate forces. The event ex- 
cited widespread interest, and brought at leats 25,000 
visitors to Lancaster. Perhaps no man in the State 
has a finer record as a soldier than S. Clay Miller. 

LINDLEY MURRAY, the English grammar- 
ian, was born in 1745 near the Swatara, in what 
was then Lancaster county, but is now embraced 
within the territory of Dauphin. His "Grammar 
of the English Language," which was issued in 
1795, was for many years the standard authority 
on that subject. After accumulating considerable 
money in mercantile pursuits, on account of his 
health becoming impaired he went to England, 
where he died in 1826, on his estate at the old gate, 
near York. 

and retail druggist of Lancaster, and the most prom- 
inent and largest dealer in that line in the county, 
is descended from an old family, originally from 
Switzerland, which settled near New Holland, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., early in 1700. Mr. Hull was born in 
New Holland on Washington's birthday, 1838. He 
was the son of Wendell and Margaret (Darrow) 
Hull, of New Holland. 

Wendell Hull was a shoemaker, who later con- 
ducted the Bird-in-Hand "Railroad House" and 
finally the "Eagle Hotel," in New Holland, until 
his death in 1882 at the age of seventy-three. His 
wife survived him until 1892 at the age of seventy- 



two. They are buried in the New Holland cemetery. 
Mrs. Hull was a member of the German Reformed 
Church. Her husband was a liberal supporter of 
the church but not a member. The issue of their 
marriage was : Levi, a retired citizen of New Hol- 
land ; Madison, Henry and William, who all three 
died young; Anna, Mrs. John Piersol, of Indian- 
apolis, Ind., deceased; George W., the subject here- 
of; Emma, now the wife of Tobias Bartlett, of 
Reading, Pa., ex-tax collector and a man of wealth 
and prominence; Susan and Julia, both living with 
their brother, George, and William H., who died 
in 1892. 

Mr. Hull lived with his parents and attended 
school until his fifteenth year when he went to 
Reading, Pa., and was for two years a clerk in 
the Court House. After this he served with Charles 
A. Heinitsh for three and one-half years as a clerk 
in the drug business. Thereafter he was manager 
of the drug store of Benjamin Kauffman for a year 
and a half, and after that again for another year 
and a half for John Markley, who had bought out 
Kauffman and was no druggist himself. He then 
took his final service with Dr. Thomas Ellmaker 
in whose drug business he remained until May 12, 
1872, when he purchased it. It was then only a 
single storeroom and cellar but did not remain so 
long under the proprietorship of Mr. Hull. He 
soon purchased his present stand, then a small af- 
fair, and rebuilt it to accommodate his fast enlarg- 
ing business. He expanded into a wholesaler as 
well as a retailer and now occupies five floors with 
the most modern, best equipped, largest and best 
managed drug business in Lancaster county, em- 
ploying ten men. 

Mr. Hull is prominent socially as well as in busi- 
ness, though he takes but little interest in politics 
and would never accept the trials of public office. 
He is a member of no church but a liberal supporter 
of all. He belongs to the Masonic Blue Lodge, and 
is a man of charitable disposition and habits. He 
has acquired wealth, is self-made, clever, well-known 
and well thought of by all who know him. 

REV. WILLIAM RUPP, A. M., D. D., Profes- 
sor of Theology in the Eastern Seminary of the 
Reformed Church of the United States, lives in a 
charming home, at No. 602 West James street, 
Lancaster, just opposite the Seminary in which he 
occupies so important a position. 

The ancestors of Rev. William Rupp were among 
the early settlers of this state, his great-great-grand- 
father, George Rupp, having come to America, 
from Alsatia, in 1750, locating in Lehigh county, 
where Chapman station now is, and where he took 
up a large section of land, on a grant received from 
the Penns. Quite a romance is connected with 
George Rupp's coming to America. In his native 
land he had met Miss Ursula Von Peterholtz, whose 
family belonged to the nobility, and objected to the 
wooing of young Rupp, in spite of the fact he was 

a most superior young man. Though so many years 
ago, human nature was just the same, and "love 
found a way," the young couple eloping to America, 
where they founded a family which has become 
honored in every locality where it is found. Some 
of the descendants of this fair maid and gallant 
lover still live on a portion of the original grant 
of land. 

Solomon Rupp, the father of Dr. Rupp, was a 
farmer of Weisenburg, Lehigh county. He married 
Maria Fry, a daughter of Peter Fry, also a farmer 
of Lehigh county, and to this union were born these 
children : Rev. Dr. William ; John, a lawyer ; Ben- 
jamin, deceased, who had just entered upon the 
practice of law; Solomon, a farmer and justice of 
the peace, living on the old homestead; Henry F., 
a farmer and teacher, living near Seipstown, in 
Lehigh county; Alvin, the superintendent of the 
public schools of Allentown; and Louisa Ellen, the 
wife of Benjamin Frees, a farmer of Weisen- 

Rev. William Rupp was born in Lehigh county, 
April 17, 1839, and after attending the public 
schools of the district, took a course in the Allen- 
town Seminary, which is now known as Muhlen- 
berg College, and after leaving there, engaged in 
teaching for some time. In 1857, he entered Frank- 
lin and Marshall College, from which he graduated 
in 1862, at the head of his class, and was awarded 
the highest class honor, the Marshall oration. Still 
in pursuit of higher learning. Dr. Rupp entered the 
Reformed Seminary at Mercersburg, from which he 
was graduated in 1864, in February, 1865, being 
ordained at Pine Grove, in Schuylkill county. 

Immediately Dr. Rupp took upon himself the 
duties for which he had been preparing, and for one 
and three-fourths years he served two Reformed 
congregations, one at St. Clair and the other at 
Port Carbon, and then resigned, to accept a call 
at Berlin, Somerset county, where this indefatigable 
worker served four congregations for a period of 
ten years and nine months. Leaving Berlin in 1877, 
Dr. Rupp went to Manchester, Md., and there served 
four congregations, remaining with this charge for 
eleven and one-half years, and then accepted a call 
to Meyersdale, Somerset county, where he became 
the beloved pastor of one congregation, taking charge 
in December, 1888, and remaining in that field for 
the succeeding five years. 

In 1892, Dr. Rupp was elected professor of 
Practical Theology in the Eastern Seminary of the 
Reformed Church of the United States, his election 
having taken place at the meeting of the Pittsburg 
Synod at Irwin, and he was inaugurated the fol- 
lowing year at the meeting of the Synod at Green- 
ville, Mercer county, and he took up his residence 
in Lancaster in December, 1893. 

Dr. Rupp was married in October, 1865, to Miss 
Emma A. Hambright, a daughter of the late Adam 
F. Hambright, who was for so many years a trust- 
ed and honored official of the Pennsylvania railroad. 



of Lancaster. This union has been blessed with 
eleven children, nine of whom are living : William 
N., a clothier on West Orange street, Lancaster; 
Henry Harbaugh, who graduated from the Re- 
formed Theological Seminary in the class of 1901 ; 
Frederick Augustine, who graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania, in 1900, and at once 
became resident physican in the M. E. hospital 
in Philadelphia; Charles E., of the class of 1902, 
m Franklin and Marshall College; T. F., of the 
class of 1903, same college; Paul B., of the class 
of 1904, same college; Mary Louise, at home; 
Viola G. is the wife of Rev. D. E. Master, of Apollo, 
Armstrong county; and Emma A. is the wife of 
Rev. J. L. Barnhart, Saegerstown, Pa. One child 
died in infancy, and Lillie G., at a later age. 

Dr. Rupp was honored with the degree of A. 
M. within three years after his graduation, and 
with that of D. D. in 1883. These degrees were 
conferred by his Alma Mater, the old Franklin and 
Marshall College. Dr. Rupp has been a thought- 
ful contributor to many publications, almost con^ 
tinuously to the Reformed Church Messenger, and 
since 1868, has been one of the favorite writers for 
the well-known and highly valued Mercersburg 
Review, and he has held the position of editor of 
this journal since 1897, and in addition has been 
the author of many valuable papers in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Theology, and a number of learned 
pamphlets have come from his pen. A profound 
theologian and scholarly in other lines. Dr. Rupp 
has, by his teaching and his writing, exerted a wide 
influence for good, deservedly winning his high 
position in the Reformed Church, as well as com- 
manding the respect of religious teachers and the 

B. F. SIDES, M. D., was born Sept. 26, 1822, in 
Bart township, this county, a son of John and Sarah 
(Barr) Sides, of Lancaster county. John Sides was 
a son of Peter Sides, of German ancestry, who was 
one of the oldest settlers of this county. The chil- 
dren born to John Sides were : Abraham, who for 
thirty years was an efficient engineer on the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad; Barbara, who married Dr. Samuel 

A. Johnson ; Elizabeth,' who married P. W. House- 
keeper, of Drumore township ; Peter H., colonel of 
a regiment during the Civil war, who married and 
lived in Philadelphia; and our subject. Dr. B. F. 

Reared in the home of his Grandmother Barr, 

B. F. Sides received careful early training and was 
kept at study in the private schools of Lancaster 
county, and was later placed at the New London, 
Mt. Jov, and Strasburg schools. Deciding upon a 
medical career, he then entered upon the study of the 
science under the careful instruction of Drs. Alex- 
ander and Patrick Cassidy, who were the leading 
physicians of the county, at that period. For three 
years he benefited by their instruction, entering then 
the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, from 

which institution have graduated many of the dis- 
tinguished practitioners of the country. In the spring 
of 1846, Dr. Sides was graduated, and with zeal en- 
tered upon the practice of his noble calling, in the 
county of his birth, settling among the good people 
of Drumore township, where for over fifty-five years 
he has been and is still in active practice. 

On March 2, 1854, Dr. Sides was married to Miss 
Elenora E. King, a daughter of John and Isabella 
McSparran King, of Drumore township. To Dr. 
and Mrs. Sides three children were born, these being : 
Janet, who died in infancy; Sallie B., who passed 
away in young womanhood; and Isabella S., born 
Dec. IT, 1854, who married the late Sanders Mc- 
Sparran, and resides in Philadelphia (she has two 
daughters, Sallie B. and Amelia). 

Mrs. Sides was born March 28, 1830, her origin 
being Scotch-Irish, and her family one of the leading 
ones of Lancaster county. The family is not a num- 
erous one, her only sister being Mrs. Janet S. Mc- 
Cullough, widow of Sanders McCullough, of Ox- 
ford, Chester Co., Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Sides joined Washington Lodge, F. & A. M. 
No. 156, at Chestnut Level, which later was moved 
to Drumore Center, and still later to Quarryville, 
where it is now located. His political convictions 
have made him a stanch Democrat, but his life has 
been too filled with work in his profession to permit 
him to accept any political office, no matter how 
flattering the offer. Dr. Sides is a truly representa- 
tive man, one of the class whose lives reflect honor on 
good old Lancaster county. 

REV. JAMES LATTA was pastor of the Chest- 
nut Level Presbyterian Church, and also principal 
for some years of an academy held there. His pas- 
torate began in 1771, and covered a period of thirty 
years. When he was called to the charge his salary 
was fixed at £100 Pennsylvania currency, and this 
was never increased and sometimes was not paid in 
full. He manifested a deep interest in the cause of 
American Independence. On one occasion he ac- 
companied the soldiers on their campaign, and also 
acted as chaplain for some time. In 1785 he vigor- 
ously defended the church incorporation acts, and 
this action on his part incensed a number of the mem- 
bers of his congregation against him. He advocated 
the introduction of Watt's Psalmody in church ser- 
vice, but they were not adopted into general use, un- 
til years after his death. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. His death occurred in January, 1801. Fran- 
cis Latta, his son, was pastor of the same church from 
1810 to 1825. 

the eccentric German Baron Steigel began his 
strange career. He had for many years been man- 
ager of the Elizabeth Iron Works for Benezet & Co., 
of Philadelphia. After purchasing 200 acres from 
the Messrs. Stedman of Philadelphia, said acres be- 



ing located in Lancaster county, he built a grand 
mansion, and afterwards laid out a town which he 
named after his native city in Germany — Manheim. 
This town was laid out in 1762, and in 1763 it had 
three houses. Among the first settlers of the town 
were the Naumans, Kaisers, Longs, Heintzelmans, 
Minnichs and Wherlys. Baron Steigel also erected 
a glass works, and becoming bankrupt he was im- 
prisoned in 1774 for debt, whereupon the Assembly 
passed a special act for his relief. During the Revo- 
lution he was a Tory. 

Baron Steigel landed at Philadelphia Aug. 31^ 
1750, having emigrated to this country on the ship 
"Nancy." He married Elizabeth Huber, a daugh- 
ter of Jacob Huber, an iron-master, and in 17.57 he 
purchased his father-in-law's iron furnace in Eliza- 
beth township, tearing down the old structure and 
erecting a new one, which he named "Elizabeth Fur- 
nace." His wife died in 1758, and he then married 
Elizabeth Holtz, of Philadelphia. In 1762 Baron 
Steigel formed a partnership with Charles and Alex- 
ander Stedman, of Philadelphia, and about the same 
time Manheim was founded. The success of Eliza- 
beth Furnace was phenomenal. The glass works 
he erected in 1765 ; and the building is said to have 
been so large that a four horse team could easily 
turn around in it. S])ecimens of the stoves and also 
of glassware made by Steigel's workmen are still in 

In August, 1769, the Stedmans sold their interest 
to Isaac Cox and he in turn sold to Baron Steigel, 
who thus became the sole proprietor. About 1770 
Baron Steigel and his family removed from Eliza- 
beth Furnace, and took up their residence in Man- 
heim. In 1769 he built a tower near Schaefferstown 
in Lebanon county, which spot to-day is called 
"Tower Hill." He lived extravagantly and made a 
great display of wealth not warranted by his income. 
A number of people preyed upon his generosity, and 
these causes finally landed him in a debtor's cell. In 
December, 1774, he was liberated from prison, penni- 
less. Some of those who had been his workmen, 
employed him to teach their children. In 1783 he 
died and was buried at "Charming Forge," presum- 
ably in the neighborhood of where Brickerville now 

REV. JOHN M. WOLGEMUTH, a minister of 
the Brethren in Christ Church in West Donegal 
township, was born in Mt. Joy township, Aug. 31, 
1828, and is a son of Christ and Anna (Metzler) 
AVolgemuth, born in Mt. Joy and in Rapho town- 
ships, respectively. Both are long since dead. The 
father who was a farmer, lived retired the last thirty 
years of his life In his active days he was a man of 
considerable importance locally, and served as super- 
visor for some years. He died in March, 1887, at 
the age of eighty-nine years ; and his widow in Nov. 
1894, at the age of ninety years. Both were mem- 
bers of the Brethren in Christ Church, and were 
buried in the cemeterv connected with the Cross 

Roads Church in East Donegal township. To them 
were born the following children: Elizabeth, who 
is the widow of John Hoffman, and has her home in 
Elizabethtown ; Jane, who is the widow of Henry 
Nissley, and has her home in Manheim ; Rev. John 
M., the venerated minister; Christian, who died 
young ; David, a retired farmer in Mt. Joy township ; 
Abraham, who died at the age of eighteen years; 
and Anna, who died young. 

The paternal grandparents of Rev. John M. Wol- 
gemuth were Christian and Jane (Eshleman) Wol- 
gemuth, residents of Mt. Joy township, who came 
from Switzerland in their early days. 

John M. Wolgemuth, whose name introduces 
this article, remained with his parents, helping them 
in the care of the family homestead, until he reached 
the age of twenty-one years. Then he rented his fa- 
ther's farm for two years, and a second farm for five 
j'ears, then purchasing the farm on which he is now 
living. In 1878 he gave up active farming, putting 
the place into the care of his son, Eli. In 1871 he 
was ordained a minister of the Brethren in Christ, 
and has made an excellent record as a clergyman of 
that faith. When a young man he served a number 
of years on the election board, and has been one of 
the leading men of his day. 

Rev. John M. Wolgemuth and Elizabeth Hern- 
ley were married in West Donegal township Nov. 9, 
1848, and they had one child, Elizabeth, who died in 
1888; she was the wife of Jacob B. Nissley, now a 
farmer in Cumberland county, and left four children. 
In 185 1 Mr. Wolgemuth married for his second wife, 
Hettie Hernley, a sister of his first wife, and to them 
came three children: Susan married Martin Wol- 
gemuth, now a retired farmer at Rheems, Pa., and 
has a family of five children. Eli H. is a farmer of 
West Donegal township, whose sketch appears on 
another page. Anna married Reuben Nissley, a 
farmer of Rapho township, and has four children. 
Mrs. Flettie Wolgemuth was born in Lancaster 
county in 1824, and is a daughter of John and Susan 
(Keenzy) Hernley, both natives of Lancaster county. 

JOHN A. CHARLES (deceased) was for many 
years one of the leading and representative business 
men of Lancaster, whose career as a merchant was 
a most successful one, while his reputation as a citi- 
zen was above reproach. The birth of John A. 
Charles took place Sept. 3, 1827, in Strasburg, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., and his death occurred in his home 
in Lancaster, March 24, 1902 ; he was interred in 
Woodward Hill cemetery. His parents were An- 
drew and Margaret Charles, natives of Lancaster 
county, the former of whom was. engaged in the fur- 
niture and undertaking business, in Strasburg, where 
he was a prominent citizen and one of the burgesses 
for a number of years. When sixteen years old, John 
A. Charles left home to accept a clerical position in 
a general store owned by a Mr. Carson, going from 
there into the dry-goods business under a Mr. David 
Bair, a prominent merchant, where he thoroughly 



learned all its details and in 1861 felt competent to 
embark m the business for himself, becoming a part- 
ner with Mr. Bair. In 1876 he sold his interest and 
became a member of the old established firm of 
Marks & Roth,, the firm name then becoming Marks, 
Roth & Charles, At the death of Mr. Marks, Mr. 
Charles bought his interest and the business was con- 
ducted successfully until his retirement from activity 
in 1898. His whole business career was marked with 
•evidences of esteem from the public, his personal in- 
tegrity and honest methods contributing to this end. 
Mr. Charles was one of the founders of Grace Luth- 
eran Church in this city, was a member of the church 
council from the beginning, and also served as trus- 
tee and elder. For twenty years he was treasurer of 
the charity fund and was generous in his private 
benefactions. Both church and community were bet- 
ter because of his life. His political identification 
was with the Republican party, although he was 
never an aspirant for political honors, preferring to 
give his time and labor to the advancement of his 
business and the furthering of the good work of his 

The marriage of Mr. Charles took place on Jan. 
5, 1865, in Leacock township, Lancaster county, to 
Miss Annie L. Bard, who was born in the old family 
homestead in Leacock township, a granddaughter 
of John and Catherine Bard, of Lancaster county, 
and the only child of Daniel and Anna (Johns) Bard. 
The former was born on the same farm in Leacock 
township, was prominent in his neighborhood and 
served many years as a school director. His death 
took place July i,' 1882, at the age of sixty-seven 
years. The mother of Mrs. Charles was born in Earl 
township, and after her husband's death, resided with 
her daughter until she too passed away, Dec. 19, 
1893, at the age of seventy years. The parents lie 
buried in the Lutheran Church cemetery, at Mechan- 
icsburg, of which church the grandfather was one of 
the founders, and of which the family have been 
members for three generations. Three children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Charles, namely : Daniel 
B., who is married and is engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness in Michigan ; John A., Jr., who died unmarried 
March i, 1898 ; and Anna Bard, who resides at home. 

JOHN D.- BRUBAKER comes of a long line of 
clerical ancestors, his great-grandfather,^ grandfather 
and father having been ministers and bishops in the 
Mennonite Church. His father, Jacob K. Brubaker, 
was born in Lancaster county in 18 14 and was a 
farmer in early life. After his marriage he removed 
to Dauphin county, where he owned and cultivated 
a farm until 1850. He then returned to Lancaster 
county and settled upon a farm in Manor township 
which he had purchased the previous year. It was 
situated between three and four miles vvest of the 
city of Lancaster and contained eighty-eight acres. 
Ori this he made many valuable improvements, and 
in 1853 he added to his holdings by buying an ad- 
joining farm which contained 104 acres. He contin- 

ued to reside upon this property until his death, which 
occurred in 1879, but in 1858, placing his farm under 
the management of his son, John D. he abandoned 
farm work to devote the remainder of his life to the 
service of the church which he loved so well, and of 
which he was so conspicuous an ornament. In that 
year he was ordained to the Mennonite ministry, and 
a few years before his death was made a bishop. He 
preached in the churches of Millersville and Rohers- 
town with great force and acceptability. ' He was a 
man of kindly disposition and loving heart, gifted 
with a bright clear mind, and his wise counsel was 
constantly sought by- all whose privilege it was to 
know him. His widow, whose maiden name was 
Katherine Denlinger, yet survives him, at the age of 
four score years. They were the parents of three 
children, of whom John D. was the eldest. The others 
were Fannie, who married David Charles, of Hemp- 
field, and Jacob, who died in childhood. 

John D. Brubaker was born in Swatara town- 
ship, Dauphin county, on Feb. 8, 1837. In 1858 as 
has been said, he assumed the management of the 
paternal acres and even as a young man of twenty- 
one years he displayed that admirable judgment and 
tireless industry which have insured his success in 
life. For forty years he was one of Lancaster coun- 
ty's most successful farmers — active, industrious, 
wide-awake and progressive, always keeping abreast 
of the front rank in the march of advancement. From 
year to year he added to the estate which he inherited 
from his father, although much of his real property 
he has divided among his sons, giving to each a small 
farm. In 1898, having accumulated a handsome 
competence, and having passed the sixtieth milestone 
on life's highway, he determined to retire, to enjoy 
the ease which he had richly earned. His present 
home is situated three miles west of the city of Lan- 
caster, and is one of the most attractive and pleasant 
in the township, it being Mr. Brubaker's chief care 
to beautify it more and more from year to year. 

On March 16, 1858, he was married to Maria, a 
daughter of Isaac and Mary (Shirk) Landis, who 
was born in Manheim, May 8, 1839. Their children 
are five in number. Levi L., the eldest, was born 
Nov. 14, 1859. He married Anna Newcomer, and is 
a farmer of Pequea township. Isaac L. was born 
March 14, 1862, is a Hempfield farmer and the hus- 
band of Susan Gambier. Mary was born Dec. 4, 
1863, and lives at home, unmarried. Jacob L. is a 
Manor township farmer. He was born April 6, 
1870, and married Susan Charles. John L. was born 
July 13, 1873. He, too, has followed farming as a 
vocation, and married Ida Brubaker. 

John D. Brubaker united with the Mennon- 
ite Church in 1862 and since that time has been one 
of the most active members and liberal supporters. 

CASPER SHAFFNER, a son of John Casper 
Shafifner, was born in February, 1737, in Lancaster, 
and died in 1826. He was a member of the "Com- 
mittees of Correspondance" and of "Inspection and 



Observation," of Lancaster county, during the Revo- 
lutionary war period. He also served as a lieutenant 
in the Revolutionary service. He had one son, 
Casper, vi^ho married a daughter of Charles Hall, 
of Lancaster, a noted silversmith of the early part 
of the last century. 

WINTERS. For three-quarters of a century 
the name Winters in the eastern part of Lancaster 
county has been associated with success and popu- 
larity in the practice of medicine. Dr. Isaac Winters, 
grandfather of John L.; began practice in 1820, and 
the family has never lacked a worthy representa- 
tive in the profession from that time. They come of 
English stock, the first of the name in America emi- 
grating from England prior to the Revolution, in 
which struggle he served as a soldier under Wash- 
ington. He died at his home, near Lebanan, Pa., 
within a month after returning from the war, leav- 
ing a wife and son, John. This John Winters was 
born Nov. 21, 1776. After reaching manhood he 
settled in Lancaster county, rriaking his home in the 
village of New Holland, where for many years he 
was engaged as a blacksmith. On Jan. 16, 1796, he 
married Catharine Diefenderffer, who died July 
12, 1843, and his death occuri-ed July 13, 1859. They 
had seven children: John, Isaac, Maria, Ludwig, 
Levi, Margaretha and Cyrus. 

Isaac Winters, son of John, was born in New 
Holland, July 13, 1800. His youthful educational 
advantages were limited to the facilities of the dis- 
trict school in the home neighborhood, and even 
those he was not permitted to enjoy to the full, for 
he was one of a large family, and as the father's 
means were not abundant the sons were expected to 
become self-supporting at an early age. But the 
hard work, to which he had become accustomed from 
childhood, did not warp his inclination toward a 
higher calling, and by the time he was fifteen he 
had decided upon adopting the medical profession. 
For one year thereafter he worked as a clerk in 
Lebanon, and the next four years he devoted to 
preparation for his life work, first studying under 
Dr. John Leaman, of New Holland, and later at 
the University of Pennsylvania, from which he was 
graduated in 1820. Dr. Winters located for prac- 
tice in the village of Hinkletown, which was the 
scene of his active professional life of fifty-three 
years, for he continued his labors almost to the day 
of his death, July 27, 1873. The success which 
attended his later life was in sharp constrast to his 
early struggles, and was solely the result of his 
own efforts. But in overcoming the numerous 
obstacles in his path he showed that the lessons of 
self-reliance and perseverance taught by the hard- 
ships of his youth were not wasted — perhaps in after 
years they enhanced the prosperity which fell to his 
lot. So poor was he' at the beginning of his profes- 
sional career that he had to borrow the money to 
buy a horse (indispensable in a country practice) 
and a new suit of clothes, and when the horse was 

stolen, before the end of the week, the young doctor 
had considerable trouble borrowing a hundred dol- 
lars to replace him. He found a friend in Henry 
Roland, who let him have the money without se- 
curity, and it was repaid in a year. Before the ex- 
piration of that time he had so won the confidence of 
his patrons that he was well advanced on the road 
to success, and his future was assured. Time justi- 
fied the good opinion formed of him at the outset 
of his professional life, and he was . regarded- as an 
immensely useful and valued member of the com- 
munity to the end of 'his days. The tributes of 
affection and esteem paid him at the time of his de- 
cease were many and laudatory, and he is still held 
in loving memory by many of the old residents of 
his section. His standing among his brother prac- 
titioners was of the highest, and in diagnosis es- 
pecially he was regarded as one of the most skillful 
physicians of his time. 

The Doctor's practice, though large,- did not en- 
gage all his attention, for he was a man of many 
interests, and won his honored position among his 
fellowmen by efficient service in other fields as well. 
The affairs of the day possessed deep attractions 
for him, and he kept himself well informed upon all 
subjects concerning current history. As a stanch 
Democrat the progress of political events also came 
under his consideration. He twice accepted nom- 
ination for representative to Congress, simply to 
demonstrate his loyalty to the party, as defeat in 
each case was a foregone conclusion. He was a man 
of fine presence, and in the days of militia training 
held a commission as a brigadier general. As a 
swordsman he was reputed to have few equals in 
the State. Dr. Winters's personality attracted' many 
to him, and his high character more than sustained 
the favorable impression made on first acquaintance. 
Dr. Winters married Elizabeth Nagle, whose 
father, Richard Nagle, a resident of Lancaster 
county, was born in Ireland Feb. 23, 1765. Six 
children were born to this union : John Leaman, 
now deceased, who was a practicing physician at 
Hinkletown for some years ; Richard N., who re- 
sides at his father's old home at Hinkletown ; Isaac 
D., who is mentioned below ; Mary C, Mrs. Isaac 
S. Long, of New York ; George W. ; and Barton N., 
of Ephrata, this cotmty. 

Isaac D. Winters, M. D., was born Nov. 23, 
1828, in Hinkletown, and after receiving his funda- 
mental education in the public schools commenced 
preparation for the medical profession under the 
able tuition of his father. He graduated from 
Jefferson Medical College, and soon after located at 
Goodville, where he continued in practice throughout 
his entire active life. The mantle of professional 
success fell on his shoulders, and he occupied a high 
position in the profession. He was a member of 
the Lancaster County Medical Society, of which he 
served as vice-president in 1849-50. Like his father. 
Dr. \^'inters was a broad man, and became prosper- 
ous in lines outside of his profession. He was a 



stockholder and director in the New Holland Na- 
tional Bank, of which institution he was one of the 
organizers, and he also assisted in organizing the 
Earl Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and was one 
of its directors. He owned two farms, comprising 
220 acres. 

On Jan. lo, 1854, Dr. Winters married Susan 
Martm, who was born in Goodville in 1833, daugh- 
ter of John and Ehzabeth (Bowman) Martin. They 
had two sons, Barton M. and John Leaman, both 
of whom adopted their father's calling, and are 
located at Goodville. They are mentioned below. 
Dr. Isaac D. Winters passed away Nov. 7, 1889. He 
was a member of the Center Lutheran Church, and 
no man in the community enjoyed more fully the 
unfeigned respect of his fellow men in every walk of 

Barto^t M. W1NTER.S, M. D., of Goodville, was 
born on the old homestead in that place Dec. 11, 
1854, and acquired his preparatory education in the 
public schools, and at the Millersville State Normal. 
He took up the study of medicine with his father and 
Dr. Keeler, at Goodville, entered Jefferson Medical 
College, and graduated with the class of 1877, since 
which time he has been located in practice at Good- 
ville. He was associated with his father until the 
latter's retirement, in 1880, when he succeeded to his 
father's partnership v/ith Dr. Keeler. The relations 
continued until Dr. Keeler's death, in 1896, since 
which time he and his brother John L. have been as- 
sociated as general practitioners. With the excep- 
tion of such time as he finds necessary to devote to 
his duties as director of the New Holland National 
Bank and the Earl Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 
Dr. Winters gives his attention to the demands of his 
professional work, which, indeed, is so extensive 
as to leave him little time for other matters. If 
heredity counts for anything, the position to which 
he and his brother have attained is not to be won- 
dered at. But their training for this useful calling 
was carefully and thoroughly conducted, and they 
have given evidence of their ability to sustain the 
reputation of the family for eminence in this, es- 
pecial field. 

On Jan. 29, 1882, Dr. Winters married Salinda 
Sensinig, who was born in Goodville, daughter of 
Christian and Catherine Sensinig. They have one 
child. Sue L. Mrs. Winters is a member of the 
Lutheran Church. The Doctor is a stanch Demo- 
crat politically. 

John L. Winters, M. D., was born at Goodville 
Dec. 29, 1868, and in his boyhood attended the local 
public schools. Later he studied at the Millersville 
State Normal School, and he commenced reading 
medicine with his brother, Barton M. In 1888 he 
entered Tefiferson Medical College, from which he 
was graduated April 2, 1890, preparing for general 
practice. After graduation he located at Goodville, 
where he has since been engaged in practice, and 
by his dihgence and merit has established a fine 
practice. He is a thorough student, and keeps in 

touch with the advanced ideas of his profession, es- 
pecially in surgery, in which particular Hne he bids 
fair to become a master. His office is equipped with 
a complete assortment of surgical instruments and 
appliances. He is particularly successful as an oper- 
ator in gynecological cases. Dr. Winters is a mem- 
ber of the Lancaster County Medical Society. 

On July 2, 1900, Dr. Winters married Miss 
Mary Yoder, daughter of L. B. and Josephine (John- 
ston) Yoder, of Churchtown, this county. 

JACOB BETZ (deceased). One of the most 
prominent business men and citizens of Lancaster, 
was Jacob Betz, whose death occurred in this city, 
at the old water works. May 14, 1900, and who is 
buried in Woodward Hill cemetery. The birth of 
Mr. Betz occurred Dec. 4, 1822, in Rheinbaiern, 
Germany, and he was the son of Jacob and Mag- 
delina (Huhn) Betz, natives of Dresden, Germany. 
The father died in his native land; but the mother 
came to America in the neighborhood of 1846. 

In 1842, Mr. Betz emigrated to America, and 
until his death resided in the vicinity of the city of 
Lancaster, first settling in Manheim township, but 
later removing to Lancaster, where he became very 
prominent in business circles. In his early life 
he engaged in farming, but soon became interested 
in quarrying stone and sand, and by his industry, 
thrift and keen business sense, built up an excellent 
trade. During his business career, he operated sand 
and stone quarries on Rockland street, near Ann, 
in Lancaster township, not far from his residence, 
and one in East Lampeter township. For years, he 
supplied the car shops at Altoona with all the sand 
used, and furnished stone to the Peacock furnace for 
many years. In addition to quarrying the stone, 
Mr. Betz also took contracts for hauling same, and 
in every respect gave such entire satisfaction that 
his reputation for fair dealing was firmly estab- 
lished. In 1870, Mr. Betz retired from active busi- 
ness life in favor of his son, Jacob. In addition to 
his quarries, Mr. Betz was a large land owner and 
at the time of his demise was the owner of thirty 
new houses and a large tract of unimproved land 
in the Seventh ward; three tracts of unimproved 
land in East Lampeter township ; a farm in Man- 
heim township, as well as large amounts invested 
in bonds, stocks and mortgages. After his retire- 
ment, Mr. Betz devoted the greater portion of his 
attention toward the buying of property, improving 
it and then disposing of it at considerable profit. 
During a long and useful life, Mr. Betz was a con- 
sistent member of Zion's Lutheran Church, in 
whose good work he took an active part. While a 
Democrat in politics, and supporting the candidates 
of that party in both local and national affairs, Mr. 
Betz was not an office seeker, and refused to accept 
nomination, his interests being centered in his busi- 
ness and home. 

On April 19, 1851, Mr. Betz was married to 
Catherine Miesel, in Lancaster, and the following 



family were born to this union : Peter, who died at 
the age of three years ; Mary, who died at the age of 
eighteen months ; Jacob, a farmer and quarryman of 
Lancaster, Pa., who married Elmira Drown; Cath- 
erine, married to Charles Riedel, of Lancaster, Pa. ; 
Charlotte, deceased, wife of Charles Reidel, of Lan- 
caster; Elizabeth, married to Mark Keeport, a jew- 
eler of Reading, Pa. Mrs. Betz was born at Gelt- 
heim, Germany, Aug. 9, 1825, daughter of Nicholas 
and IBarbara (Mieselin) Miesel, of Germany. Nich- 
olas Miesel was a farmer in his native land, where 
he died, in 1830, at the age of thirty years, while 
his wife died in 1835, at the age of thirty-two. 
Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Miesel: 
Christina, who died at the age of thirty-five years, 
married Fred. Nies, and he died in New Jersey; 
Catherine came to America in 1847, settled in Lan- 
caster, Pa., making the trip one year after her sister, 
and taking forty-five days in the journey. Mrs. 
Betz is very well preserved and intelligent, and is 
surrounded by her children's love and devotion, 
after her life of hard work. She is highly respected 
throughout the community, and numbers many 
friends among her acquaintances. 

Philip Betz, proprietor of the sand quarry of 
Lancaster, was born in Rheinpfalz, Germany, Feb. 4, 
1834, a son of Jacob and Magdelina (Huhn) Betz, of 
the same locality. The father of Philip remained in 
Germany all his life, being a farmer, after having 
served in the German army, and dying in 1844, 
aged seventy-five years. The mother with three 
children, came to America in 1846, settling in Lan- 
caster county, two of her sons having made the 
journey a few years before. After settling down 
with her children, the good woman kept house for 
them, and the sturdy boys worked among the farm- 
ers, and took care of their mother until her death 
in 1861, at the age of seventy-five years. The chil- 
dren belonging to this family were : Conrad, who 
died in Lancaster county ; Jacob, deceased ; Eliza- 
beth, of Lancaster, widow of Frank Kline; Philip; 
Mary, of Lancaster county, widow of Henry Fogle. 

J. M. W. GEIST was born in Bart township, 
Lancaster county, Dec. 14, 1824, and inherited the 
marked characteristics and strong intellectuality of 
his German and Scotch-Irish ancestors. In his early 
youth the country subscription schools were his only 
means of obtaining an education. Inspired by am- 
bition, and carried forward by his energy, he was a 
diHgent student, and early displayed a receptive 
mind. At the age of sixteen he began to teach school 
in the very room where he had been a student, and 
followed that occupation successfully for several 
years. In the meantime he was induced to take up 
the study of medicine, although his inclinations were 
in the direction of the printer's art. For three years 
teaching school and the study of medicine occupied 
his attention. Then he went to Philadelphia to at- 
tend medical lectures, but in the end, not finding the 
work congenial, he abandoned it, and drifted into a 

printing oflice to pursue the vocation of his early 
preference. His leisure hours meanwhile had been 
spent in contributing articles in both prose and verse 
to the newspaper press. This developed a natural 
love for literary composition, and, following the 
natural bent of his mind, he soon drifted into jour- 

Mr. Geist began his professional career in July, 
1844, as the editor and publisher of the Reformer, 
a temperance journal published first in Lancaster 
and afterward in Harrisburg, Pa., as the American 
Reformer and State Temperance Organ. He also 
edited the Yeoman, an independent Democratic 
campaign paper published in the latter city, and in 
1847, he was at work on the Pennsylvanian, in Phila- 
delphia, as assistant news editor. His next change 
was to a literary journal, Lippard's Quaker City, of 
which he was assistant editor. At the same time he 
was doing duty on the Evening Argus, both papers 
being controlled by the same ownership. The sus- 
pension of these brought him to the Sunday Globe, 
on which paper he succeeded the late Dr. Thomas 
Dunn English as editor. Under his vigorous con- 
trol the Globe was instrumental in driving the no- 
torious impostor and swindler, Roback, from the 
city, its circulation running up from 1,000 to 20,000. 
Later Mr. Geist became editor and one of the pro- 
prietors of the Sunday Mercury, but not being able 
to reconcile Sunday newspaper publishing with his 
obligations as a churchman he sought a more con- 
genial ocupation. In his earlier days he had been a 
frequent contributor to the Saturday Evening Ex- 
press, of Lancaster, and upon the invitation of the 
proprietor he disposed of his interest in the Mer- 
CALvy, and removed to Lancaster to take charge of 
the editorial columns of that journal. There his 
successful and influential career has been carried 
forward. His removal took place in 1852, and in 
1856 he purchased a half interest in the paper and 
began the issue of a daily edition. The Express 
quickly became the most influential paper in the 
great county of Lancaster, and Mr. Geist's reputa- 
tion as a writer of vigorous idiomatic English 
rapidly extended throughout Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Geist, while a Whig in politics, had not 
been active in political affairs up to this time. But 
events were now transpiring which turned his jour- 
nalistic -career in that direction and served to make 
him a power in the party with which he united his 
fortunes. The Whig party was no more. Where 
should its members go ? Mr. Buchanan's candidacy 
became an issue. Although a resident of Lancas- 
ter, few Whigs, save intimate personal friends, sup- 
ported him. The repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise and "Free Kansas" became issues. Thaddeus 
Stevens lived in Lancaster, and his well known anti- 
slavery views had permeated the public conscience. 
Who should oppose Mr. Buchanan ? John McLean 
was spoken of, and he was the choice of Mr. Stev- 
ens. Public sentiment seemed to incline toward a 
new man as well as new principles. Mr. Geist, in 

i ^ a r « ; *^ > » 



a series of powerful editorials, demanded a new or- 
der of things. But his constituency was overcon- 
servative, and for a time unwilling to break away 
from their political traditions. He urged promi- 
nent Whigs to issue a call for a county convention. 
The party had split into two factions, the "Woolly 
heads," under the leadership of Thaddeus Stevens, 
and the "Silver Greys" led by Edw. C. Darling- 
ton, editor of the Examiner. Each mistrusted 
the other, and as a consequence neither was ready 
to take the initiative. Thrown back upon himself, 
Mr. Geist cut the Gordian knot by drawing up the 
following call, which appeared at the head of his 
editorial column for the first time on May 17, 1856 : 

The citizens of Lancaster county, without regard to past 
differences or divisions, who are opposed to the repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise; to the policy of the present National 
admininstration; to the extension of slavery in the territories, 
and to the subjugation of the freemen of Kansas by the in- 
vasion of armed mobs from Missouri, encouraged in their 
lawless acts by the connivance of the Federal authorities; who 
are in favor of the admission of Kansas as a free State, and of 
restoring the action of the Federal Government to the prin- 
ciples of Washington and Jefferson, are hereby requested to 
meet in Fulton Hall, in the city of Lancaster, on Saturday, 
May 31, 1856, at 10 o'clock a. m., to appoint three delegates to 
represent this Congressional District in the National conven- 
tion, which will assemble in Philadelphia on the 17th of June 
next, for the purpose of recommending candidates to be sup- 
ported for the offices of President and Vice President of the 
United States. Many Citizens. 

l~he "Many Citizens" was a fiction, the entire 
program having been engineered by Mr. Geist, with 
two intimate friends, comparatively unknown in 
politics. In accordance with that call the county 
meeting was held on the day named, and the old 
political leaders were surprised at the large attend- 
ance. Benjamin Herr, Esq., a prominent member 
of the Bar, was president, and Ellwood Griest and 
Dr. George Markley were secretaries. A com- 
mittee was appointed to name delegates to the Na- 
tional convention, and the men were appointed. 
Thaddeus Stevens, who concluded at a late hour to 
participate in the proceedings, was ene of those sent 
to the National convention, and Mr. Geist one of the 
delegation sent to the State convention. Strong 
resolutions breathing the spirit of the call were 
passed and, on motion of Mr. Stevens, a committee 
was appointed to confer with committees of other 
parties who were opposed to the extension of 
slaverv, with a view to "forming a Union American 
Republican Partv." Thus was the Republican party 
in Lancaster county born and christened, and such 
was the part Mr. Geist more at the accouchement. A 
few weeks later the Lancaster City Fremont Club 
was organized, with A. S. Henderson as president, 
and F. R. Diffenderffer as secretary, and the new 
party was ready for business. From that time the 
stirring editorials of Mr. Geist were a powertul 
factor in laying deep and strong the foundations of 
the party— foundations that are to-day as strong in 
the affections of the people of the county as when 
they first shouted for "'Fremont and Freedom. 

When the Civil war at last came along and burst 
in fury avtv the country no pen was more busy in 
upholding the cause of the Nation than Mr. Geist's. 
It was an inspiration as well as a clarion note, and 
every movement maintaining the Nation's sover- 
eignty and for the relief of the sick and the wounded 
had his most earnest support. He never wavered 
and he never doubted, and the fervent spirit of pa- 
triotism that marked all his utterances, as they are 
recorded in his editorial columns, was far reaching 
in its effect throughout the State. 

In 1876 the Express was merged into the Ex- 
aminer, and Mr. Geist became the editor of the con- 
solidated journal. A difference between himself 
and the publisher in regard to the policy of the paper 
caused him to retire in a few months, and in con- 
junction with ex-State Senator John B. Warfel he 
started The New Era, which almost at a bound 
sprang to the front rank in the journalism of the 
State, where it stands to-day. Its success was as 
decided as it was immediate, and outside of the big 
journals of the metropolis there is no newspaper in 
PennsA'Ivania that has a more devoted clientage or 
wields a stronger influence within its territory. 

Mr. Geist has persistently refused to accept or be 
a candidate for public office, holding that any sal- 
aried political position must detract from an editor's 
freedom and independence. He was twice offered 
the best local federal positions by members of Con- 
gress who were grateful for services his journal had 
rendered them, and once a lucrative position in the 
custom house at Philadelphia by a senator, on partly 
personal and partly political grounds. The only 
public position he ever held was that of a Harrison 
elector, in 1892. He was active in the re-organiza- 
tion of the Young Men's Christian Association, and 
Vi^as chairman of the committee which selected and 
installed the library of that institution, and chair- 
man of the committee which organized the series of 
excursions by which the money was raised to pur- 
chase the books. He has been chairman of the local 
board of visitors of the State Board of Charities for 
several years, and author of a report urging certain 
reforms in prison administration, notably divorcing 
it from partisan politics, which was highly com- 
mended by the State Board. Flis sincerity is per- 
haps one of his most striking characteristics. Mill- 
ions would not tempt him to advocate a cause that 
he did not believe to be moral or deserving. 

Mr. Geist is prominent as a churchman. He was 
intimately associated with the late Bishop Samuel 
Bowman in the founding of St. John's Free Church, 
Lancaster, the pioneer free church in that diocese, 
and has been a member and secretary of the vestry 
for forty-six years, and warden for the past twenty- 
one 3'ears. In 1873 he wrote and published, for the 
use of the congregation, a history of the parish, and 
has just completed (1902) a revised and enlarged 
edition, handsomely illustrated with portraits of the 
ministers who have officiated at St. John's and views 
of the church edifice, which is regarded as the hand- 



somest and most complete Parish History that has 
been produced. 

Mr. Geist was married in 1850 to Miss Elizabeth 
M. Markley, daughter of the late Dr. George 
Markley. She died in 1892. They had eight chil- 
dren, four of whom, three sons and one daughter, 
died young. Four daughters survive: Mrs. John 
M. Newbold and Mrs. Samuel S. Martin, of Lan- 
caster; Mrs. Dr. J. Paul Lukens, of Wilmington, 
Del. ; and Miss Emma, at home. — [F. R. D. 

of the Central National Bank of Columbia, is, as 
the position he occupies would naturally indicate, 
one of the foremost citizens of that thriving town. 
His active participation in the financial history of 
Columbia began late in life, and supplements an 
honorable and successful career- as mechanic, soldier 
and business man. 

The paternal ancestry of Mr. Musser is of Swiss 
extraction. Peter Musser, the great-grandfather, 
was of Swiss parentage, and was an early resident 
of Lancaster county. He married a Miss Dietz, 
and they had five children : John, Christian, Henry, 
Peter and Annie. Of these, Peter was born in 
Lancaster county, Nov. 29, 1776. He married Eliza- 
beth Rohrer, of Lancaster county, born Aug. 14, 
1788. She died Oct. 8, 1822, in her thirty-fifth 
year, while her husband lived to the age of seventy- 
one, passing away July 2, 1848. Their children 
were : Henry R., Mary, Annie, Joseph and Betsey, 

Henry R. Musser was born in West Hempfield 
township June 18, 1808. In early life he adopted 
the vocation of a cattle dealer and butcher, which 
he pursued at Lancaster, Marietta and Columbia. 
In 1846 he removed to Fairfield, Ohio, where he 
continued his business successfully until death, 
June I, 1873, in his sixty-third year. He became 
a prominent business man of Fairfield, and wasi 
there actively interested in the public schools. He 
was married three times. By his first wife. Miss 
Shirk, he had one child, Henry S., now of Fair- 
field, Ohio. By his second wife, Annie, daughter 
of John and Barbara Mouk, there were six chil- 
dren, namely: Elias H., a tailor of Rochester, 
Ind. ; Thomas Jefferson, who died in Fairfield, 
Ohio; Benjamin Franklin, proprietor of a meal; 
market in Darke county, Ohio; Andrew Jackson, 
whose sketch appears herewith ; Barbara Ann, who 
married John Horn, a farmer of West Hempfield 
township ; and Isabella, who died in infancy. The 
third wife of Henry R. Musser was Fanny Bucher, 
and the children by that union were : Joseph, de- 
ceased ; Emanuel, a butcher of Dayton, Ohio ; Eliza- 
beth ; Isabella ; David, a plasterer ; and George, a 
traveling salesman, all residents of Ohio. 

Andrew Jackson Musser was born at Marietta, 
Lancaster county, March 2, 1841. Bereft of a 
mother's care by death, his home from his fourth 
year was his maternal grandfather, John Mouk, in 
West Hempfield. At the age of eighteen he re- 

moved to Columbia and there began a three years' 
apprenticeship to the cabinet maker's trade. This 
completed, he followed the trade for a few months, 
but soon after, under the call to arms by President 
Lincoln, he enlisted Aug. 9, 1862, for nine months, 
at Columbia, in Co. K, i3Sth P. V. I., serving the 
full term, and experiencing active service, partici- 
pating in the battles of Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, but escaping without injury. Return- 
ing to his old home when mustered out, Mr. Musser 
resumed work at his trade, which he continued dili- 
gently until 1871. In that year he purchased an old 
and well established cabinet making and under- 
taking business at Columbia. This was continued 
most successfully for more than a score of years. 
In 1892 Mr. Musser retired from business. Two 
years later he was elected a director of the Central 
National Bank of Columbia, and early in 1899 he 
was elected president of the bank to fill an tmex- 
pired term of several months, and he was re-elected 
July 26, 1899. 

Mr. Musser married at Columbia, in September, 
1861, Cassandra E., daughter of John and Mary 
Shenberger, farmers of York county, Pa. The 
family of Mr. and Mrs. Musser consists of two chil- 
dren : John S. and Franklin B. John S. is a farmer 
and upholsterer of Greenville county, Va. ; he mar- 
ried Gertrude Kerr and has three children. Frank- 
lin B. acquired telegraphy in his youth and is now 
superintendent of the electric railway system of 
Harrisburg, Pa. ; he married Miss Sue R. Nowlen. 

For six years Andrew J. Musser served the 
borough of Columbia as a councilman. He is 
prominent in fraternal circles as a member of Co- 
lumbia Lodge, No. 286, F. & A. M. ; and of Sus- 
quehanna Lodge, No. 80, I. O. O. F. Of the latter 
he is past master, having filled all the chairs, and 
also having been representative to the grand lodge 
of Pennsylvania. Among other fraternal institu- 
tions he is a member of the Artisans Order of 
Mutual Protection of Columbia, and in business re- 
lations he is a director and president of the Colum- 
bia Building & Loan Association. In business Mr. 
Musser is progressive, and his keen judgment is a 
most valuable guide. Public-spirited and popular, 
he essentially fills a commanding place in the com- 
mercial and financial affairs of his native county. 

JOSEPH SIMON was one of the most promi- 
nent and richest Indian traders in the province. He 
came to Lancaster about 1740, and at once em- 
barked in the trading business. He established a 
store at East' King street and Centre Square, and 
made frequent trips through Ohio and Illinois. He 
was one of twenty-two Indian traders who were 
attacked by Indians at Bloody Run in 1763. On 
that occasion goods to the value of £82,000 currency 
were stolen. Simion was one of the heaviest losers. 
He owned many thousands of acres of land in dif- 
ferent parts of Pennsylvania, and during the Revo- 
lutionary war furnished powder, shot and guns for 



the use of the miUtia. He had the following chil- 
dren : Rachel, married to Solomon Etting, moved 
to Philadelphia; Leah, married to Levi Philips; 
Miriam, married to Simon Gratz, moved to Phila- 
delphia ; Belah, married to Solomon Cohen ; Shinah, 
married to M. Scuyler; Susanne, married to Levy- 
Levy; Hester; Moses; and Myer. Joseph Simon 
died Jan. 24, 1804. His wife died in 1790. They 
are interred in the Hebrew cemetery in Manheim 
township, north of Lancaster. 

One of the children of Joseph Simon, Miriam, 
married Simon Gratz, and for some years resided 
on the corner of Duke and East King, where Farm- 
ers' Bank is located. Rebecca Gratz, their daugh- 
ter, was born in that house, and the family subse- 
quently moving to Philadelphia, she was raised 
there. She was a favorite beauty of that city, and 
Washington Irving was her warmest friend, and 
it was he who talked Sir Walter Scott into the idea 
of making her his heroine in "Ivanhoe." Rebecca 
is buried in Philadelphia, but her parents are buried 
in the Hebrew cemetery north of Lancaster men- 
tioned above. 

GEORGE NAUMAN (Deceased).. Among the 
leading lights of the legal profession in Lancaster, 
Pa., for over thirty years, and a man who was re- 
peatedly chosen to conduct cases and represent the 
interests of vast corporations, was George Nauman, 
who passed away after a short illness, at his resi- 
dence on East King street, Feb. 14, 1899. 

George Nauman was born Feb. 5, 1841, at Hel- 
ton, Maine, son of George and Mary (Dummett) 
Nauman, natives of Lancaster and England, re- 
spectively. Col. Nauman, the father, was a dis- 
tinguished officer in the United States army, was 
born Oct. 7, 1802, and entered at the Military 
Academy as a cadet. In 1821, he was made acting 
assistant professor in French in that institution, and 
three years later was graduated, the same year re- 
ceiving his appointment as second lieutenant of the 
First Regiment of Artillery. During the summer 
of 1829, he acted as assistant instructor of French 
at West Point, and in May, 1832, received the rank 
of first lieutenant. During the Florida War, he 
served continuously, from 1836 to 1838, being in 
the battle of Wahoo Swamp, and was made captain 
in the spring of 1837. During the Mexican War he 
was brevetted Major for gallant service at the bat- 
tles of Contreras and Churubusco, and he was 
wounded at the battle of Chapultepec, but continued 
on duty and commanded the First Regiment of 
Artillery, and was prize commissioner at Vera Cruz, 
at the close of the war. From May, 1854, to Jan-, 
uary, 1861, he was stationed at various points on 
the Pacific coast. On July 23, 1861, he was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel of the First Artillery, and 
was at Newport News in Mairch, 1862, during the 
famous engagement between the "Merrimac" and 
"Monitor." In 1863 he was stationed in Boston Har- 
bor and engaged in placing that port in proper state 

for defense. On Aug. i, 1863, he was promoted 
colonel of the Fifth Artillery, but unfortunately died 
ten days later, his health having been seriously im- 
paired by the hardships to which he had been sub- 
jected. For forty years, he served his country 
faithfully as an officer, was stationed in every, sec- 
tion of the Union, and in every position acquitted 
himself with honor and distinction. At the time 
of the outbreak of the Rebellion, he was residing 
with his family in Florida, and although offered 
high rank under the Confederate government, was 
true to the flag under which he had fought so long. 

Col.- Nauman was married to Mary Dummett, 
in St. Augustine, Fla., she being a daughter of 
Thomas Dummett, a native of England, who be- 
came a sugar planter on the Isle of Barbadoes, until 
the abolition of slavery there, when he removed to 
Connecticut. When the United States acquired 
Florida, he was one of the first to introduce sugar 
planting in the new territory. Mrs. Nauman died 
in 1861, leaving six children, three of whom still 

George Nauman remained with his father until 
1853, at the different military posts at which he 
was stationed, but at that time went with his mother 
and other members of the family to St. Augustine, 
Fla., Col. Nauman going to California. In 1859, 
he was graduated from St. James College at Hag- 
erstown, Md., with degree of B. A., after which he 
read law for a year in the State of Florida, his mind 
thus early showing its natural bent. In the fall 
of i860, he became a student in the Law Department 
of the University of Virginia, and in June, 1861, 
located in Lancaster, Pa., continuing his legal stud- 
ies, and being admitted to the Bar in 1862. Imme- 
diately after this, he entered upon the practice 
of his profession, and met with marked success 
during his entire legal career, numbering among 
his clients the most prominent men and corporations 
of Lancaster and surrounding country. For three 
years he served as city solicitor, and frequently rep- 
resented the Pennsylvania Railway Co. ; was counsel 
for the Lancaster Street Railroad Co., and all of the 
three oil lines in the county. 

Mr. Nauman was one of the leading Democrats 
of the county, and was frequently called upon to 
represent his party in various offices, and he served 
many times as chairman of the State Democratic 
Central Committee. At one time he was chosen as 
candidate from his district for Congress, but the 
party being in the minority, he was not elected. 
In 1888, upon the retirement of Justice Gordon, 
Mr. Nauman was offered the nomination, but de-^ 
clined the honor, and the Hon. James B. McCollum 
was placed upon the ticket. In 1896, when the gold 
question played so important a part in party issues, 
Mr. Nauman was very pronounced in his views 
upon the question, and held to the gold standard 

Mr. Nauman's strength as a lawyer lay in his 
keen, analytical reasoning; his thorough knowledge 



of the statutes and his clear, forcible manner of 
presenting his case to the jury, rather than in lofty 
flights of oratory, although as an orator he possessed 
no mean gifts. A close student, both of books and 
human nature, Mr. Nauman's mind was well filled 
with useful facts, and he was justly recognized as 
one of the best informed men in Lancaster. He was 
also an accomplished linguist, speaking several lan- 
guage's fluently, and was a cultured, refined scholar, 
and a man who commanded deepest respect every- 
where from all classes. 

In Lancaster, in 1867, Mr. Nauman was married 
to Miss Elizabeth Henderson, and nine children 
were born to this happy union, two of whom are 
deceased \ George is a member of the Civil Engineer 
Corps of the Pennsylvania Railroad and is a grad- 
uate of Lehigh University; Alfred is a hardware 
merchant of Lancaster ; John is a graduate of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College, read law with his father, 
and was admitted to the Lancaster Bar, now -being, 
his father's successor in his large practice, with 
offices at his father's former location, on North Duke 
street (he is single and resides with his mother). 
The other children are: Frank, Elizabeth, Spencer 
and Harriet. 

The father of Mrs. Nauman was Amos S. Hen- 
derson, who at one time, was one of the leading 
bankers of Lancaster, and a man very prominent in 
financial and commercial circles, and one who en- 
joyed universal respect. The religious connections 
of Mrs. Nauman and her family are with St. James' 
Episcopal Church, in which they are active workers, 
and of which Mr. Nauman was also a member. 

MAJOR ELLWOOD GRIEST, ex-postmaster 
of Lancaster, and father of Hon. W. W. Griest, sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, was 
a man of far more than ordinary attainments, and 
was a worthy descendant of the sturdy stock from 
which he sprung. 

Major Griest was born in Chester county, at 
Griest's fording, on the Octoraro, June 17, 1824, a 
son of William and Margaret Griest, who belonged 
to the Society of Friends. After receiving an or- 
dinary English education he was apprenticed to 
learn the blacksmith's trade, after which he worked 
as a journevman in Lancaster, Chester and Delaware 
counties. He first engaged in business on his own 
account in Bart township, Lancaster county, and 
afterward in Christiana, and was in business in the 
latter place when he entered the service of the United 
States, in December, 1862, as a clerk in the subsist- 
ence department, 3d Division, 6th Army Corps, 
Army of the He was captured by Mosby's 
guerrillas Oct. it, 1863, and confined in Libby prison 
until Jan. 30, 1864, when he was paroled and ex- 
changed. He was next assigned to duty on John- 
son's Island, Lake Erie. In August, 1864, he was 
commissioned commissar)' of subsistence with the 
rank of captain. He was ordered to Gen. Sheridan's 
army and placed on his staff as issuing commissary 

at headquarters, remaining with Sheridan until Feb- 
ruary, 1865, when the latter went on his raid through 
the Shenandoah Valley. Capt. Griest was left as 
post commissary at Winchester. Later he was de- 
tailed with .Sheridan at New Orleans, and afterward 
at Jacksonville, Fla. He was mustered out of ser- 
A'ice in April, 1866, with the brevet rank of major. 
Before returning home a lieutenant's commission in 
the United States Infantry was tendered to him, 
which he declined. 

In September, 1866, the county commissioners 
appointed Major Griest county treasurer, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Samuel Ensinger. 
While treasurer he was employed by Stuart A. Wy- 
lie to edit the Lancaster Inquirer. In 1868 he en- 
tered into partnership with Mr. Wylie, and the firm 
continued until the death of the latter, in 1872. Mr. 
Griest then became the editor and proprietor of the 
Inquirer, and so continued until his death. 

Mr. Griest was, as a young man, a radical Aboli- 
tionist. He was one of the organizers of the Repub- 
lican party, took an active interest in politics, and 
frequently presided at county conventions. He was 
a delegate to the State Convention in 1856. In 1866 
he became a can;lidate for Congress to succeed Thad- 
deus Stevens, but withdrew in favor of O. J. Dickey. 
After Mr. Dickey died he again became a candidate 
for Congress, but was defeated by A. Herr Smith by 
sixty-two votes, after an exciting contest. The can- 
didates were A. Herr Smith, who received 3,763 
votes; Ellwood Griest, 3,701; Jesse Kennedy (Mt. 
Joy), 1,015; S. C. Kauffman (Columbia), 1,956; 
David Evans (city), 162. Two years later Mr. 
Griest was again an unsuccessful candidate. In 
1888 he was a Presidential elector on the Republican 
ticket. President Harrison appointed him post- 
master Dec. Ti, 1890; and on Feb. 16, 1898, he was 
appointed postmaster for a second time by President 
McKinley, and held that office at the time of his 

In his religious views Major Griest was a 
Quaker, and belonged to the Eastland Meeting, in 
Little Britain township. Fraternally he was a mem- 
ber of George H. Thomas Post, No. 84, G. A. R., 
and of Lodge No. 43, of the Masonic fraternity. 

Major Griest died, after a lingering illness, at 
the old family home. No. 429 South Prince street, 
in February, 1900. His wife, who had also long 
been an invalid, soon followed her devoted husband, 
and entered into rest in August, 1900. Frank, the 
eldest son, who was assistant editor of the Inquirer, 
passed away in March, 1900, and Hon. W. W. 
Griest is the sole survivor of the family. 

HANS TSCHANTZ was one of the first Men- 
nonite ministers to locate in Lancaster county, hav- 
ing come to this country with Hans Herr, Ulrich 
Brackbill, Christian Herr, Martin Mylin and others 
about 1709. He was connected with the Strasburg 
district of the Mennonite Church in Lancaster 
county. He became a Bishop in that church and 

CM^t^rO ^yi^-^J^^^si^ 



in 1742, when Martin Meylin (Mylin) built a fine 
and commodious house for himself, he was mildly 
reprimanded by Bishop Tschantz and asked to de- 
clare openly what his intentions were in erecting 
such a handsome affair. He stated that he had only 
done so for his comfort, and after some discussion 
the Bishop reprimanded him and the matter ended 

EDWARD SHIPPEN, one of the leading men 
of Lancaster in Revolutionary times, was a grand- 
son of Edward Shippen, of Philadelphia, who had 
come from Yorkshire, England, to Boston and 
finally settled in Philadelphia in 1693. Edward 
Shippen, the subject of our sketch, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1703, and came to Lancaster in 
1752, when he was appointed prothonotary of the 
county. He was paymaster for the supplies fur- 
nished to the Provincial soldiers during the French 
and Indian War, and was also a county judge of 
Lancaster county. He died at an advanced age, 
and is buried in the graveyard of St. James' Episco- 
pal church. His son, Edward, became Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme court of Pennsylvania in 1790. 
One of his daughters married Benedict Arnold 
in 1778. 

master of Lancaster, well known in his community 
on account of his connection with Reigarts Old 
Wine Store, a leading business house, comes from 
prominent Pennsylvania families. His marriage to 
Miss Steele, daughter of late Capt; John Steele, 
adds considerable to Mr. Slaymaker's social 

The first of the family to emigrate to this coun- 
try was Mathias Slaymaker (in German Schleier- 
macher), a native of Hessen-Cassel, who arrived 
from Strasburg, Germany, in the year 1710. He 
settled on a thousand-acre tract known as the "Lon- 
don Lands," located near the residence of Peter J, 
Eckert in Strasburg township. Mathias had two 
brothers, one a clergyman and settled in the Em- 
peror's dominion high up in Germany, and for 
some time secretary of the German Legation to the 
Court of St. James, afterward holding the position 
of Charge d' Affairs to the same government; his 
eldest son was governor of a German Island. Presi- 
dent John Adams, while minister to England, re- 
sided with a descendant of this brother. Another 
descendant of this branch was governor of an Island 
under German Dominion. Mathias' other brother 
was a major in the King of Prussia's tall regiment, 
and it is supposed that a son of this brother was an 
officer (major) in the Hessian troops hired by 
George III to fight his rebellious subjects in Amer- 
ica, as a captured soldier of that name was at one 
time confined in the Lancaster jail. 

Mathias Slaymaker, the emigrant, was married 
in Germanv. He had five sons : Lawrence, Mathias, 
John, Henry and Daniel, and two daughters, Mar- 

garet and Barbara Eckman. Of these Lawrence 
and Margaret were born before the emigration to 
America. Lawrence married a sister of Jacob 
Pfautz, and had one child who married a member 
of the Lefever family and later moved to Cumber- 
land county. Mathias married a Miss Smith and 
had two sons, John and William, and three daugh- 
ters, Rachel, Rebecca and Elizabeth. John mar- 
ried Elizabeth White and had Mathias, John, Wil- 
liam and Alexander, and five daughters, Jane, Eliza- 
beth, Mary, Kitty and Ann. Henry married Faith- 
ful Richardson, three sons being born to the union, 
Amos, Henry and Samuel, and six daughters, Mary, 
Hannah, Faithful, Lydia, Sarah and Sophia. Daniel 
married Gilsey Young, and had Daniel, William and 
Mathias, sons, and Elizabeth and Gilsey, daugh- 
ters. Margaret married Michael Fickel, and reared 
a large family. Barbara married Hironimus 

Henry Slaymaker, father of Amos, assisted in 
clearing a portion of the present town site of Lan- 
caster. The London Lands were left to John, Henry, 
Mathias and Daniel, and a portion of the estate is 
still held by the family. 

The Slaymaker family resisted all the efforts of 
the British to make them desert the Colonists dur- 
ing Revolutionary times, and every member re- 
mained faithful to the Republic during its struggle 
for liberty. Henry was a magistrate during this 
time and was active in behalf of freedom ; he suc- 
ceeded Mr. Hubley as principal justice, presiding 
for a year. Henry's son Amos was a member of 
Col. James Mercer's military company, formed by 
young men who entered into articles of agreement 
to suppress all those called Tories. Its movements 
were attended with great hazard, and it was con- 
stantly in aid of the new Republic. The traditions 
of the family are replete with stories of this period. 
One in particular when Magistrate Henry Slay- 
maker, hearing of a gang of Tories operating in the 
vicinity ordered out the company in pursuit of it. 
After a hard march through a stormy night it was 
learned that the Tories had been apprised of their 
coming and had made their escape. Henry Slay- 
maker was a delegate to the convention for framing 
a constitution for the State of Pennsylvania, which 
met at Philadelphia, July 15, 1776. 

Amos Slaymaker served two terms in the Revo- 
lutionary war as an Ensign in a company com- 
manded by his uncle, John S., who was also en- 
gaged as an officer in Braddock's war. Amos was 
magistrate for many years, a member of Legisla- 
ture, of the Pennsylvania Senate, and afterwards 
a member Of Congress from his district. 

The John Slaymaker of Revolutionary fame 
was a sturdy patriot and soldier. In Braddock's 
disastrous campaign against the French he was en- 
gaged during the day of Braddock's defeat. He 
had charge of a cannon and in getting it into action 
had eleven horses shot while hauling it into position. 
In 1776 he took a company into Bergen, N. J., and 



was in the skirmish under Gen. Bull, at Chestnut 
Hill, where the General was taken prisoner. Upon 
John's return home he was elected county com- 
missioner, and after filling that office he retired 
to private life, dying in 1798, aged sixty-five years. 

Samuel Slaymaker, third son of Henry Slay- 
maker and Faithful Richardson, married Ann Coch- 
ran, daughter of Stephen Cochran, of Cochranville, 
Chester Co., and they had offspring as follows i 
Henry Y., Stephen C, Samuel R., James A. and 
Eliza. Samuel and his brother Henry were pro- 
prietors of the great stage line of Reeside, Slay- 
maker & Co., from Philadelphia to the West, be- 
fore the era of railroads. The firm built the large 
stage barn on the corner of Duke and Chestnut 
streets, with the three one-story brick houses still 
standing on the north side of Chestnut street, ex- 
tending from the Rote Iron Works to Cherry street. 
The barn was destroyed by fire the evening of Nov. 
I, 1832, at which time Samuel R. Slaymaker & Coj 
were the owners of the stage line. Samuel died 
April 3, 1830, at his residence in East Orange St., 
now the property of Dr. George Rohrer. Ann 
(Cochran) Slaymaker died at the home of her son 
Samuel R., in York. 

Henry V. Slaymaker, of Margaretta Furnace, 
York Co., married Margaret Reigart and the fol^ 
lowing children were born to this union: Mary 
R., Ann C, Henrietta E., and Adam R. Margaret 
died at Margaretta Furnace. Henry Y. died at his 
daughter Henrietta Ruthrauff's in Davenport, Iowa, 

Samuel R. Slaymaker married Anna Smith, of 
Philadelphia, and had the following children: 
Henry Stephen, Robert S., Margaret and Jonathan 
S. (who was captain of a company in the 2nd Iowa 
V. I., and was killed at the taking of Fort Donelson 
during the late Civil war). 

James A. Slaymaker died at Detroit, Michigan. 

Stephen C. Slaymaker, of Margaretta Furnace, 
York Co., married Susan, youngest daughter of 
Adam and Mary Reigart, and had children as fol- 
lows : Henry Edwin, Samuel Howard, Adam Rei- 
gart and Stephen Cochran. Stephen C, was born 
in Lancaster, Jan. 17, 1802, and died at Margaretta 
Furnace Jan. i, 1835. Susan (Reigart) Slaymaker, 
born at Lancaster April 4, 1804, died at the home 
of her son; Henry E., May 7, 1886, and both are 
buried in St. James Episcopal Church yard in Lan- 

Henry Edwin Slaymaker, the subject of the 
present sketch, was born at Margaretta Furnace, 
York Co., Oct. 26, 1828. At the age of twelve 
years Mr. Slaymaker came to Lancaster with his 
mother in 1841, and after attending the Franklin 
Academy and High school for some time entered 
the late Col. Mayer's hardware store on North 
Queen street, remaining there three years. Then 
he became a salesman for John F. Steinman' & Son, 
hardware dealers. After two years' service he 
formed a partnership with the late William C. Pink- 
erton in hardware under the name of Pinkerton & 

Slaymaker with store on North Queen street. The 
business was closed out in 1857 and Mr. Slaymaker 
then took charge of Reigart's Old Wine Store on 
East King street, established by Adam Reigart, our 
subject's grandfather, in 1785, and has successfully 
conducted the business for the estate ever since. 

Henry E. Slaymaker married Mary Steele, 
youngest daughter of Capt. John and Jane P. Steele, 
of Harmpny Hall, Leacock township. They have 
had three daughters, .Mary Reigart, who married 
Edward P. Cowell, employed by the Lehigh Valley 
R. R., and they have two children, Mary Edna and 
Henry Slaymaker ; Frances Steele, who died at the 
age of seven months; and Susan R., at home. In 
politics Mr. Slaymaker was first a Whig, but in 
i860 he became a Constitutional States Rights Dem- 
ocrat, and has remained with that party since. 

Mr. Slaymaker was a member of St. John's 
Episcopal church of Lancaster, having helped to 
organize it and serving as one of the first set of 
vestrymen. He is now a member of St. James 
church, and is prominent in its affairs. He was 
a member of Lancaster Fencibles, the crack military 
company of the time, and at the beginning of the 
war he helped to organize the Union Guards, which 
did such good service in the Army of the Potomac. 
While preivented from going to the war when the 
Rebels invaded Pennsylvania, Mr. Slaymaker raised 
a company known as Co. B, loth P. V. I. After 
some service the company was disbanded. 

Mr. Slaymaker held the office of auditor of Lan- 
caster until its abolishment. From the age of eigh- 
teen years he was a member of the Union Volunteer 
Fire Co., No. i, and for twenty-eight years was its 
president. After the establishment of a paid de- 
partment the company formed the Union Fire Co. 
Association. Mr. Slaymaker was elected its presi- 
dent, and still retains that position. For more than 
twenty years he was chairman of the Property com- 
mittee of the school directors of Lancaster, and 
when the first modern school building was erected 
in the town he superintended its construction, giv- 
ing the work as careful consideration as he would 
his own business. President Cleveland appointed 
him postmaster during his first term and it was 
during this time the new postoffice on North Duke 
street was ordered by the government. At the end 
of his term it was found that Mr. Slaymaker was 
the government creditor to the amount of one cent, 
a draft for which amount was sent him from Wash- 
ington. Mr. Slaymaker retains the draft as a curi- 
osity. For three years he was jury commissioner of 
the county. 

Mr. Slaymaker is a member of Lancaster Lodge, 
No. 476, F. & A. M. ; also of the Chapter, No. 43) 
and the Lodge of Perfection, and from time to time 
has held the lodges' most important offices, at pres- 
ent being treasurer of the former, and trustee of 
the latter. He is a trustee of the Witmer Home, 
a manager of the Home for Friendless Children 
since its establishment. Hale and vigorous, no more 



familiar figure than that of Mr. Slaymaker is known 
to Lancaster. Clever and kind, and a most enter- 
taining companion, it is small wonder that the gen- 
tleman has long been regarded as one of Lancaster's 
foremost men. 

Mrs. Slaymaker comes of a family whose record 
is indelibly written in American history. General 
John Steele, her grandfather, was born in Drumore 
township, Lancaster county, in 1758, a son of Wil- 
liam Steele. He was educated in the school at Chest- 
nut Level, kept by the Rev. James Latta. While 
still in school, the war of the Revolution was begun, 
and young Steele exchanged the school room for 
the camp, enlisting the same day as did his three 
brothers, Archibald, William and James. He en- 
tered the ranks as a private, but before he was 
twenty-one was in command of a company, being 
made a first lieutenant in the loth Pennsylvania, 
Dec. 4, 1776; Captain, May 27, 1778; transferred to 
the 17th Cavalry in 1781 ; retired in January, 1783; 
and later honored with the rank of general. He 
was wounded at the battle of Brandywine, but re- 
covered and returned to his regiment, following 
Washington through many battles, participating 
as officer of- the day in the memorable success en- 
acted at the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, 
Oct. 19, 1781. In June, 1780, while a member of 
Gen. Washington's body guard, he had the honor of 
guarding Mrs. Washington, in the absence of her 
husband, at Morristown, N. J. After the war 
was over. Gen. Steele served in the Pennsylvania 
Senate, being presiding officer in 1805 and 1808. 
In the latter year he was appointed collector of the 
port of Philadelphia, an office he continued to hold 
until 1826. He was a man of undoubted genius. 
For a time he engaged in the publishing business 
in Philadelphia, where he located in 1784, casting 
his type with his own hands. The last year of his 
life was spent on his farm at Octoraro. His death 
occurred Feb. 27, 1827, and he was buried in Old 
Pine St. Church Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. Besides 
his service in the field, this sturdy patriot had loaned 
money to the Government, and he was one of the 
founders of the Society of the Cincinnati. In 1784 
he wedded Miss Bailey, who had waited for him 
during seven long years he served his country. She 
died in March, 1828. In politics he was a Jeflfer- 
sonian Democrat. 

Capt. John Steele, son of Gen. John Steele, en- 
tered into rest Oct. 27, 1853. During the war of 
181 2, he commanded a company, and later suc- 
ceeded to the position held by his father as collector 
of the Port of Philadelphia. He was also controller 
of the public schools of that city. In politics he 
was a Jacksonian Democrat. Fraternally he was 
a York Rite Mason, belonging to Lodge No. 51, 
of Philadelphia, in which he was past master, and 
in which for thirty years he had held official posi- 
tion He also filled the chair of Right Worshipful 
Grand Master in the Grand Lodge. Capt. Steele mar- 
ried Jane Porter, who was born in 1791, and died in 

1867. Ten children blessed this union, as follows : 
William, Sarah, John, Abiann, James, Robert, Mar- 
garet, Jane D., Mary and Marshall, all deceased, 
except Mary, who is Mrs. Slaymaker. 

Mrs. Slaymaker and her two daughters are act- 
ive members of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, belonging to Donegal Chapter. The 
youngest daughter, Susan Reigart Slaymaker, is at 
present most acceptably serving as corresponding' 

JOSEPH SHERER, son of Samuel Sherer, was 
born in the north of Ireland in 173 1. In 1734 
his parents located in Paxton township, then in 
Lancaster county, now in Dauphin county, Pa. He 
received an ordinary education and began life as a 
farmer. During the French and Indian war he 
served as a non-commissioned officer, doing duty on 
the frontiers. At the beginning of the Revolu- 
tionary War he commanded a company in Colonel 
Burd's Battalion of Associators. He was a member 
of the Lancaster county committee and a member 
of the Constitutional convention of July 15, 1776. 
He took sick while attending the sessions of this con- 
vention, and died on December 2d following. He 
left behind him a wife and eight children. 

JOHN B. GOOD, for twenty years a member 
of the Bar at Lancaster, was born June 18, 1823, in 
Brecknock township, Lancaster Co., Pa., and died 
in Lancaster Sept. 6, 1884, in his sixty-second 
year. He was a son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Bow- 
man) Good, who had six children, of whom John B. 
was the eldest. Lydia, the eldest daughter and sec- 
ond child, married Jacob Hoover, of Berks county. 
Pa., and is now deceased; Elizabeth became the 
wife of Mr. Husser, and is deceased; Sarah, the 
wife of Peter Meisser, died in Lancaster county; 
Mary died unmarried, in Lancaster county ; and 
Nancy also died in this county. The father was a 
cabinet maker by trade. 

In early life Mr. Good was reared to farming, 
and in connection therewith managed to secure an 
excellent education. At the age of eighteen he began 
to teach school, and was thus engaged for several 
years, in the meantime devoting his leisure to the 
reading of law. He was admitted to the Lancaster 
Bar in 1864, and practiced continuously up to the 
time of his death. He was considered a practical 
and conscientious exponent of legal science, and 
had a large and appreciative clientele. For many 
years he was before the public as a writer for vari- 
ous periodicals, possessing a facile pen and apt de- 
scriptive powers. As a Republican he took con- 
siderable interest in local political undertakings, and 
among other offices maintained with credit filled 
that of justice of the peace, from 1847 to 1858. 
In February, 1865, he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and was ever after 
a loyal supporter of that denomination. At the 
time of his death he had held the office of class- 



leader since 1866, and of exhorter since 1867. He 
was president of the first lay conference held in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in March, 1872. 

In Reading, Pa., in 1847, Mr. Good married 
Elizabeth Bowman, daughter of Daniel and Eliza- 
beth (Good) Bowman, and granddaughter of Christ 
and Elizabeth Bowman, the former a miller of Berks 
county, Pa. Mrs. Good was born in Bowmansville, 
• Lancaster Co., Pa., which town was named after her 
father, who was a farmer in the county, and who 
died in 1871, at the age of seventy-nine years. The 
mother was a native of Berks county, Pa., and died 
in 1873, at the age of seventy-nine. The parents 
are buried in Bowmansville cemetery. They had 
the foHowing named children, of whom Mrs. John 
B. Good was the last survivor; Isaac; Moses; 
Elias ; Lbvina, wife of John H. Good, of Brecknock 
township ; Nancy, wife of Christ Gehman ; Eliza- 
beth, Mrs. John B. Good; and Leah, wife of Solo- 
mon Ott. Mrs. Good lived in her pleasant home 
with her daughter, Eleanor M., her other daughter, 
Clara L., being the wife of Leonard Lewis, a ma- 
chinist of Lancaster. 

D., State Superintendent of Public Instruction of 
Pennsylvania from April i, 1881, to the time of his 
death, Dec. 13, 1889, was born at St. George, near 
Burlington, Vt., March 27, 1830. He was the young- 
est of a family of ten children, eight sons and two 
daughters, born to Lewis Higbee and Sarah Baker. 
His mother came from noble stock, and was a. 
woman of surpassing loveliness of disposition and 
force of character. He often spoke of her in terms 
of the warmest gratitude and the tenderest affection. 
It was in deference to her wishes that he declined a 
cadetship at West Point and continued his course at 
the University of Vermont, though the military 
academy, held out for him high promise, and would 
have fallen in admirably with his daring and ad- 
venturous spirit, for he had in him, in large meas- 
ure, that of which the ideal soldier is made. It ^yas 
through her he used to take a passing pride in trac- 
ing his relationship with Ethan Allen, the hero of 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point. His father, at one 
time a member of the State Legislature, was a strong 
representative of the sturdy New England type of 
manhood, a fearless upholder of the right, of which 
he had an intuitive sense, with a rich vein of humor 
that was ever flashing into forms of quick-witted 

Just wh-en Dr. Higbee's formal education began 
is not known. Nearly all we know definitely is that 
"when a little urchin he knocked at the old Polebrook 
school-house with his father's stove-pipe hat on, and 
claimed admittance." As a boy he was full of en- 
ergy and excelled in all out-door sports. He was 
"in love with the hills, skillful with rod and line, a 
fine shot and a natural-born athlete." Though only 
sixteen when he taught his first school, he easily 
outstripped the most active and stalwart of his boys. 
"He could run faster, jump higher, .knock a ball or 

kick a foot-ball further than any of the rest," says 
one who knew him well, "and as a skater he was 
as fleet as the wind, and as alert, nimble and agile as 
seems possible to any master of the art." He was, 
of course, a hero to his pupils on the play-ground, 
while in the school room his brilliant intellectual 
powers and his tact in management made him no 
less an object of admiration. He learned to skate 
as perhaps not another lad in ten thousand has done. 
His older brother tells the story as follows: The 
little fellow had buckled on his skates for the first 
time, but had hardly got upon the ice before a sud- 
den and stunning fall put an end to his anticipations 
of sport. He promptly took them off and could 
not be induced to put them on again that winter. Ice 
coming again the next winter, he went out with the 
boys as before, put on the skates a second time, and 
glided away from everybody — a skillful master of 
the art! Between his fall and the second time he 
buckled on skates, he had become a skillful skater 
— not on, but off the ice ! The boy had thought 
it out. Going along the road to school during the 
sumnier — anywhere, everywhere — without a word 
on the subject to anybody, he was trying the slide, 
studying it, until he had mastered its theory and 
the concept was clear. Then much of the strength 
and skill acquired in other directions here came into 
play, and he led the lively company many a merry 

His preparatory studies must have been prose- 
cuted with vigor, for at the age of fifteen we find 
him admitted into the freshman class of the uni- 
versity. Here he was a leader among his fellows, 
conspicuous no less for the brilliancy of his intel- 
lectual achievements than for his marvelous feats of 
strength and agility in the various athletic sports of 
the day. He became known as the champion foot- 
ball player of New England, as well as one of her 
champion wrestlers, having in his college days en- 
countered but one man — a Canadian of firm-set limb 
and mighty strength of loins — whom he could not 
put down and keep down in this good-natured test 
of bodily skill and strength and endurance. He was 
also a famous cricketer, until a finger broken by the 
ball compelled him to forego the vigorous game. At 
one of the corporation dinners at Burlington, Vt. — 
given by the city corporation op graduation day to 
the university and its alumni — to the right and left 
of President Buckham, of the university, sat Dr. 
James McCosh, president of Princeton College, and 
Dr. E. E. Higbee, president of Mercersburg Theo- 
logical Seminary. After Dr. McCosh had been in- 
troduced and had made his speech. President Buck- 
ham, in introducing Dr. Higbee, remarked: "The 
last time I saw him was many years ago, on the 
campus behind the university. It was on the day 
when his class graduated. He had the foot-ball in 
his hand as he shouted, 'Here goes for the last 
kick !' The records of the university show that the 
ball went over the cupola of the four-story building, 
higher than it was ever kicked before or since!" 
Thus he enriched the traditions of his Alma Mater 




In the name and by authority of the Commonwealth of Pennnsylvania : 


Again devolves upon the Executive the sad duty of announcing to the people of 
this Commonwealth the death of an eminent citizen and faithful official. Dr. E. E. 
Higbee, Superintendent of Public Instruction, died this morning at his home in the City 
of Lancaster. For nearly nine years and by the appointment of three successive Gover- 
nors he served the people of this State with singular fidelity, and purity, and singleness of 
purpose, as the honored head of the Educational Department of the State Government. 

He was born March 27, 1830, and graduated from the University of Vermont in 
1849. He received his professional education at the theological seminary at Mercersburg, 
in this State, and entered the ministry in 1854. He became professor of languages in 
Heidelberg College, Ohio, in 1859 ; but three years later removed to the city of Pittsburg) 
and resumed his labors in the ministry. Soon after he returned, as one of its professors, 
to the theological seminary from which he graduated, and in 1867 was elected to the 
presidency of Mercersburg College, which position he filled until his appointment as 
Superintendent of Public Intstruction in 1881, and this latter office he held by re -appoint- 
ment in 1885 and 1889, until the time of his death. 

Dr. Higbee was a man of broad culture, a polished and thoughtful scholar, familiar 
alike with the treasures of ancient and modern thought and literature. As an instructor 
his extraordinary attainments and varied resources brought to him abundant success in 
every department of effort ; and as an educator, in its broadest and best sense, he had 
attained a rank among the first of the nation. As a public officer he was painstaking and 
conscientious ; as a man he was pure, simple-hearted and genial, gentle and kind. 

The teachers of the State and his associaties in the great work of education loved him 
with a filial devotion, and the Commonwealth trusted him as a pure, noble, true, and 
honest man. 

The funeral services will be held at the First Reformed Church in Lancaster, on 
Monday, December i6th, at half-past 11 o'clock a. m. 

Given under my hand and the Great Seal of the State, at the City of Harrisburg, this 
13th day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty- 
nine, and of the Commonwealth the one hundred and fourteenth. 

By the Governor : JAMES A. BEAVER. 

Chas. W. Stone, 

Secretary of the Co7nmoniii}^Q.lth, 



by exploits of physical skill and dexterity in such a 
signal way as to associate his name with the most 
attractive reminiscences of college days, becoming 
recognized by general consent as facile princeps 
among his fellows. 

Supt. E. Mackey, of Trenton, N. N., in a rare 
tribute to Dr. Higbee, written shortly after his death, 
says : "He was in sympathy with his students in all 
their legitimate pastimes and pursuits. I was fond 
of skating. The creek was a mile away. I was never 
refused permission to absent myself from chapel 
exercises and study hours to enjoy an evening's 
skating. Dr. Higbee himself, it was said, was the 
finest skater ever seen on the creek. He must have 
been a most accomplished athlete. Even when he 
was nearly fifty years old I have seen him kick a 
foot-ball from his hands straight over the college 
cupola — a feat no student could perform during my 
college days. The college building was four stories 
high, and the cupola not more than ten feet wide." 

Mr. J. T. Motter writes : "My earliest acquaint- 
ance with Dr. Higbee dates back to 1849, when I 
was but a lad of eleven years and he a youth of nine- 
teen. He was the best man^ — not only at books but 
also at every kind of sport. I began the study of 
Greek and Latin under him at this time, and also the 
pursuit of every kind of outdoor sport, of which he 
was very fond. He was as fine a shot as I ever 
knew, and he disdained to shoot at any game in re- 
pose, preferring, as he said, to give them a fair 
chance for life. He rarely raised the gun to his 
shoulder to glance along the barrel in shooting part- 
ridges, pheasants or woodcock — and he rarely failed 
to bring down his bird. I have seen him 'wing the 
chimney swallow in his wayward flight. These 
feats of skill in marksmanship were common when 
he was a young man, but as he grew older I never 
knew him to take the gun into his hand. His beau- 
tiful hazel eye was quick as the lightning, and the 
most expressive feature of his face. It seemed, at 
times of great earnestness, to pierce through men 
and things, until the very core of the matter lay bare 
before him, and he saw everything in clearest vision. 
His power of ordinary sight was also remarkable. 
He could tell from a long distance not only the gen- 
era but the species of trees, as for instance the differ- 
ent oaks, maples, etc., and enjoyed testing his eye- 
sight in this way; he could count the strands of a 
rope at a greater distance than any one else while at 
Mercersburg ; and on the way to Europe and return 
his eye in this test was as good as the sailors', and 
about as quick and sure as their own to detect and 
distinguish objects on the horizon." 

As a student at the university he was especially 
strong in the departments of mathematics, the classi- 
cal languages and related studies, and of English 
literature. He was an omnivorous reader, with an 
intuitive power of discrimination and susceptibility 
for the true, the good and the beautiful. He reveled 
in the delights afforded by the noble collection of 
books stored in the university library, whose most 

unfrequented nooks he diligently explored, mousing 
into and through musty "volumes of forgotten lore," 
and enriching his mind with the treasures of poetic 
thought and chaste expression which entered so 
largely and so naturally into the splendid mental and 
spiritual equipment he was acquiring, and which 
proved an inexhaustible source of perennial fresh- 
ness and ever-multiplying power in his subsequent 
career as a thinker, a writer and a speaker of extra- 
ordinary ability. He often spoke of the severe 
mathematical training he there received, the rigid 
discipline of his Latin and Greek sfudies as there 
enforced, and his introduction under competent 
guidance into the domain of speculative thinking: 
and philosophical methods of investigation, as lead- 
ing factors in the educational advantages he en- 
joyed; but he never ceased to "thank his stars" for 
the influences that worked together for his greatest 
intellectual good, in sending him with hurrying feet 
to the library as the storehouse of the accumulated 
wisdom of the ages. Here he acquired that remark- 
able "habit, of swift and discriminating reading, until 
he had amongst books, as Prof. Winsor expresses 
it, 'the instinct that serves the Redman when he 
knows the north by the thickness of the moss on the 
tree-boles.' " 

We have said that he excelled in mathematics. 
In this connection it is interesting to recall the fol- 
lowing incident : When he first began the study of 
algebra it seems that he was unable to get along with 
the nev/ work to his satisfaction. So the lad applied 
to his father for permission to stop the study. "What 
is algebra?" inquired the father. Elnathan told him 
as well as he could, whereupon he was asked,. "Can 
the other boys get it?" "Yes, they seem able to do 
it, at least better than I can." "TheA," said the 
father, with emphasis, "You'll keep at it, and get it 
too." And he did get it, as all know who ever wit- 
nessed the facility, the lightning-like rapidity with 
which he employed the media of this branch of analy- 
sis in the solution of the most intricate problems. He 
once told us boys in class-room of how, one day on 
the playground, the meaning and use of algebra came 
to him like a flash of light, so that he never after had 
trouble with it. 

In college we find him, on the other hand, ap- 
proaching Prof. Torrey with the question whether 
he, might not give up one or two of the other 
branches, for which he had no liking, in order to 
devote himself more assiduously to the study of 
mathematics. "The fact that you seem to have no 
special aptitude for the branches you name," Prof. 
Torrey advised, "is the very best of reasons why you 
should apply yourself most diligently to the mastery 
of the truths they contain, for you need them most ; 
the mathematics, for which you have special talent, 
will for that reason require no special effort on your 
part, but may be trusted to take care of itself in the 
ordinary course of your studies." The wisdom of 
this counsel was not lost upon the young inquirer at 
the time, and in after years was gratefully acknowl- 



edged as fully justified by his own more mature ex- 
perience. He used to speak of this as "the best 
advice" he had received while a student at college. 

His collegiate course terminated in 1849. He 
was one of the honor men of his class. His connec- 
tion with the university did not cease with his gradu- 
ation, for besides maintaining a correspondence with 
several of his old professors upon abstruse questions, 
involving learned disputations, he was invited, "by 
a unanimous vote of the faculty," in the language of 
President Smith, to deliver a Master's Oration at the 
commencement -of 1852; in 1857 he responded to an 
invitation of the Literary Societies "to serve as poet 
for their annual celebration ;" and at another time he 
delivered a poem upon some "high festal" occasion 
in the history of the Owl Society. The Master's 
Oration was entitled "Thesis Theologica — scripta 
dictu in U. V. M. — Relation of the Church to the In- 
carnation in the Creed" — a very scholarly disquisi- 
tion, showing already, at this early age, the wide 
range of his acquaintance with the ponderous tomes 
of patristic literature, the records of the old church 
councils, and the domain of more recent theological 

Dr. Higbee's first employment, after graduating, 
was as assistant teacher in an academy at South 
Woodstock, Vt., where he had classes in the higher 
mathematics, the ancient classics and philosophy. 
At the termination of this engagement he went to 
Emmitsburg, Md., at the request of his sister, to take 
charge of the mathematical and classical depart- 
ments of a select school which his brother-in-law. 
Rev. George W. Aughinbaugh, had organized in 
that place. He was then reading law, and fully de- 
termined, at no distant day, to return to his native 
State and qualify himself for the legal profession. 
He once humorously accounted for his coming to 
Emmitsburg by recalling the familiar anecdote re- 
lated of John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster. These 
statesmen were standing in front of the Capitol at 
Washington, when a drove of mules was going by. 
"Look, Dan," said Calhoun, "there goes some of 
your constituents." "Yes," Webster replied, "they 
are going south to teach school." Then with a merry 
twinkle in his eye he added, "I've come South to 
teach school." How many hundreds of pupils and 
thousands of admiring friends have lived to see the 
day when they devoutly blessed the good fortune 
that permitted them to share in the benefits of his 
"coming South !" 

In 1850 he accepted the position of private tutor 
in the family of Hon. Joshua Motter, of Emmits- 
burg, among whose daughters he found his wife, the 
faithful, life-long partner of his joys and sorrows. 
This position he held for one year. The serious 
earnestness with which he prosecuted his labors 
here, as teacher of a small band of pupils, is es- 
pecially evinced by his lectures on the Science of 
Logic, and the Fine Arts, which were prepared with 
the same painstaking care that characterized his 
later prepared lectures on Church History, Ethics, 

and ^Esthetics. Here too, during the winter of 
1S50-51, he was brotight so nigh unto death by an 
attack of typhoid fever, of a most malignant type, 
that the physicians could no longer count the flurried 
pulse-beats, gave up all hope, and gravely declared, 
"It is only a question of a few hours' time with the 
poor fellow." On the contrary, his great life work 
was just begun. When he rose from this sick bed, 
and could venture out of the house, Dr. Aughin- 
baugh tells us he weighed less than ninety pounds. 
"The battle for life," says Dr. Aughinbaugh, "was 
terrible. For six weeks I did not leave his room for 
rest, except on Saturday night, that I might be in 
better condition for pulpit duties on Sunday." 

In the latter part of 1851, or early in 1852, he 
entered the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Church at Mercersburg, attracted from law to the 
study of theology m.ainly by the writings of Dr. John 
W. Nevin. Drs. Nevin and Schaff were his teach- 
ers. Of his course here we will not take time to 
speak, save to note the interesting fact that he spent 
considerable time in preparing for publication an 
edition of Pindar in the original. The plan of the 
work had been carefully mapped out, in consultation 
with Prof. Pease of the University of Vermont, who 
advised him "to put the Greek on one page and an 
English , metrical translation on the other, with ex- 
planatory notes at the foot of the page and critical 
notes at the end." His earlier admiration for Dr. 
Nevin grew into the profoundest veneration by per- 
sonal association and fuller acquaintance. Indeed, 
he regarded Dr. Nevin, in certain lines of thought, 
the ablest man in America, and with but one man 
his equal in Germany. We remember well when he 
put into our hands, for the editorial columns of The ■ 
Pennsylvania School Journal, this tribute to his 
venerated teacher : 

In the recent death of Dr. J. W. Nevin, at his home at 
Caernarvon Place, near Lancaster, at the advanced age of 
eighty years, the world of scholarship and ripe Christian 
thought has lost a noble citizen. Though not the best known 
to its educators, he was the greatest teacher of his time in 
Pennsylvania. He was unequaled in his power over the minds 
of his pupils, inspiring in them such a reverence for truth, and 
such an humble attitude to receive it, as to free many from all 
self-conceit, and put them on the way of earnest search and 
prayer. While gifted himself with intellectual powers only 
granted to a chosen few, yet in his humility he urged his pupils 
to yield their minds to truth as Something broader and more 
glorious than aught that he or the most learned had attained; 
and guarded them most zealously from the abomination of 
intellectual slavery. In no scholar of our acquaintance have 
we seen the language of our Saviour more fully verified, "Judge 
not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judg- 
ment." And in no educator of the present age have vye seen 
such a- reverent acknowledgment of the aim of all thought-life, 
as given by the greatest teacher of man, "To this end was I 
born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should 
bear witness unto the truth. " 

The same all-absorbing love of the truth and 
comprehensive grasp of its wide-reaching scope was 
the inspiration of Dr. Higbee's own interior thought- 
power, and his own words, as above quoted, might 
be most fittingly applied to himself. After completing 



the Seminary course he accepted the professorship 
■of mathematics in the high school at Lancaster, Pa. 
There he remained one year, making life-long friends 
■of many of his pupils. The last eight years 
•of his life were also lived in Lancaster, and it was 
there that he died in 1889, at the home of his son- 
in-law, Prof. George F. Mull, of Franklin and Mar- 
shall, College. 

■In 1854, five years after his graduation from the 
university, he was licensed to preach the gospel by 
the Maryland Classis of the Reformed Church. His 
first field of ministerial labor was in the Congrega- 
tional Church of Bethel, Vt. After laboring there a 
few years he returned to Emmitsburg as a supply to 
the Reformed Church, but soon became pastor of the 
First Reformed Church of Tiffin, Ohio. There he 
was elected professor of Latin and Greek in Heidel- 
berg College. It was at Tiffin that Dr. Higbee's 
father, now an old man and very feeble, first heard 
liis son preach. Upon returning to the house, he 
•expressed the pleasure he had had by exclaiming, in 
•subdued tones, with tears coursing their way down 
liis cheeks, "Well, I have heard Elnathan preach, 
and now I am satisfied. He knows how to do it." 

Grace Reformed Church, Pittsburg, next en- 
joyed his ministrations for a few years, whence he 
was called, in 1864, to the chair of Church History 
and New Testament Exegesis, occupied by the 
eminent theologian. Dr. Philip Schaff, in the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Mercersburg, where he Had 
graduated. '"Here," says Prof. Kerschner, "eight 
■delightful years of my friend's life passed away." 
When in 1871 the Seminary was removed to Lan- 
"Caster, Dr. Higbee resigned the chair he had so ably 
and acceptably filled, and became President of Mer- 
•cersburg College, holding the position until 1880. 
His pastoral labors covered a period of ten years. 
The sixteen years following, of educational work at 
Mercersburg, spent so quietly that the world knew 
little of him who labored there, were, like those of 
Moses in Horeb, years of quiet preparation made 
unwittingly for a wide field of great activity. There, 
in the chair of Church History and New Testament 
Exegesis, he made the acquaintance of the great 
theologians, ecclesiastics, and statesmen of past 
ages, for to him these men lived again ; and in their 
companionship his wonderful mind found congenial 
spirits and converse upon highest themes in state- 
•craft and religion. 

As President of Mercersburg College Dr. Hig- 
hee passed from the contemplative to the active 
sphere, from the legislative and judicial habit to the 
•executive. Dr. Kerschner says of that period -."His 
labors were vastly increased ; his anxieties were end- 
less; his remuneration was small; the discipline of 
the 'college, no light burden when faithfully dis- 
charged, rested mainly upon him ; he was a commit- 
tee of ways and means where such seemed not to 
€; his' duties were often harassing, always in- 
cessant." During this time he taught classes in 
Psychology, Logic, Esthetics, Ethics and the His- 

tory of Philosophy, and gave special attention to the 
Philosophy of History and the Theory of Educa- 
tion. "But the chapel was the scene of Dr. Higbee's 
severest labors, of his deafest joys, and of his nob- 
lest spiritual victories." Thus was he prepared to 
cope with men and grasp the issues presented in his 
brilliant and inspiring eight years' administration 
of the Department of Public Instructio'n, which he 
began in his fifty-first year. 

A very fair estimate of his labors at Mercers- 
burg, and the fruits thereof, may be had from dis- 
criminating and appreciative articles in the Memorial 
number of The Pennsylvania School Journal (Feb- 
ruary and March, 1890) and in the Dr. Higbee 
Memorial Volume, an extraordinary collection of 
tributes unequaled perhaps in the history of educa- 
tion in America — notably those of Prof. J. B. 
Kerschner, Supt. E. Mackey, Rev. E. N. Kremer, 
Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, Rev. S. L. Whitmore, and 
others. The whole period of his activity from this 
time onward is well covered by the splendid me- 
morial tributes there given. State Supt. Schaefifer, 
who was one of his students at Mercersburg, says 
of him : "He was one of the most remarkable edu- 
cators of modern times, greater at Mercersburg than 
was Dr. Arnold at Rugby. In the eyes of his stu- 
dents he was a linguist, a mathematician, a scientist, 
a philosopher, a theologian, a historian; an orator, a 
poet — all combined in one. Had his magnificent 
powers been concentrated upon a single specialty, he 
might have rendered services therein that would 
have been acknowledged in every clime and tongue." 

Dr. Higbee was largely instrumental in bring- 
ing about the foundation of Mercersburg College in 
the fall of 1865. Laboring there, in season and out 
of season, studying, teaching, preaching, lecturing, 
writing articles for the Reformed Quarterly Review, 
and the Reformed Messenger, of which he was co- 
editor for a time, and serving upon some of the most 
important committees by appointment of the highest 
judicatory of the church — maintaining the most in- 
tense activity whereby his physical resoiirces were 
drained to their utmost capacity — with a sublime 
disregard of personal ease and comfort — his intellec- 
ual and spiritual resources were ever multiplying 
themselves l^y use and development into the splendid 
proportions of rare excellence attained in his later 

Comparatively unknown to the State at large, 
he was appointed by Gov. Henry M. Hoyt, upon the 
recommendation of Hon. John Stewart, Hon. John 
Cessna, and others, to take charge of the Department 
of Public Instruction at a time when peculiar talents 
were needed, Messrs. Breck, Burrowes, Dieffenbach, 
Hickok and others had devised the system, admir- 
able in its adaptatiorkji.:^-ie diverse conditions of the 
several parts of the State, in its balance of central- 
ization with local control ; and Dr. Wickersham with 
singular executive ability had compacted it. What 
the State needed was to be aroused to employ to 
better purpose the means at hand. As Gov. Hoyt 



expressed it, he wanted somebody to put "spiritual 
content" into it. To this task Dr. Higbee applied 
himself. He personally inspected the State from 
end to end. He penetrated the remotest corners, 
and sometimes spent weeks with superintendents, 
holding meetings night after night in country dis- 
tricts. By his scholarly presence and wise counsels, 
by his self-sacrificing spirit and consuming zeal, 
in cities, in boroughs, and in whole counties, he 
aroused and directed the energies of school officers 
and of the public. He was not a worshipper of sys- 
tem. System with him was not an end but a means. 
He deeply impressed upon his hearers that the chil- 
dren ^^•ere not for the schools, but the schools for the 
children. He always insisted upon regard for the 
individual while dealing with masses of children. 
He demanded for each child the buildings, the 
grounds, the appliances, and the teachers, that were 
needed to develop the physical, intellectual, moral, 
religious, and aesthetic nature of the child. How 
well he did this work let the result show. Never 
before was there in Pennsylvania a more wide- 
spread, earnest, substantial support of public in- 
struction. The expenditures upon school property 
were one million dollars in 1881, and in 1889 two 
millions, an increase of one hundred per cent. The 
amount devoted to public instruction increased from 
$7,300,000, in' 1881, to $12,000,000, in 1889, an in- 
crease of over sixty per cent. The aid granted by 
the Legislature, in the State appropriation, in- 
creased one hundred per cent. Teachers were en- 
couraged to attend the County Institute by receiving 
pay for their time spent there ; uniformity in the 
school month was effected throughout the State ; and 
twenty per cent, was added to the length of the 
school year. 

Appointed in 1881 by Gov. Hoyt, Dr. Higbee 
was reappointed by Gov. Pattison, in 1885, and by 
Gov. Beaver, in 1889, each time in response to the 
almost universal desire of the leaders of educational 
work in all parts of Pennsylvania. He was busy 
with his institute work until within two or three 
days of his death. He was stricken at Mifflintown 
at the depot while waiting for the train, after having 
addressed the teachers eloquently at both morning 
and afternoon sessions of the County Institute. A 
few days before he had been at Huntingdon. Dr. M. 
G. Brumbaugh writes of his work there: 

He attended the entire sessions on Thursday, remarking to 
me once during the day that he could not this season do his 
work with his accustomed vigor. I am said he, half jocosely, 
"only fifty-nine, but I look like a man of eighty, and feel like a 
man of ninety. " He made the closing address of the afternoon 
session. His theme was the Identity of Home and School 
Training. In this address for forty minutes he held the rapt 
attention of fully 1,300 people. In it he spoke with all his 
usual earnestness, and that prs^^U^^^ depth of thought and 
feeling which so often characterizea nis platform utterances. 
He reached beyond the ordinary ken, and saw and described 
visions not revealed in like fullness to other men. His extra- 
ordinary grasp of our educational environment, his deep and 
exhaustive analysis of character as a factor in education, his 
earnest and Christian charity for the honest work of the 

teacher, his intense and righteous resentment of all sophistries 
in education, and his marvelous and rythmic diction, com- 
bined to make his address a memorable one. It was probably 
the last, rich, full outpouring of the treasures of his wonderful 

Medical attendance was promptly summoned, 
but nothing could be done save to render his condi- 
tion as comfortable as possible for the journey home, 
which was at once undertaken. There was no return 
to consciousness. Early on Friday morning, Dec. 
13, 1889, the spirit took its flight, and Dr. Higbee 
was at rest. In accordance with his own frequently 
expressed wish he was buried at Emmitsburg, Md., 
a few miles south of Gettysburg — ^ place hallowed 
by the sweetest and saddest memories of his earthly 

The funeral services were held Monday, Dec. 
16th, in the First Reformed Church at Lancaster, 
where he had preached his first sermon, on the last 
Sunday in Advent, 1854, when employed there in the 
mathematical department of the Boys' High School. 
Among those who came to pay their last tribute of 
respect to the distinguished dead were Gov. Beaver, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth Stone, Lieut. Gov. 
Davies, Adjt. Gen. Hastings, the Lancaster school 
board in a body, the faculty and students of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College and of the Theological 
Seminary, professors of the State Normal School at 
Millersville, officials of the Department of Public In- 
striiction, clerks of the Soldiers' Orphan Depart- 
ment, and others among the leading educators of the 
State, including county, city and borough superin- 
tendents, principals of normal schools, teachers and 
clergymen of Lancaster and neighboring towns and 

Addresses were made by his old friends and co- 
workers. Dr. Thomas G. Appel, E. V. Gerhart and 
Benjamin Bausman. "Call it coincidence or pre- 
sentiment or what we may," said Dr. Appel, "there 
is a melancholy satisfaction and comfort in recalling 
the last few days of his life on earth. For some 
time — some days, I mean — previous to his death he 
seemed to be going about taking leave of his friends. 
He spent the morning of his last Sabbath on earth 
with us in the Chapel communion service. He was 
smitten down at the post of duty with his harness 
on. His work on earth was done, and well done. 
He had expended his energy and strength upon it, 
and at the end of his journey he laid aside his pil- 
grim staff and sandal shoon and entered into his 

And Dr. Bausman : "I always felt when I heard 
Dr. Higbee preach that back of all there was some- 
thing, one-tenth of which he had not told us. So 
strong, yet so humble ; such a fine classical scholar, 
yet never telling anybody about it. If you started 
him quoting poetry, or discussing ancient or mod- 
ern literature, what a grand fund he had ! What 
masterly readiness to dip out of any part of history 
or literature just such things as were needed! His 
knowledge of the Scriptures, his study of literature 



— all these mental acquirements— do they He dead 
and buried under that coffin-lid ? I bless God for the 
life of such an earnest Christian worker; I thank 
God for what he was to me— that I have known Dr. 

In the memorial session of the Pennsylvania 
State Teachers' Association, held at Mauch Chunk 
in 1890, Dr. Edward Brooks paid this tribute, in 
part, to the man and his work : "Dr. Higbee was a 
surprise to Pennsylvania when appointed. Wick- 
«rsham had devoted so many years, such wisdom 
and energy, and with such success, to the work, that 
it seemed strange he should not be his own successor ; 
more strange, that his successor should be one un- 
known to the common school men ; and, still more 
strange, that he should be a man whose associations 
had kept him out of touch with us — if not antago- 
nistic, certainly not in sympathy. But the wonder 
was greater when we came to know him, and see him 
discharging his duties. 'None named him but to 
praise.' He touched the heart of the educational 
tody, and the pulse of the educational sentiment, as 
no man has done before. He did more to uplift the 
profession of teaching than any of his predecessors. 
His work was the complement of theirs. Burrowes 
"had given shape to legislation — Wickersham had 
consolidated the system with an executive ability that 
no other could have supplied — it was left for Higbee 
to touch the heart, with a personal power and in- 
spiration that no one else possessed. Each of these 
men came to the front when needed — all did their 
work nobly. Educational movements are rhythmi- 
cal — now science, now theology, is on the topmost 
wave ; the tendency of to-day is toward materialism, 
•especially among the great thinkers of the German 
tmiversities. Dr. Higbee set his face against the 
error of carrying all education down to the level of 
sense-perception, and taught that we must unsense 
the mind. Then as a Christian man he threw into 
Tils work an immense uplifting influence from the 
spiritual side." 

Dr. Nathan C. Schaefifer, State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, speaks of him in a memorial 
address before the National Educational Association 
at St. Paul, as "one of the most remarkable edu- 
cators of modern times," and says : "It was at Mer- 
cersburg that I first learned to know him. He 
astonished the students in various ways. While 
sufifering from hay-fever he frequently occupied 
himself in tracing mathematical curves of the higher 
•orders, or in talking of the beauties of the Greek 
verb. His lectures were a well-spring of inspira- 
tion for his auditors. They abounded not only in all 
kinds of learning but also in seed thoughts that 
afterward sprouted and grew into sermons. Daily 
the students came away from him with new impulses 
to study and investigation. His influence widened 
their reading, deepened their thinking, increased 
their zeal in studving the Scriptures, and stimulated 
their desire to preach Christ and Him crucified. 
Subsequent studv abroad convinced me that the uni- 

versities of Berlin, Leipsic and Tubingen, whilst 
they could boast of more thorough specialists-, did 
not possess his superior as a lecturer and inspirer of 
young men." 

Plon. John Stewart, who knew Dr. Higbee long 
and very intimately, says that from him he received 
"more valuable information on all the great subjects 
of human thought and speculation than from any 
other man" he has ever known. "No better man,'" 
he adds, "has ever occupied the position of Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction in this or any other 
State, and the common school system throughout 
the land will, in all time, reap great benefit from the 
labors of Dr. Higbee. Yet after all it was as a 
preacher of the gospel that he found his highest call- 
ing and was most successful." He regarded him 
the most interesting preacher he had ever heard, 
and he knew no other man his equal in scholastic at- 
tainments. Gov. Hovt, whose acquaintance in Penn- 
sylvania was very wide, and who was himself a man 
of fine scholarship, says of him : "Dr. Higbee was, 
in mv opinion, the very best all-round scholar in the 

John W. Appel, Esq., a well-known member of 
the Lancaster Bar, and a gentleman who greatly en- 
joyed acquaintance with Dr. Higbee, says : "He 
sometimes taught us Homer and history. The 
whole scene before Troy seemed to be enacted there 
before us in the recitation room. There were 
Achilles, Agamemnon and Nestor right before us. 
He seemed to know the whole story by heart. On 
one occasion, when the student reciting was stum- 
bling through one of Nestor's fine speeches, bungling 
the scanning. Dr. Higbee, becoming impatient, sud- 
denly jumped to his feet, and, looking at the class, 
said, 'Hear !' and commenced and ran through the 
entire speech in Greek from memory, and without 
the aid of the book. 'Oh, how grand ! how beau- 
tiful !' he said as he finished it. The dramatic man- 
ner in which it was done astonished us as much as 
if Nestor himself had appeared bodily before us. 
No language, as he taught it, was ever dead. His 
magic touch made the -dead speak and the dumb 
oracles break their silence." 

Dr. Higbee was a gentleman of fine taste in art 
and music, so cultivated as to make him a judicious 
critic in those directions. He was the author of sev- 
eral hymns that have found their way into the books. 
He was familiar also with the best works of the 
leading novelists, with hearty admiration of Sir 
Walter Scott, whose masterpiece, "Ivanhoe," in par- 
ticular, he had read an almost incredible number of 
times, until it might almost be said that he "knew 
it by heart." He has been called a poet, and that he 
was. It was his habit during a part of his life to 
write short original poems in his letters to certain 
of his nearest friends. They seemed to be the off- 
spring of the moment. These letters, in his beautiful 
handwriting, would often be illustrated with pen- 
and-ink or sepia drawings, as delicately done as 
those of Thackeray, presenting points in the land- 



scape about him, or some fanciful sketch of rocks 
and streams, bushes and trees, sky and birds — per- 
haps the hunter and his dogs, all exquisitely touched 
in and occupying but little space. What he did 
•seems but a hint of what he might have done with 
leisure to devote himself to work of this kind. 

But in the field of instruction his rank was simply 
extraordinary. Men skilled in specialties said of 
him, "Dr. Higbee should teach nothing but Greek," 
— "iDr. Higbee should never teach anything but 
Latin" — "nothing but Philosophy of History" — 
"nothing but English Literature" — "nothing but 
Shakspeare and the great dramatists" — "nothing but 
Church History and Exegesis" — "nothing but 
Mathematics" — in fact, nothing but the specialty in 
which he happened, for any length of time, to be 
giving instruction, because in it he had become so 
able a master. So thorough was his acquaintance 
with these varied lines of study and research that he 
turned, at times, for relaxation and pleasure, to the 
calculus in mathematics, or to the Greek comedy in 
the original for the enjoyment it afforded him. 

Many of his pupils speak of him as a man with 
the gift or power of inspiring in them a new and 
nobler enthusiasm, such as no other man could 
arouse. We have heard our most earnest superin- 
tendents and principals of Normal schools, as well 
as teachers, say this of him in the work he endeav- 
ored to do in the State. Built firmly into the de- 
velopment of the mind, his work told mightily in the 
life of the soul. The secret of his power lay in the 
fact that he lived constantly in two worlds — the 
spiritual, invisible to the eye of sense, being ever the 
substantial : and the material, upon which we tread 
and with which we are in contact on every side, ever 
the fleeting. For him the past and the future were 
always the present. 

The name and fame of Dr. Higbee will become 
a tradition in the records of the school department 
and the school history of Pennsylvania. One of the 
best things this man did was to introduce the ob- 
servance of Arbor Day into the great State of Penn- 
sylvania — with its cumulative benefits through the 
years, and we trust, through the centuries. Other 
men gave him their generous aid in this great work, 
but the enduring honor of being our Arbor Day 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction belongs 
to him alone, and as such he will continue to be 
gratefully recognized in the years to come. 

Vermont has given to Pennsylvania two great 
men in Hon. Thaddeus Stevens and Dr. E. E. Hig- 
bee, and Pennsylvania is heavily her debtor. The 
former filled a very large space in the political his- 
tory of the State and the Nation. In the eye of the 
world also he filled a much larger space than the 
latter; but, grand as his record has' been, it may be 
that, when the angel accountants come to reckon up 
the sum total of benefits conferred upon their kind 
by each of these great men, they will stand more 
nearly together than even ourselves might suppose. 

Dr. Higbee was grandly beloved and trusted, 

largely — let this be the great lesson of his life — be- 
cause, in addition to all his other royal gifts and at- 
tainments, he had that which so many rhen lack — a 
mighty, an all-mighty, moral 'purpose; too rare, in- 
deed, but which, when possessed, is the very crown 
of the highest manhood, the noblest womanhood. 
He believed in God with child-like faith in' the wis- 
dom of the divine guidance. "God's providences,"' 
he said, "are mysterious, and not one of us knows 
what calling of life is Jsest for us, temporally or 
spiritually. What a varying life I have had, and how 
little after my choice or election ! When I look back 
upon it, I can see that I had no controlling power 
over it. But God has been merciful and kind, and I 
ought to be filled with unfeigned gr'atitude^and 
I am." 

The memorial to Dr. Higbee from the teachers 
and superintendents of Pennsylvania was perhaps 
the most unique in kind, and the most effective in 
result, in the history of education in America. Its 
purpose was not only to honor the memory of a 
great man beyond other men revered and beloved 
throughout the commonwealth, but also to widen and 
deepen the blessed influence of his noble life. This- 
memorial includes : 

1. A Monument of Quincy granite, suitably in- 
scribed, a single block weighing over eleven tons, 
the design on one side being a massive Roman Cross; 
of polished stone, apparently cast upon the native 
rock, and on the other the simple inscription with a 
single pregnant line of epitaph that Kings might 
envy, "O Man Greatly Beloved (Daniel xiig)" — 
for he is believed to have been, at the time of his 
death, the one man best beloved in all the State. 

2. A Bust in Bronze of heroic size with suitable 
pedestal, placed in the Department of Public In- 
struction at Harrisburg. 

3. A lifesize portrait of Dr. Higbee, suitably 
framed, placed in the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion; in the State Library at Harrisburg; in eacK 
of the thirteen State Normal Schools ; in each of the 
institutions of learning with which he was at any 
time connected, as student, professor or president ; 
and in the offices of all the city, county, borough and 
township school superintendents of Pennsylvania. 
Copies of the picture were also sent to each school 
district, county institute, or school making contri- 
butions to the memorial fimd, the number sent being 
determined by the amount contributed. Some twelve 
thousand of these fine portraits were thus distributed 
to perpetuate the memory of Dr. Higbee in every 
part of Pennsylvania. 

4. A large Memorial Volume containing many 
remarkable tributes of loving memory, together with 
selections from the writings, addresses, poems, etc., 
of Dr. Higbee, to accompany, so far as possible, each 
portrait sent out by the Memorial committee, to the 
limit of ten thousand copies. "It is the design of 
the Committee that this volume shall be the persona! 
property of the teacher, both for the thoughts it may 
suggest and the inspiration it may afford. Indeed, 



in a certain sense the Committee regard this as 
probably the most extraordinary book of its kind, 
and one of the best professional works on teaching 
--showing the matter, life, and abiding results of a 
great teacher's work — yet issued from the American 
press. The picture and book complement each other 
admirably, but the volume, at the same time that it 
costs most money, is the most valuable feature of the 
Dr. Higbee Memorial, for in it are to be found the 
very life and moving spirit of the man." The book 
contains as much matter as an ordinary volume of 
five or six hundred pages. In printing it more than 
three tons of paper were used. 

The Dr. Higbee Memorial has gone upon the 
educational records of the State, and will be spoken 
of in years to come as the first grand effort made in 
Pennsylvania, by the schools at large, to show en- 
during respect to the memory of a man whom the 
State "delights to honor" because of his great ser- 
vice in the work of general education. 

The Memorial Committee appointed by the Penn- 
sylvania State Teachers' Association for this duty 
were Dr. J. P. McCaskey, chairman; Supt. M. J. 
Brecht, secretary; Dr. M. G. Brumbaugh, Dr. 
George M. Philips and Prof. H. W. Fisher. 

We have seen a remarkable letter, bearing date 
"Feb. 8, 1881," which was found among Dr. Hig- 
bee's papers shortly after his death. It is from a 
man of eminent ability and fine scholarship, who 
knew Dr. Higbee well, and was written shortly be- 
fore his appointment to the superintendency. He 
says : "How I would love to see you and such as you 
in like positions ! I have been thinking of Horace 
Mann — his statute in Boston, and the reverence with 
which he is regarded everywhere. If you have this 
place assigned to you, there will be in our State 
House at Harrisburg some day a statue of Parian 
marble to mark the figure and countenance of E. E. 
Higbee." In this splendid memorial the prediction 
is more than realized, and in a form far beyond the 
choicest marble of old Greece, in the noblest setting 
that could be chosen for it in the State Capitol 
grounds at Harrisburg. 

REV. ELIAS GROFF. One of the large land- 
owners and successful retired agriculturists, as well 
as one of the most earnest and devout ministers of 
the old Mennonite Church, in Lancaster county, is 
Rev. Elias GrofiE, of Strasburg township. A true 
son of that locality, he was born there Jan. i, 1838, 
a son of Emanuel and Mary (Landis) Groff, both 
members of families of more than usual prominence 
in the county. 

John Grofif, the grandfather of Elias, married 
Susan Rife, and became one of the largest corn 
farmers in this locality, his success in the growing 
of that cereal being noted by his neighbors, who, in 
friendly spirit, called him "Corn Johnnie Groff." 
His landed possessions grew with his years, and 
at the time of his death, Jan. 13, 1864, he owned 
four farms in Strasburg township, one in West 

Lampeter township, and one in Providence town- 
ship. His neighbors spoke of him as a most worthy 
member of the Old Mennonite Church, in which 
he reared his large family, almost all of them still 
clinging to that religious belief. His wife was born 
Aug. 13, 1780, three years later than her husband, 
and survived him two years. Their children were; 
David, deceased, was a farmer of Lancaster county ; 
Martin, a physician, practiced his profession many 
years in Philadelphia; Emanuel was the father of 
Elias Groff; Abraham, deceased, was an extensive 
farmer; Polly married Isaac Weaver, of Strasburg \ 
township ;. Fannie married Peter Weaver, of West 

Lampeter township ; Annie married Henry Neff^ , 

of East Lampeter township, later of' S t rasburg ; BgP 
sey, after the death of her sister, became the second 
wife of Henry Neff ; Susan married Henry K. Den- 
linger, of Gordonville; and Barbara, the youngest 
and only surviving member of this large family, 
married Benjamin Barr, and moved to Missouri^ 
where he died. 

Emanuel Grofif was born in 1813, and lived 
through almost a century, his death occurring in 
1889. He was reared on the farm, and educated 
in the schools of the times, also acquiring a general 
knowledge of several trades, as was the custom of 
the time, when an extensive farm also contained 
its own shops, so that when a young man had 
reached his maturity, he was often able to go out 
into the wilderness and be his own carpenter, shoe- 
maker and blacksmith. In the case of Emanuel 
Groff he was one of the best farmers of Lancaster 
county, and at the age of fifty retired from the 
duties of active life. A man of influence in the 
Old Mennonite Church, he was long one of the 
trustees, and was ever one whose judgment and 
piety gained him the esteem of the community. 
Emanuel Groff married Mary Landis, a memberi 
of one of the most prominent families of Lancaster 
.county, a daughter of John and Mary Landis, of 
East Lampeter township, who was born about i8jS, 
and died in May, 1890 ; they had six children. Elias, 
the subject of this biography, was the eldest; Susan 
married Levi Herr, of Strasburg township ; Harry 
L. is a farmer of -Strasburg ; John L. is a retired 
farmer of Strasburg township ; Barbara Ann mar- 
ried Amos Ranck, of Paradise township ; and Emma, 
married Henry Leaman, of Paradise township. 

Elias Groff was also a farmer boy, and was 
educated in the public schools. He received in the 
family circle the teaching which perhaps had much 
to do with his successful ministry in later years. 
At the age of twenty-two he took charge of one o^ 
his father's farms and began operations for himself, 
later purchasing this property, which contains 
eighty-two acres. Here Mr. Groff has made his 
home and has improved the property until it is 
one of the most desirable farms in the neighbor- 
hood, all of the surroundings denoting thrift and 
prosperity. This excellent and most valuable land 
does not comprise all of the land owned by Elias 



Grpff, as, soon after purchasing his farm of his 
father,, he added thirty-four acres, so that this one 
farm contains 117 acres, and since that time he has 
continued to buy occasionally a desirable piece of 
property until he now has three farms in Strasburg 
township, one in Paradise township, one in Dru- 
more township, and also an unimproved tract in 
Providence township. 

Since 1901 Mr. Groff has lived retired from 
active farm life, but is by no means an idle man, 
for brain and body are busy laboring for the good 
of the Church to which he is devoted. Since 1864, 
he has been a consistent member of the Old Men- 
nonite Church, and since 1872 has been dedicated to 
ministerial labor. On Sept. 15th, of that year, he 
was ordained a minister of the Church, by the pious 
Bishop Benjamin Herr, who assigned him to the 
Strasburg district, where he has since labored with 
a devotion and allegiance to duty which have gained 
him the confidence and affection of the numerous 
congregations he visits. 

Rev. Elias Groff was married in i860, to Mary 
Ann Herr, daughter of Elias and Elizabeth (Her- 
shey) Herr, who was born in West Lampeter town- 
ship, Oct. 31, 1838,' and they have become the par-« 
ents of eight children: Lizzie, born June 25, 1862, 
married John Hess, a farmer of Strasburg; Enos 
H., born in August, 1864, is a farmer in Strasburg 
township, and he married Martha Brubaker ; Eman- 
uel H., born in October, 1866, married Susan Herr, 
and is a farmer in Pequea; Emma Sue, born in 
January, 1869, is at home; Elias B., Jr., born in 
November, 1870, married Fannie B. Herr, and is 
a farmer in Strasburg township; Harry M., born 
in April, 1873, married Ella Shaub, and is a farmer 
in Strasburg township ; Ada E., born in February, 
1875, married Henry R. Herr, a farmer of Pequea 
township ; and John Elmer, born in December, 1879, 
is a college student in Lancaster city. 

This family through its branches and inter-mar- 
riages is connected with many of the old and promi- 
nent ones of the county, and no one is more highly 
esteemed than the beloved pastor, who has faith- 
fully served so many years. Rev. Elias Groff. 

Few men in Pennsylvania were more widely known, 
and more universally respected for ability and attain- 
ments, and certainly no man for enthusiastic devo- 
tion to the cause of the public schools or extraor- 
dinary service in their behalf, than Dr. Burrowes, the 
great organizer of the public school system of Penn- 
sylvania. Like Lindley Murray, "he never taught 
a school," but yet has aided the work of general edu- 
cation as few men have done who have spent their 
lives in the school room or in the work of school 
supervision. The man who has been only a success- 
ful business man or politician, however brilliant his 
talents and important his work, may soon be forgot- 
ten : but insensibly, and to an extent far greater than 
might be supposed, has a feeling of personal grati- 

tude toward Dr. Burrowes spread and become 
intensified among those hundreds of thousands in 
our State to whom the common school has been a 
boon of priceless value. Here at least his fame is 
assured ; and nobler fame than that which springs 
from enduring benefaction conferred upon his kind 
let no man toil for. 

He was born Nov. 16, 1805,. in Strasburg, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa. His father, Thomas Burrowes, was 
a native of County Cavan, Ireland, and was educated 
as a clergyman of the Episcopal Church, but did not 
enter the ministry. He came to Delaware in 1784, 
and thence to Pennsylvania in 1787, settling at Stras- 
burg, and devoting himself closely to mechanical pur- 
suits. His mother was born in County Monaghan, 
Ireland. She was the mother of thirteen children, of 
whom seven reached maturity, and was as remark- 
able for decision of character as for kindness of heart, 
maternal traits which were conspicuous in the char- 
acter of her distinguished son. The same traits of 
character were no less marked in his brother Francis, 
the eminent physician who died in Lancaster in 1852, 
and who is also buried in St. James churchyard. 

On the death of the elder brother of the father 
the family went to Ireland, in 1 810, to take possession 
of certain family property. After seven years spent 
there, they, in 1817, removed to Quebec, in Lower 
Canada, remaining there till 1822.- They returned to 
Ireland, and having disposed of the property in 1825, 
finally returned to this country. During all this time 
the education of the growing youth was not ne- 
glected. He was all the while in touch with thought 
and books and the stirring life of the world. A part 
of his stay in Ireland was spent at Trinity College, 
Dublin. Later he was fortunate in being a law stu- 
dent in the office of Amos Ellmaker, Esq., in Lan- 
caster. He took the law course at Yale College, and 
in 1829 was aximitted to the Bar in his native county. 
Preferring the more active life of politics to the law, 
he served for a time in the State Legislature. In 
1835, before he was thirty years of age, he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of the Commonwealth under Gov. 
Joseph Ritner. This led to his remarkable career in . 
connection with the work of education in Pennsyl- 
vania. It is not our purpose in this connection to 
present a personal sketch of the man — ^that may be 
found elsewhere — but rather to show his vital re- 
lation to the progress of the State in her educational 

In the work which he did during his life, and in 
the growing power and widening influence of that 
work since his death, broadening and deepening as 
time goes on, and that for generations, Thomas Henry 
Burrowes is the m3,ster-builder in the educational 
system of Pennsylvania. Here so far beyond all other 
men does he stand that there is no second. It is the 
same relation as that of his old friend, Thaddeus 
Stevens, to his associates in the House of Represen- 
tatives during the Civil war. Five things he did, any 
one of which should mean enduring fame for bene- 
faction conferred upon his kind and so upon the State. 


The Dr. Burrowes Memorial Tomb stands in St. James' Churchyard, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in a sunny area of 
greensward sloping gently to the pavement. It is in the heart of the city, on the opposite side of North Duke Street 
from the United States Government building. It is a Roman tomb of beautiful model, fine proportions and exquisite 
workmanship; made of four blocks of sohd Quincy granite, and weighs nearly twenty thousand pounds. Each of the four 
panels has its inscription, the western panel facing the street. The eastern and western panels are inscribed as follows: 

The western panel shows the inscription : 

Of the immortal dead who live again in minds made 
better by their j^resence. 


In Grateful Memory of 

Thomas Henry Burrowes 

i6 Nov. 1805 : 25 Feb. 1871. 


He organized the Common School System of Pennsylvania. 

The eastern panel shows the inscription : 

He also Organized the Soldiers' Orphan Schools, and wrote, 
the Normal School Law of Pennsylyania, 

And wisest they in this whole wide land 
Of hoarding till bent and gray ! 

For all you can hold in your cold dead hand 
Is what you have given away. 

He gave his best ; his giving was princely ; his work has been 

grandly cumulative, and will be so through the ages. 

To no man now living does Pennsylvania 

owe so great a debt of gratitude. 

These panels are 54x26 inches in size, the north and south panels being 26x21 inches. On the south panel 
appears the symbol of the Cross and Crown, with the word " Resurgam," /" s/ia^/ rise again I while the north has 
these words of honorable mention for the living and the dead : 

Erected by 

Many Thoicsands of 

thai vast number whose lives 

have been better 

for this man's life and work. 


' ' Of those immortal dead who live again in minds made better by their presence. ' ' 

In Grateful Memory of 

Thomas Henry Burrowes. 

16 Nov. 1805 : 25 Feb. 1871. 

A man of immense faith, un.selfish enthusiasm, wise counsel, broad learning, high courage, resolute 
purpose, -rare foresight, and great executive ability, whose privilege it was to confer upon his kind such 
wide and ever-growing benefaction, through his service to the State, as has not been surpassed since the 
time of William Penn. At Thirty years of age he was Secretary of the Commonwealth under Governor 
Joseph Ritner from 1835 to 1838. He then put into successful operation the Common School System of 
Pennsylvania, thus hnking his memory with the cause of General Education inseparably, and with the im- 
perishable lustre of a noble fame. For more than Thirty years he was the one man in his native State con- 
spicuous above all others in her Educational councils. He was twice Superintendent of Public Instruction ; 
he organized the system of Soldier's Orphan Schools ; he wrote the Normal School Law ; he founded the 
Pennsylvania School Journal ; and, at the time of his death, he was President of the Pennsylvania State 
Agricultural College. To no man now living does Pennsylvania owe so great a debt of gratitude. For Ten 
years he was a Vestryman of this Church, and his mortal remains lie buried in the adjoining Churchyard. 

'' For I know that my Redeemer liveth/' 

This Memorial Tablet is within St. James' Church, upon the middle section of the north wall, with a fine tablet, of nearly equa 
size, to the memory of Bishop Bowman, in the next space to the east. Between them stands a window of striking: design and warmjl-ich 
color effects in heavy glass, to the memory of Miss Margaret Markee, a lady who gave her intense life to the work of the school-room. 
The legend beneath, traced on opal glass framed in by sapphires, " Suffer Little Children," was the animating spirit of her useful life. It 
is a rare group of memorials to three remarkable people, commending their example and perpetuating their memory. 



First. — He was the great organizer of the public 
school system of Pennsylvania. When the party to 
which he belonged elected Joseph Ritner to the office 
■of governor, in 1835, Mr. Burrowes, in recognition 
■of his great political services, was honored with the 
^appointment of Secretary of the Commonwealth, the 
chief office in the gift of the executive. He was then 
in his thirtieth year, and entered upon the discharge 
■of the duties of the position in December, 1835, the 
youngest man in the history of the State who has ever 
held this high office. At this point began his first 
connection with the educational interests of the State, 
■and, as he often frankly admitted, his first knowledge 
•of the subject. At that time the governor appointed 
all the executive officers of the State, except county 
sheriffs, coroners, commissioners, auditors, township 
-constables, supervisors and assessors. All the rest — ■ 
from a judge of the Supreme court to a justice of the 
■peace, from secretary of the Commonwealth to clerk 
■of the lowest county court — were at his disposal. He 
had also control of the immense system of public 
works in which the State was engaged. 

As confidential friend and official adviser of the 
Governor, much of the burden of this vast power and 
patronage devolved, of course, upon the Secretary. 
He has often said that in the confidence of youth and 
the ardor of an active politician, he felt little hesita- 
tion as to his ability to acquit himself creditably of 
this duty : but that when, for the first time, he realized 
the vast importance of the educational portion of his 
responsibility, he was almost deterred from assuming 
it. Sustained, however, as he was, by the noble deter- 
mination of Gov. Ritner to uphold the newly-created 
system of common schools at every risk, he deter- 
mined to remain at his post as one of duty; and to 
prepare himself to the utmost for its proper admin- 

The opportunity of a lifetime was now before him, 
and grandly did he improve it. The school law which 
liad been enacted iii 1834, mainly through the agency 
of Hon. John Breck, who had come to the Legislature 
from Philadelphia for the sole purpose of securing 
its passage ; and which was saved from repeal by the 
magnetic eloquence of Thaddeus Stevens in 1835, he 
soon found practically inoperative, and at once set 
himself at work upon the system. The ordinary du- 
ties of the Secretary's office occupying his time dur- 
ing the dav — correspondence and other vsrriting con- 
nected with educational afifairs received attention at 
night, and usually late at night. The result of his in- 
vestigations was given to the Legislature in a report 
dated Feb. 19, 1836, at which time the revised school 
law of 1836, which continued to be the school law of 
the State until 1849, was passed as drafted largely by 
himself. ■ After two years' additional experience in, 
and study of, educational work entrusted to his 
charge, it had so grown upon his hands as to 
require, as he has toM us, "half his time and nearly 
allhis thoughts." As he grew older, and saw the 
development of the public school system, he enjoyed 
recalling "the day of small things," and one evening 

he gave an editorial article for insertion in The Penn- 
sylvania School Journal, from which this paragraph 
is taken : 

"It was on political grounds alone that the writer 
was appointed to the office of Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth, and so little reference was there to the 
educational department of his duties, that he scarcely 
knew, and certainly did not think properly, of his 
responsibility in that respect when he entered the 
office. It was, therefore, with some surprise and no 
little alarm that he beheld the accumulated letters on 
common school affairs, from every quarter of the 
State, brought in a bushel basket about two weeks 
after the day he assum.ed the duties of the office — 
the mass having been kept back to that time, owing to 
the pressure of more urgent business. He can never 
forget the headache — aye, and the heartache — pro- 
duced by their perusal and the attempt to systematize 
and understand the vast subject thus presented. 
There were questions of every school hue, kind and 
shape — involving difficulty as to location of school 
houses, the assessment and collection of tax, the quali- 
fications of teachers, the selection of branches of study 
and school books, the use of the Scriptures, instruc- 
tions in catechism, modes of government, kinds of 
punishment, opposition to the system, etc., etc. And 
these, too, addressed to one who knew about as much 
of the details of school affairs as he did of the local 
geography of the moon I * * * A great Com - 
morwealth, with vast and growing resources — agri- 
cultural, mineral, manufacturing and commercial — 
yet with a population of a distracting variety of na- 
tional origin, involving much variety in language, re- 
ligion and customs, and with no very kindly feelings 
the one to the other, and, worse than all, with bitter 
hostility in the large majority to the system itself — 
was beheld and had to be taken as the field of opera- 
tion. On this field it is now evident, as it was then 
soon suspected, that little light from abroad, in the 
arrangement of details at least, could be obtained. 
Thus it was that with little borrowed assistance, and 
founding it on the actual wants of the State and the 
few grand leading principles in the otherwise crude 
laws of 1S34 and 1835, the Pennsylvania System was 
built up b-y herself and for herself.'" 

"The needed schooling for the duties of the place," 
says Dr. Wickersham, "came mostly in the shape of 
the voluminous correspondence that required atten- 
tion. The system was new and badly understood, 
and there were not then as now local officers compe- 
tent to enlighten the school boards and the people in 
regard to the proper construction of the law or the 
practical details of its application. In consequence, 
every mail brought to Harrisburg, from all parts of 
the State, a multitude of letters. The copied answers 
remaining in the department show that, although the 
correspondence of the Secretary of the Common- 
wealth was then much greater than now, as all the 
county officers, judges, and other magistrates were 
appointed by the governor, and a vast system of pub- 
lic improvements was in progress, he scarcely wrote 



one-third the number of letters written by him as the 
Superintendent of Common Schools. . Information 
was constantly asked concerning every detail of the 
system, election and organization of school boards, 
the location of school houses, the assessment and 
collection of school taxes, the distribution of the State 
appropriation, the examination and qualification of 
teachers, the selection of branches of study and text- 
books, the use of the Scriptures and the Catechism in 
school, school government in all its branches, the resi- 
dence of pupils, the opposition to free schools, etc., 
etc. To attend promptly to the immense correspond- 
ence taxed to the utmost the powers of the Superin- 
tendent; but it was just the discipline he needed to 
make him what he became, the Great Organizer of 
the System. His letters as a whole are a marvel of 
perspicuity, and furnish striking evidence of the study 
given the subject in all its bearings and the care taken 
in their preparation. When the writing of letters be- 
came over-burdensome resort was had to printed gen- 
eral notices and circulars, of which a number was 
issued. Some two or three months after its passage 
Superintendent Burrowes published, in pamphlet 
.form, and forwarded to every school director in the 
State, the A.ct of 1836, 'with explanatory instructions 
and forms for carrying it into operation,' together 
with forms for all the official acts of school directors. 
This was the first publication of the kind issued by 
the School Department, and doubtless furnished the 
model of all documents of a similar character pub- 
lished since that time. 

"Nor did he remain in his office simply perform- 
ing the work that came to his hand. In the summer 
and fall of 1837, and again at the same season in 1838, 
he spent some months in visiting the different coun- 
ties, where he addressed public meetings, counselled 
with directors and teachers, gathered stores of in- 
formation for himself, and infused life into the work- 
ing of the system. In this way all the counties were 
visited except eight, personal interviews were had 
with thousands of directors and large numbers of 
teachers and citizens interested in education and 
schools and some academies were inspected. In view 
of these useful services, the Legislature voted him an 
increase of salary. No document that ever emanated 
from the Department of Public Instruction is more 
worthy of study than Dr. Burrowes' third report, 
made in February, 1838. It is a masterly presentation 
of its author's views, matured by the experience of 
three years in the office of Superintendent, on the sub- 
ject of public education in the State, present and pros- 

Second. — He wrote the Normal School Law of 
Pennsylvania, under which our thirteen State Normal 
Schools have been organized, and which is said to 
be the best law of its kind in the United States. In 
his annual report of 1838 he recognizes this as an es- 
sential feature of the system, and speaks of it at 
length, but under another name. His discussion of 
this question under the head of "Improvment of 
Teachers" shows his mastery of the subject at that 

early day, when he was but thirty-two years old. His 
convictions were sure, his faith firm, an.d the subject 
of the training of teachers for the schools was ever 
after a leading subject of thought with him. Since 
the organization of these schools they have given in- 
struction to 150,000 students, frorn 12,000 to 15,000 
of whom have received diplomas as graduates. There 
are at present probably 6,000 students in attendance^ 
not including the Model Schools, under 350 instruc- 
tors, and the schools are yearly growing in numbers 
and influence. To have had a strong hand in build- 
ing foundations and rearing upon them such super- 
structures as this is to have done grand work for hu- 
manity, whose influence must be cumulative through 
the ages. 

After the passage of the law of 1S54 providing 
for the County Superintendency, a measure which he 
had strongly favored, he seized upon it as the oppor- 
tunity for a grand stride forward. He had the salary 
of the office in Lancaster county made $1,500 per year 
— one-third larger than that paid by any other county 
in the State — so that he might secure the services of 
Prof. J. P. Wickersham in this office. The school at 
Millersville soon followed. The man and the oppor- 
timity were now both at hand to aid in working out 
his grand theory, and he brought all his hopeful en- 
ergy and strong personal influence to bear in further- 
ance of the experiment upon the broad plan which he 
had so long contemplated. With the organization of 
the school at Millersville, in which he was very deeply 
interested, his encouragement and advice, above all 
his abounding faith, had much to do. The growth 
and development of this school he studied with keen- 
est interest; it was to him an object lesson of great 
practical value ; and when the hour struck for him to 
write the Normal School Law for Pennsylvania, it 
was done almost within a day. But for twenty years 
he had been unconsciously preparing for this great 
service to the State. Hon. H. C. Hickok, then Deputy 
Superintendent of Common Schools, knowing his 
unusual skill in drafting bills for legislative enact- 
ment, and his thorough familiarity with the Normal 
School question, wrote him on Friday requesting 
draft of a bill for the organization of State Normal 
Schools. He received it on the following Monday, 
and it was enacted into law — mainly through the in- 
fluence of Hon. Andrew G. Curtin and Hon. H. C. 
Hickok — with a few verbal changes and the addition 
of a single section relating to the endowment of these 

His ability to work so rapidly toward a definite 
result he once explained to the writer by saying that 
when he had thought a thing out carefully the whole 
matter assumed some orderly arrangement in his 
mind, everything being "on its own hook," so that, 
when he came to write, it often seemed as if all he had 
to do was to take each item down in order from its 
proper hook and put it on paper. The Normal School 
question he had mastered, so far as that was possible 
to him. After twenty years of thought upon it, and 
much careful observation, everything, no doubt. 



seemed to be "on its own hook" when the request 
came from the State authorities to write the law. He 
had done much work of this kind that had not be- 
come law, and the Normal School sections of the 
proposed bills of 1853 and 1854 were the basis of the 
present act, but the sections were much changed to 
conform to the new views which he had come to 
entertain upon the subject. 

It was not known that he was its author until some 
months after its passage, when, at a "Harvest Home" 
at Millersville, at which Gov. Pollock and State Supt. 
Hickok were present, and which was held to raise 
funds from the salepf stock looking toward the erec- 
tion of the Lancaster County Normal School into the 
Millersville State Normal School, Mr. Hickok, dur- 
ing an eloquent address in behalf of the school, stated 
the fact of its authorship as follows : 

"There is another reason why Lancaster county 
should stand by this work — I am going to say this in 
confidence and wish it kept a secret. This Normal 
School bill had a Lancaster county origin. The great 
outlines of the bill were the work of the president of 
this meeting, Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, a circum- 
stance which has given the State a mortgage on Lan- 
caster county, which she is bound in honor to redeem, 
by establishing the first State Normal School under 
the provisions of the law. And the provisions of this 
excellent law are an evidence that when the friends 
of common school education want a good thing done 
they should go to the same source for it." 

Third. — His third gr%at work was the organiza- 
tion of the Soldiers' Orphans' Schools of Pennsyl- 
vania. Those who know little of Dr. Burrowes can 
have no knowledge of the immense faith that was evi- 
dent in all he did. We have recently been struck with 
a statement by Dr. Wickersham, in his "History of 
Education in Pennsylvania," which throws this qual- 
ity of the man into strong relief, and they who knew 
him read between the lines the secret of his undying 
success. The extract is as follows : 

"The task of finding suitable institutions willing 
to receive on the required conditions orphan children 
above the age of ten years was one of extreme diffi- 
culty, and a man less hopeful and less persistent than 
Dr. Burrowes would not have succeeded in accom- 
plishing it. He had but fifty thousand dollars at his 
command, the Legislature had in no wise committed 
itself in favor of the system or placed itself under ob- 
ligation to appropriate an additional sum, the Nor- 
mal Schools declined the venture of erecting build- 
ings for the orphans as an attachment to their model 
■schools, few boarding schools cared to be troubled at 
the rates offered with a class of children for whom 
thev had no special accommodations, and, more dis- 
couraging than all else, there was a general want of 
confidence in the permanency of the enterprise that 
chilled every effort. Still, full of faith and zeal. 
Superintendent Burrowes labored on in his good 
work, and at last the obstacles that had stood in his 
wav were one by one overcome, and the system was 
placed on a comparatively firm basis." 

It cost him all he had ; for when the meager and 
inadequate appropriations were exhausted his sym- 
pathy with these orphans caused him to admit too 
many of them into the schools and to make himself 
responsible for outlay for which he was never after- 
ward reimbursed by the State. John W. Jackson, late 
of Lancaster, a careful financier and a man of strict 
integrity, who had intimate knowledge of the facts 
of which he spoke, told the writer that he knew Dr. 
Burrowes to be worth sixteen thousand dollars when 
he went into the work of organizing the Soldiers*^ 
Orphans' Schools. So interested was he in the suc- 
cess of these new Pennsylvania schools that when the 
appropriations were exhausted — which were then 
much too small for the number of pupils that pre- 
sented themselves and the work to be done by the 
Superintendent — or when they were not immediately 
available, he was in the habit of making himself per- 
sonally responsible for supplies, and of drawing 
largely upon his private funds. The result was fi- 
nancial distress and disaster, from which, in his- 
later years, he never recovered. He paid the price 
of a heroic and generous sympathy that was without 
calculation. But if the loss was his so also should be 
the glory, for it is none too much to say that, if he 
had not taken hold of this work, the honorable record 
of Pennsylvania in connection with its Soldiers' Or- 
phans would never have been made. No other State 
has such a record, but no other State seems to have 
had a Gov. Curtin to make the suggestion and a Dr. 
Burrowes to embody it in a patriotic system of 
schools now in the thirty-eighth year of their honored 
life — a proud fact in the history of a great Common- 

Fourth.- — Hon. John Hamilton, Secretary of 
Agriculture of Pennsylvania from 1899 to 1903, who- 
has for an ordinary lifetime been intimately con- 
nected with the Pennsylvania State College as pro- 
fessor, treasurer and member of the board of trustees, 
having his home at the college all the while, and 
knowing thoroughly whereof he speaks, says of Dr.. 
Burrowes : 

"No other man .in Pennsylvania has had so much 
to do with the development of her system of public 
instruction as Dr. Burrowes. From the time of its 
organization until the time of his death he took a deep 
and intelligent interest in everything that tended to 
promote its advancement and perfect the system. In 
the fall of 1869 he was elected to the presidency of 
the Pennsylvania State College, a position in which 
he continued until the time of his death, in 1871. 

"He came to this college in the darkest period of 
its history. The number of students had dwindled to 
a handful. Public confidence had been withdrawn. 
The institution had become involved in debt, and the 
trustees, just before his election to the position of 
president, had seriously considered the propriety of 
surrendering their trust to the authorities of the Com- 
monwealth, and of confessing that the scheme which 
they had undertaken for providing practical instruc- 
tion for the youth of the Commonwealth had failed. 



President Piurrowes brought with him the trust of 
the public, because his had been an educational career 
that was widely known in Pennsylvania, both in it- 
self and for the success that had attended it. And, 
although he now was in the sixty-fifth year of his age, 
his enthusiasm and natural vigor seemed just as great 
as it had been years before. His presence re-estab- 
lished public confidence, the number of students at- 
tracted by his reputation very greatly increased, the 
course of study was reformed, and the institution was 
put into practicable working condition. During his 
administration, the experimental farm at the State 
College was founded and put into operation. Presi- 
dent Burrowes took as his title that of president of the 
Pennsylvania State College and professor of agri- 
ctilture — having been a farmer, the life was not new 
to him — and during the term in which he was its 
president he gave personal attention to the interests 
of agriculture, and also had direction, .in connection 
with the Hon. H. N. McAllister, of Bellefonte, of 
the three experimental farms belonging to the college. 

"There can be no doubt of our indebtedness to Dr. 
Burrowes for most of this that we enjoy today, for 
if he had not assumed control at the period at which 
he did, in all probability the college would have ceased 
to exist, and the experiment of industrial education, 
in so far as it was undertaken under the management 
of the Board of Trustees, would have been a failure. 

"There is not time to speak of the personal quali- 
ties of President Burrowes, nor to go into details with 
regard to his ability as an instructor, and his qualities 
as a man ; but if I were asked to sum up his char- 
acter and life in a single sentence, I would give him 
the same title that was accorded to "his illustrious fel- 
low townsman, Thaddeus Stevens, that of the Great 
Commoner. Thaddeus Stevens earned this title in 
his dealings with the political affairs of the Common- 
wealth and the country, and Dr. Burrowes earned it 
through a life devoted to the interests of education 
for the common people of this State. He, more than 
any other man, could be truly entitled the Great Com- 
moner in education in Pennsylvania." 

Fifth. — He founded The Pennsylvania School 
Journal, now in its fifty-first volume, and published 
it, mainly as a labor of love, for eighteen years. It 
was never a source of financial profit to him. But it 
has been a potent agency in securing every important 
measure of school reform since January, 1852. At a 
meeting of the Lancaster Educational Association 
Jan. 3, of that year, John C. Martin presented a series 
of resolutions urging the . establishment of such a 
periodical and requesting Dr. Burrowes to edit and 
publish the same. He accepted it as "a call to duty ;" 
and, with the extraordinary faith that always char- 
acterized the man, he issued the first number before 
he had a hundred subscribers. With the single ex- 
ception of the Ohio Educational Monthly, whose first 
issue also bears date January, 1852, it is the oldest 
educational magazine in the United States. From 
the first it was the organ of the State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation. In iSq"; it was made the official organ of the 

Department of Public Instruction, and has so con- 
tinued since that time with an ever-widening field of 
usefulness. The year 1852 was about the beginning 
of the great educational reform in Pennsylvania, and 
the Journal appeared just in time to aid in shaping 
the movement, and gave to Dr. Burrowes just, such 
a periodical as was needed for the work which he, 
of all men in the State, was best fitted to do. He 
transferred it in 1870 to Dr. J. P. Wickersham and 
Dr. J. P. McCaskey. Since 1880 it has been pub- 
lished by Dr. McCaskey, who went upon it in 1866, 
as assistant to Dr. Burrowes. 

This journal has been conducted for the past fifty 
years upon the plan adopted by Dr. Burrowes, and its 
influence as the organ of the school officers and teach- 
ers of the State, and the medium through which the 
proceedings of their annual meetings have been made 
known to the public, can hardly be overestimated. 
The educational records of the State are found no- 
where else outside of its fifty volumes. The only 
complete set of the annual reports of the State Super- 
intendents of Public Instruction ; the only continuous 
record of the proceedings of the Pennsylvania State 
Teachers' Association, of the Superintendents' annual 
meetings, of the Pennsylvania State Directors' Asso- 
ciation, the only continuous history of the work of the 
Department of Public Instruction since 1854 — all the 
archives of this department of the State government, 
which had been carefully preserved for so many 
years, having been lost in the late fire that destroyed 
the Capitol building at Harrisburg — all this matter 
of greater or less importance is found from year to 
year in The Pennsylvania School Journal, and no- 
where else. This monthly periodical — in addition to 
an immense amount of valuable matter upon a very 
wide range of subjects of educational interest — has 
thus kept the record intact and beyond the reach of 
destruction from any cause whatsoever. Dr. Win- 
ship, of the New England Journal of Education, says 
of it : "The Pennsylvania School Journal has been in 
a class by itself. No other State educational journal 
has approached this in scope or in power. It is the 
best history of education of a State that is to be found 
in all the land." 

Dr. Burrowes died in 187 1. It was thought fitting 
that some worthy memorial should bear witness to the 
gratitude of Pennsylvania towards this man who had 
so long been recognized as the Nestor of her educa- 
tional councils. A large committee was appointed, 
but nothing was done. Sixteen years later the long- 
delayed efl:ort was renewed with vigor, and the onyx 
tablet and noble granite tomb in St. James' (Episco- 
pal) Church and churchyard in Lancaster, and thou- 
sands upon thousands of life-like portraits in schools 
all over the State, have recalled and will keep alive 
his memory. Upon the north end of the tomb are the 
words : "Erected b}' many thousands of that vast 
number whose lives have been better for this man's 
life and work." On the east side, below other in- 
scriptions: "He gave his best; his giving was 
princely; his work has been grandly cumulative, 



and will be so through the ages." Within the church, 
upon the north wall, is a fine tablet of black onyx, 
showing'this inscription in gold : 

"A man of immense faith, unselfish enthusiasm, 
wise counsel, broad learning, high courage, resolute 
purpose, rare foresight, and great executive ability, 
whose privilege it was to confer upon his kind such 
wide and ever-growing benefaction, through his ser- 
vice to the State, as has not been surpassed since the 
time of William Penn. At thirty years of age he was 
Secretary of the Commonwealth under Governor 
Joseph Ritner, from 1835 to 1838. He then put into 
successful operation the Common School System of 
Pennsylvania, thus linking his memory with the 
cause of General Education inseparably, and with 
the imperishable lustre of a noble fame. For more 
than thirty years he was the one man in his native 
State conspicuous above all others in her Education- 
al councils. He was twice Superintendent of Public 
Instruction ; he organized the system of Soldiers' Or- 
phans' Schools ; he wrote the Normal School Law ; 
he founded the Pennsylvania School Journal; and, 
at the time of his death, he was President of the 
Pennsylvania State Agricultural College. To no 
man now living does Pennsylvania owe so great a 
debt of gratitude. For ten years he was a vestry- 
man of this Church, and his mortal remains lie 
buried in the adjoining churchyard." 

A statue of Thomas Henry Burrowes of heroic 
proportions should stand in the new Capitol Build- 
ing at Harrisburg, to emphasize, in her foremost man 
in this special field, the over-shadowing value and 
importance of enduring educational service to the 
State. For he has been and can never cease to be a 
vital force of the first rank and of the highest order 
in Pennsylvania. 

Schneider, Jacob Schneider with his wife Mag- 
dalen, and Christian Schneider with his wife Sus- 
anna Margretha, with fifty-six other Palatinates and 
their families, sailed from Cowes, Isle of Wight, on 
the south coast of England, July 7, 1729, for Amer- 
ica, in the ship "Allen," James Craigie, master. 
They landed at Philadelphia, and took the oath of 
allegiance to King George II, then King of England, 
Sept. 15, 1729. [Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. II, 
Page 18.1 They originally came from northern 
Switzerland, near the boundary line of Baden and 
Wurtemberg, Germany. Some time prior to their 
coming to America they had found their way to 
Holland, from which country they were sent to 
England, with a view of being transported to Penn- 
sylvania. They soon found their way to Weber- 
Thai, Lancaster Co., Pa., where their friends, George 
Weber, Henry Weber and Jacob Weber, Swiss Men- 
nonites, had settled a few years earlier. 

Christian Schneider had surveyed for him, under 
a warrant from the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 
dated Jan. 10, T733, 138 acres of land on the north 
and south of Conestoga creek, adjoining said George 

Weber's land. This tract of land was afterwards 
conveyed to him by deed for the consideration of 
£20, 6s, id, by Thomas Penn and Richard Penn. 
He erected a cabin on this tract, on the south bank 
of Conestoga creek, at a spring on land now (1903) 
owned by John Trego, in East Earl township, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., where he and his family resided up 
to the time of his death, in 1793. His wife died in 
January, 1767 [Zeltenreich Church Record]. The 
name is spelled in various ways, viz. : In his will 
he signed it "Sneder;" in a deed to his son Christian 
he wrote it "Schnyder ;" in the patent deed to him 
it is written "Sneeder," alias "Schneder;" later on 
we find it written "Schnader," "Sneider," "Snyder," 
"Sneder" and "Snader." When they came to this 
country they invariably wrote it "Schneider," which 
is undoubtedly the proper orthography. 

Jacob Schneider and Matheis Schneider took up 
by patent about 250 acres of land some distance 
northeast of Weber-Thai, where Center (now St. 
John's) Reformed and Lutheran Church is erected. 
Jacob Schneider also purchased considerable land 
from William Morris, who had previously received 
a patent for the same. The writer has been unable 
to find that Matheis left any descendants, or that he 
ever married. The descendants of Jacob are numer- 
.ous and widely scattered; among them may be men- 
tioned Rev. Charles Schneider, pastor of the Re- 
formed Church at Shamokin ; Rev. Davis Schneider, 
Reformed missionary in Japan ; Edward R. Snader, 
professor of Physical Diagnosis at Hahnemann 
Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia, Penn- 

They were all followers of Zwingli, and in this 
country their descendants have generalfy united 
themselves with the Reformed Church. Many of 
them are buried at Center (now St. John's) Re- 
formed Church, above mentioned. The descendants 
of Christian Schneider are buried in New Holland 
and Zeltenreich's Reformed burying-grounds. The 
children of Christian and Susanna Margretha 
Schneider were : John Jacob, Christian, Philip, 
Michael (sometimes called John Michael), Mar- 
garet, Elizabeth. 

Michael Schneider, fourth son of Christian, on 
Nov. 25, 1766, married Elenora Mueller, a daughter 
of Lenhard Mueller, one of the early Huguenot set- 
tlers of Earl township, Lancaster Co., Pa. He re- 
ceived a deed from the Executive Council of Penn- 
sylvania, dated April 4, 1785, for 100 acres of land 
surveyed under a warrant to Andreas Graefif. This 
land adjoined his father's tract on the west. He also 
purchased forty-four acres and 146 perches of land 
from Peter and Barbara Worst, immediately north 
of his loo-acre tract. He and his brother Christian 
erected a barn on the tract of laid originally taken 
up by his father, Christian Schneider, in 1781, which 
is still standing on land now (1903) owned by Ehas 
Martin. He died Sept. 2, 183 1, in his eighty-seventh 
year. His wife died Sept. 22, 1 821, in her seventy- 
ninth year. Michael and Elenora Schneider left five 



■children : Christian, Michael, Lenora, Sophia, Sus- 

Christian Schneder, eldest son of Michael, lived 
on part of the original tracts of land granted to his 
father and grandfather, of which he became pos- 
sessed by devise and purchase to the time of his 
death. His first wife was Margreta Diller, a daugh- 
ter of John Diller, who was a son of Hans Martin 
Diller, who with his father, Casper Diller, came from 
Heidelberg, Germany, about 1733, and settled at 
Millcreek, Earl township, Lancaster Co., Pa. His 
wife died Aug. 6, 1827, in her forty-sixth year. He 
afterward married Susan Schneder, widow of Jonas 
Schneder, but had no children by that union. He 
died Jan. 17, 1851, in his eighty-third year. Chris- 
tian Schneder by his first wife, Margreta Diller, had 
children as follows: Catharine, wife of Benjamin 
Witmer; Magdaleria, wife of John Messner; Mar- 
garet, wife of John Plank; Caroline, wife of John 
Koser; Isaac Schnader, who married Susanna 
Weaver; Christian Schnader, who married Eliza- 
beth Yohn; and Michael Schnader, who married 
Lydia Schnader. 

Isaac Schnader purchased about eighty acres of 
land, part of v/hich belonged to the old homestead, 
and lived upon it until his death, in 1881, when it 
was sold, and the last of the land originally taken up 
by Christian Schneider in 1733 passed out of the 
family name. 

Susanna Weaver, the wife of Isaac Schnader, 
•was descended from Jacob Weber, one of the Swiss 
Merinonites who settled in Weber-Thai about the 
year 1723. Jacob Weber settled near Blue Ball, and 
took up about 750 acres of land in that neighbor- 
hood. He died in 1747. His children were: Jacob, 
Samuel, George, John (known as Hans Weber, and 
so named in deeds and papers), Henry, Barbara 
(who married Peter Gander), Elizabeth (who mar- 
ried Peter Eaby), Mary (who married Abraham 
Kendrick) and Ann (who married Christian Root). 

John Weber, fourth son of Jacob, married Bar- 
bara Buckwalter, and had children: Jacob, John, 
George, Abraham, Joseph, Anna (wife of John 
Sherick), Barbara (wife of Peter Worst) and Eliza- 
beth (wife of Ulrich (Owen) Bruner). 

Joseph Weaver, son of John, married Mary Lan- 
■dis, a descendant of Rev. Benjamin Landis, who 
with his son, Benjamin Landis, settled in East Lam- 
peter township, Lancaster Co., Pa., about the year 
1717. The children of Joseph and Mary (Landis) 
Weaver were: Nancy, who married Christian 
Kurtz ; Barbara, who married John Geigley ; Mary, 
who died unmarried; Elizabeth, who married John 
Pleam ; Lydia, who married Esaias Schneder ; Jo- 
seph, who married Nancy Martin; John, who mar- 
ried a Kurtz ; Solomon, who married a Ream ; Henry, 
who married Barbara Ranck; Phoebe, who married 
Jacob Overholtzer ; and Susanna, who married Isaac 

We have the following record of the children 
Isaac and Susanna (Weaver) Schnader left : 

(i) Solomon Schnader married Elizabeth Jane 
Crawford, a daughter of James and Mary (Both- 
well) Crawford, who came to this country from 
County Tyrone, Ireland, about the year 1800, and 
settled in what is now Crawford county, Ohio. 
Their children are : Edward L. Snader, an actor of 
prominence on the American stage, whose wife is 
Fanny Mclntyre, a celebrated singer and actress; 
and Susie Snader, wife of William Duncan, of 
Bloomfield, Ohio. 

(2) Mary Ann Schnader is the wife of 'John 
Spatz, a manufacturer of Mohnsville, Berks Co., Pa. 
Their children are : Emma, wife of Jeremiah Mohn, 
a manufacturer of Reading, Pa. ; Isaac S., a manu- 
facturer of Mohnsville, Berks Co., Pa., who married 
Ellen Gring; Annie S., wife of Aaron Warner, a 
farmer of Mohnsville, Pa. ; and Sue, wife of Monroe 
Killian, of Mohnsville, Pennsylvania. 

(3) Susanna Schnader became the wife of Hiram 
D. Mohn, of Reading, Pa., and their children are: 
Frances, wife of John Robinson, of Reading, Pa.; 
Emma, unmarried, of Reading; Harvey D., who 
married Clara Hempfield, and resides in Reading; 
and Martin, Aaron and Elizabeth, all of whom are 
unmarried and live in Reading. 

(4) William D. Snader married Emily L. Weiler, 
a daughter of Levi and Mary (Weaver) Weiler, 
and their children are : Suetta Snader, wife of Dr. 
A. V. Walters, of Brownstown, Pa. ; and William D. 
Snader, an employe at the County Hospital, Lan- 

(5) Aaron Weaver Snader, the youngest child 
of Isaac and Susanna (Weaver) Schnader, whose 
portrait appears herewith, was born in East Earl 
township, Lancaster Co., Pa., on the old Schneider 
homestead, Feb. 23, 1844. He spent the first sev- 
enteen years of his life on his father's farm, during 
which time he attended the public school of the 
neighborhood during the winter. At the age of sev- 
enteen years he commenced teaching school, which 
profession he followed for twelve years. When not 
teaching, during the summer months, he worked on 
his father's farm, with the exception of two short 
sessions during which he attended a select private 
school taught by Amos liorst, at Hinkletown, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., and one session at the Millersville 
State Normal School. In 1870 he was registered as 
a law student with Hon. John B. Livingston, at Lan- 
caster, Pa. He still continued teaching, pursuing 
his legal studies during such leisure time as he could 
spare. In 1871 his preceptor was elected Judge. 
Mr. Snader continued his legal studies with Philip 
D. Baker, Esq., and was admitted to practice May 
23, 1873. After remaining in the office of his pre- 
ceptor a little over a year he removed to New Hol- 
land, Lancaster county, where he has resided up to 
the present time (1903), and where he still continues 
the practice of his profession. In 1876 he was. elected 
justice of the peace. In 1877 he was elected sur- 
veyor of Lancaster county. In 1880 he was elected 
a member of the House of Representatives of Penn- 




sylvania, and was re-elected in 1882 and 1902. In 
188 1 he assisted in organizing the New Holland Na- 
tional Bank, and was a director of said institution 
ior seven years. In 1883 he assisted in organizing 
the Earl Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and has 
been its president for twenty years. In 1894 he as- 
sisted in the organization of 'the New Holland Water 
Company, and has served as president of said com- 
pany to the present time (1903). He was a member 
of the Earl township school board one year, and has 
served as treasurer of the New Holland borough 
school board from its organization, in 1895, to the 
present time. Mr. Snader is a member of the Penn- 
sylvania German Society. In 1874 he became a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and has represented his lodge (No. 413) in the 
■Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for the last ten years. 
He is a confirmed member of the Refomied Church, 
as were all his paternal ancestors. 

In 1875 Mr. Snader was married to Sarah White 
Hufman, a daughter of Jonathan and Margaret 
(White) Hufman. Their children are: Edward 
White Snader, at home ; Isaac Hufman Snader, who 
is a salesman ; and Margaret, at home. 

The Hufman family, to which Mrs. A. W. Snader 
belongs, was founded in this country by her great- 
grandparents, who came to America from Wales, 
where three of their children were born. Rev. David 
Hufman, one of their children born in America, was 
a farmer by occupation, and a local preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He was born Jan. 7, 
1769, and died May 26, 1855. His wife was Eliza- 
"beth Williams, a daughter of Capt. Williams, of the 
Revolution. She died Aug. 9, 1843. Both are 
buried in the M. E. churchyard at Geigertown, 
Berks Co., Pa. The Williams family came to this 
country from England. The children of Rev. David 
and Elizabeth (Williams) Hufman were: John, 
who married Abigail Cramp ; William, who married 
Sarah Cramp ; Hannah, wife of John Geiger ; Henry, 
who married Marv Walters; Catherine, wife of 
Michael Hoffman; Ann, wife of Michael Sands; 
Jonathan, who married Margaret White ; Elizabeth, 
wife of George Ireson ; and Matilda R., wife of Peter 

Jonathan Hufman, seventh child of Rev. David 
and Elizabeth (Williams) Hufman, was born in 
Berks county, Pa., and was a farmer and butcher by 
■occupation. He received the average schooling af- 
forded boys in his day. He married Margaret 
White, who was born Oct. 5, 181 1, daughter of John 
and Sarah (De Haven) White, and died in 1882. 
They had a family of ten children : George, now de- 
ceased ; Elizabeth Ann, who married Peter Hart, of 
Reading, Pa. ; Henry, deceased, who was a soldier 
in the Civil war; Harriet, deceased; Sarah White, 
Mrs Aaron W. Snader ; John E., a farmer of Berks 
countv Mary, Mrs. H. Rhoads, of Reading ; Emma, 
wife of Martin Wickline, of Reading; Hannah, who 
died when young ; and William, who , died when 
young. The father of this family died in 1874. 

The De Haven family, from which Mrs. Mar- 
garet (White) Hufman is descended on her mother's 
side, was founded in America by Herman De Haven, 
who came to this country in 1706 from France, and 
settled near Philadelphia, Pa., near which city the 
De Havens came to own large tracts of land. They 
were Huguenots, and left their country because of 
religious persecution. Mrs. Snader traces her line 
from Herman De Haven through his son Edward 
and the latter's son Herman, who was her great- 
grandfather. He married Susannah Miller, of 
Reading, Pa., and they had eight children: John's 
whereabouts were unknown; James married Ann 
Ranck ; Edward married Ann Thompson ; Abraham 
wedded Agnes Thompson, sister of Ann ; Isaac mar- 
ried Hannah Miller (they were the ancestors of the 
De Havens of Pittsburg, the famous iron men) ; 
Hannah married John Keemer; Alice married 
Thomas Lincoln; Sarah married John White, and 
they were the grandparents of Mrs. Aaron W. Sna- 
der. John and Sarah White both died when near 
middle life. They were the parents of nine children : 
Harmon, of whom nothing is known ; Susan, who 
died young ; Edward De Haven, who married Mar- 
garet Ammon; Margaret, who married Jonathan 
Hufman, father of Mrs. Aaron W. Snader; Dr. 
John De Haven, of Philadelphia, who married Mary 
Meredith ; Elizabeth, wife of William Pierce ; Will- 
iam, who married Margaret Hough; Harriet, wife 
of Robert Baldwin, of Lancaster county, who served 
in both houses of the State Legislature ; and Sarah 
Ann, who married Peter Fernbaugh, of Carlisle, 

JACOB ESHLEMAN came to America and 
landed at Philadelphia from the ship "Morton- 
house," James Coultas, master, Aug. 19, 1729. He 
was born July 4, 1710, and was twice married, his 
first wife having been Barbara Barr, and his second, 
Catharine Eshleman. He had issue by his first wife, 
one son, who was named Jacob, and who was born 
Nov. 7, 1742, and who died June 13, 1813. 

Jacob, the son, married Barbara Gfoff, a daugh- 
ter of Jacob Groff and his wife, Barbara, who had 
been a Brackbill. He had children as follows: 
Jacob, born Feb. 20, 1768, married Mary Brockbill; 
John, born May 17, 1770, married first, Mary 
Weaver, and second, Alice Groff; Susan, born April 
II, 1776, married Henry Brackbill; Fannie, born 
June 26, 1778, married Joseph Potts ; Benjamin, born 
Oct. 5, 1782, married Fannie Herr; David, born 
April 15. 1784, married Mary Groff; Barbara, born 
Jan. 13, 1789, married Jacob Bauchman; and Maria, 
iaorn March 16, 1791, married David Miller. 

GOV. SIMON SNYDER was born at Lan^ 
caster, in November, 1759. He was a member of 
the State convention which framed the Constitution 
of 1790. In 1797 he was elected to the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania, and was reelected so often that 
he served for eleven years. In 1802 he was chosen 



speaker of the House of Representatives. Most of 
the time that he was in the Legislature Lancaster 
was the Capital of Pennsylvania. In 1808 he was 
elected Governor of the State, and was reelected 
in 181 1, and again in 1814, so that he was Gov- 
ernor nine years. During his administration the 
State Capital was removed from- Lancaster to Har- 
risburg. He died in 1820. 

the inception of this biographical history of Lan- 
caster county is due, was born July 17, 1827, in 
Colerain township, Lancaster county. He came of 
Irish ancestry. In his sketch of the Meginness fam- 
ily, published in 1891, an attempt is made to prove 
his ancestors were descendants from one of the early 
Irish kings. His parents were Benjamin and Sarah 
Meginness. His boyhood was passed upon his fa- 
ther's farm, and his vigorous frame and constitu- 
tion were largely the result of the hardy out-of-door 
life of his early years. His opportunities for secur- 
ing an education were confined to the schools of the 
neighborhood, and of these he availed himself to the 
greatest possible extent, a love of learning and read- 
ing being life long characteristics. 

In May, 1843, Mr. Meginness accompanied his 
parents to Illinois, whither they removed with their 
family. But he found the new Western home uncon- 
genial, and five months later turned his face toward 
the home of his boyhood, not, however, before hav- 
ing gained fresh experiences in the school of life 
while making sundry boat trips between St. Louis 
and New Orleans. Coming eastward, the distance 
between Chambersburg and Wheeling was traversed 
on foot. The winter of 1844 was spent in the old 
home, among relatives, and in attending school. In 
the spring of 1845 he was working in the Montour 
Iron Works, at Danville, Pa., from which place he 
enlisted, on April 9, 1847, in the 5th U. S. Infantry, 
for service in the war with Mexico. The captain of 
the company, afterward Gen. Randolph B. Marcy, 
selected him as clerk in his office. 

Mr. Megiiiness's company reached Vera Cruz 
July 20, 184.7, ^nd soon took up the line of march to 
join the forces under Gen. Scott. He participated in 
the engagements that preceded the capture of the 
City of Mexico, which place he entered with the 
American army Dec. 7, 1847. He always took pride 
in having made the march from Vera Cruz to the 
City of Mexico, and back again to Vera Cruz, carry- 
ing all his equipments, without ever having fallen 
out of line. He acted as clerk of his company 
during the entire period of his service. His early 
fondness for literary work is shown in the fact that 
he kept a journal of all those early experiences. His 
term of service having expired with the war, he was 
discharged at East Pascagoula, Miss., in August, 

Mr. Meginness at once returned to Montour 
county, Pa., and a little later went to Jersey Shore, 
Lycoming county, where he successfully conducted a 

public school through two terms. On Oct. 25, 1849, 
he was married to Miss Martha Jane King, of the 
same county, taking up his residence at Jersey Shore. 
Ten children were born of this union. 

Mr. Meginness began his journalistic career oa 
June 9, 1852, by becoming the editor of the Jersey 
Shore Republican, a weekly newspaper, which he 
conducted until it was sold by its owners in 1854. 
In June, of that year, he, in conjunction with S. S. 
Seeley, founded The News Letter. A year later he- 
he retired from the paper. But the literary instinct 
was strong within him, and he at once set to work on 
a history of the West Branch Valley of the Susque- 
hanna, and so vigorously did he apply himself to the 
task that the book made its appearance in 1858. It 
was the pioneer history of that portion of Pennsyl- 
vania. A revised and greatly enlarged edition of 
the work appeared in 1889. The editorship of The- 
Sentinel, a weekly paper published at Peru, 111., was- 
offered to him in 1857. He accepted the position,, 
and with his family moved to that place. Two years- 
later the office was burned down, and he was again 
without a job. Having made the acquaintance of 
Stephen A. Douglas, the young editor through his 
influence secured a position on the Springfield Daily- 
Register, during the Lincoln-Douglas campaign. At 
its close he was oifered the editorship of the Specta- 
tor, at Carlinville, 111., accepted it, and two years 
later became the sole owner. Then came the war of 
the Rebellion. All things came to a standstill. He 
sold his paper at a sacrifice, and once more returned 
to Pennsylvania. 

In the winter of 1862 Mr. Meginness received' 
an appointment as quartermaster's clerk at Alexan- 
dria, Va. He was later made chief clerk of the Bu- 
reau of Transportation, at that point, a very re- 
sponsible position which he resigned to accept an 
appointment in the Division of Referred Claims, in' 
the Paymaster General's Office at Washington. 
Remaining in this place only a few months, he was 
transferred to a first-class clerkship in the third 
Auditor's office, of the Treasury Department. Later- 
he was transferred to the Second Comptroller's 
office, Treasury Department, and remained in that 
position until June i, 1869, when he finally left the 
Government, after several years of faithful service. 

Once more Mr. Meginness went to Williams- 
port, Pa., where he became managing editor of the 
daily Lycoming Gazette, in 1869. Upon the con- 
solidation of that journal with the Bulletin he was 
appointed city editor. Changes in ownership again 
made Mr. Meginness editor-in-chief, which position 
he held from 1872 until 1889, when, worn down by 
hard literary labor, he resigned for a rest. In ad- 
dition to his labors on the paper he had also, in 1888, 
begun a monthly, the Historical Journal, devoted to- 
local history, biography and necrology, which at- 
tained a self-supporting circulation. But his pen 
was never idle. After his retirement from the field' 
of journalism he undertook an extended biography 
of the stolen girl, Frances Slocum, who had been? 

Aw Uyvi^^>Cu ('^KTc^i:^ 



carried off by the Indians. This required much 
laborious research, including two journeys to 
Indiana for conference with the Indian descendants 
of the lost maiden. The book was a successful one. 

Mr. Meginness traveled extensively, visiting 
many distant parts of the United States, also the 
island of Cuba. During the last thirty years of his 
life many letters and sketches by him appeared "in 
the principal journals of Philadelphia and New 
York. His published writings number about twenty 
volumes, nearly all of a historical and biographical 
nature. While it may not be said that he was a 
great historian, it is nevertheless a fact that few 
men have done more for the early history of Penn- 
sylvania. He had the true historic instinct, and was 
indefatigable in his search for new materials. It 
would be difficult to name one still living who has 
done so much, tie early adopted the pen name 
"John of Lancaster,'"' and by it he and his writings 
became widely known throughout the State of 

Socially Mr. Meginness was a man of strong 
and attractive personality. The writer of this sketch 
knew him long and well, and can bear testimony to 
his estimable traits of mind and heart. His great 
stores of historical information were always at the 
command of his friends. His latest literary project 
was the preparation of this Biographical History of 
Lancaster county, his birthplace, and no one who 
knew him thought that he, too, would form the sub- 
ject of a sketch in it. Apparently in the most vigor- 
ous health, he was stricken without a moment's 
warning, just as he entered his own home from a 
visit to Harrisburg, on the night of Nov. ii, 1899, 
and while showing to his Avife a completed, printed 
copy of his own creating, recounting the incidents 
of their Golden Wedding, which had been celebrated 
two weeks previous. — [F. R. D. 

member of the Lancaster Bar with office in the Grant 
Law Building, North Duke street, descends from an 
old English family, the head of which was Anthony 
Walker, of St. Andrews Wardrobbe, London. The 
origin of the family dates, so far as is known, back 
to the sixteenth century from one DeForrester, a 
King's forester. A descendant adopted the name of 
Anthony Walker, from his occupation, a walker of 
the royal forests. This member died May 11, 1590, 
leaving an estate to be divided among his heirs, one 
of whom was Thomas Walker, Esq., of Westmins- 
ter, who held various positions and titles of honor, 
among them Usher of the Court of Exchange, 
marked Proclamator and Baron of the Court of 
Common Pleas. He died Oct. 12, 1613, leaving a 
son, Clement Walker, Esq., of Middle Temple Hy- 
don. County Somerset, who had special livery of his 
father's lands; he died in 1651. 

• John Walker, his son, celebrated as the one to 
introduce the system of fallowing land and of revis- 
ing wheat crops more thoroughly than formerly, 


was a man of great intelligence who set an example 
of superior farm culture greatly needed at that per- 
iod. He married into the ancient family of Heneage, 
descendants of Sir Robert Heneage, mentioned in 
history as living during the reign of Henry III, in the 
thirteenth century. The Heneage coat of arms was 
conferred upon the Walker family by this marriage. 
. The family belonged to the Established Church. 
Lewis Walker, a descendant, became a follower of 
George Fox, the Quaker' and was disowned by his 
relatives and deprived of government honors ; or as 
said by some one at the time, "he laid down these 
honors conferred by government." 

Lewis Walker left England about 1684, and com- 
ing to Pennsylvania settled at, or near, Valley Forge, 
Chester county, on one thousand acres of land pur- 
chased from his friend and co-laborer in the Quaker 
faith, William Penn. 

Asahel Walker, Esq. (2), son of Asahel Walker 
(i), was born Feb. 7, 1788, in Sadsbury township, 
and being a man of energy and ability set an example 
of thrift derived from his English ancestors. Asahel 
was the grand uncle of James M. Walker. He held 
office in the county, and married Sarah Coates, 
daughter of Samuel Coates, of Chester Valley, near 
Coatesville, the family being of English origin. Mrs, 
Coates had six brothers : Warrick, Samuel, Levi, 
Joseph, George and Eichard. Samuel and Levi were 
ministers of the Society of Friends; Joseph was a 
doctor and practiced at Downingtown, Chester coun- 
ty. Asahel Walker (2) died Dec. 5, 1856 ; and his 
wife, Sarah, died May S, 1869, in her seventy-eighth 
year. They had children : Anna, married to William 
P. Cooper, 1838 ; Susanna, married to Moses Pow- 
nall, 1838 ; Susanna, widow, married to Pusey Bar- 
nard, i860; Phebe, married to William P. Cooper, 
1848 ; Sarah, married to D. D. Linville, 1849 J Sam- 
uel, married to Sarah L. Harris, 1855; Asahel (3), 
not married; Joseph C, married to Lucy H. Ell- 
maker, 1856; Mary Alice, married to Alfred Ell- 
maker, 1856 ; Margaretta, married to Frank J. Pen- 
nock, 1859; Asahel Walker (i), Asahel (2), and 
Asahel (3) successively owned and occupied an an- 
cient stone mansion house historic on account of its 
associations with Revolutionary times, and the no- 
torious Doane boys. 

Isaac Walker, a son of Isaac Walker (brotlier 
of Asahel Walker (2) ), was born in Sadsbury town- 
ship. Pa., Jan. 27, 1808. He was the son of Isaac 
and Deborah CDickinson) Walker, grandson of 
Asahel and Anna (Moore) Walker, the great-grand- 
son of Isaac and Sarah (Jarman) Walker, and the 
great-great-grandson of Lewis and Mary (Morris) 
Walker. The English genealogy is given in the bio- 
graphical sketch, of the Walker family in the Bio- 
graphical History of Lancaster county. 

Lewis Walker came originally from the Scottish 
border, but directly from Wales. He first settled 
in Philadelphia, but soon after purchased one thou- 
sand acres from William Penn and moved to Valley 
Forge. He built the first stone house at the place. 



and it still stands though in altered form. He do- 
nated ground for a Quaker meeting-house and ceme- 
tery. Washington used the house for his quarters, 
and the church was made a hospital. The land is 
still owned by Walker's descendants, all of whom 
have been Friends. 

Isaac Walker was married Nov 2, 1831, to Eliza 
Ann, daughter of Abner and Mercy Kinsey Brooke, 
of .Sadsbury. She came of highly respected people, 
early settlers of Montgomery and Bucks counties. 
Eleven children were born as follows : Anna Maria ; 
Mary Louisa ; Isaac Buchanan ; Eliza Josephine ; 
Mercv Brooke ; James Madison ; Esther Jane ; Sarah 
Frances ; Abner Brooke and Deborah Dickinson, 
twins ; and Isaac Lewis. 

James Madison W'alker, a well known attorney 
descended from this family, was educated in the 
public schools of his home, and later at the State 
Normal School at Millersville. He left school just 
before graduation to get married, afterward teaching 
in Colerain, Bart, Eden, and Drumore townships. 
While also serving as a justice of the peace in Col- 
erain he read law with Alexander Harris, Esq., and 
received much help from Hon. Judge Livingston, 
who gave him access to his library and directed his 
studies. Admitted to practice in 1879, he was later 
on admitted to the Supreme and Superior courts. 
Returning to the Gap in 1886 he has since resided 
there. He was a notary public for six years, and 
postmaster under President Cleveland's second term. 
He held the full term, Congressman Brosius, a per- 
sonal friend from normal school days, preventing 
his removal. Mr. Walker was associated with the 
District Attorney in the celebrated Barney Short 
murder trial, Mr. Brosius being counsel for de- 

Mr. Walker married Eliza Fawkes, daughter of 
Samuel and Phoebe (Hood) Fawkes, the father 
being a well known farmer of Sadsbury township, 
and brother of Joseph, inventor of the steam plow. 
The following children have been born to this union : 
Isaac Hampton, an electrician who died in Phila- 
delphia in iQOi, in his thirtieth year; William E., 
farming his father's farm in Sadsbury township, 
a very fertile hundred acre tract, part of the thou- 
sand acre "Penn Tract ;" James Marshall, electrician 
at Gap engaged in electric and telephone supply 
business ; and Joseph Louis, engaged with Town- 
send & Co.. of Smyrna, having also served four 
years as his father's assistant as postmaster. 

Mr. Walker lives in a lovely home at the Gap, 
spending one or two days a week in Lancaster at- 
tending to his large law practice. His residence 
commands a fine view of the magnificent Gap 
scenery, the famed Pequea Valley, etc. He is also 
almost within view of the country seat of his old 
friend ex-Attorney General W. U. Hensel, whos? 
sketch will be found elsewhere. Mr. Walker is a 
Democrat and as such has served his party in numer- 
ous conventions, etc. He is a Master Mason, being 
a member of the Christiana Lodge, No. 417, F. & 

A. M. Mr. Walker rather inclines in his religious 
views toward the Friends, but is not a member. He 
is highly esteemed by all who know him for his in- 
tegrity, kindness and liberality. 

DANA GRAHAM. Prominent in the business 
circles of Lancaster for a period of years prior 
to 1888, was Dana Graham, whose widow, Mrs. 
Lucy M. Graham, together with her family, still 
survive him, highly esteemed members of the society 
of the city. 

Dana Graham was born in Townsend, Mass., 
May 9, 1821, and cHed in Lancaster, Pa., April 14, 
1888. He was the- son of Samuel and Asenath 
(Adams) Graham of that place, and where the 
parents continued to reside until their death. The 
father, who was born in Townsend, Dec. 20, 1795, 
was a cooper by trade ; his wife was born on July 
19. 1802. They reared a large family to maturity, 
six of whom are now living. Dana, the gentleman 
whose honored name heads this paragraph, was the 
eldest of the family ; then followed Asenth, widow 
of George Gibson, who lives in New York State; 
Eldridge, of Persia, Iowa; Elima, Cynthia, Eliakim, 
W^arren and Samuel W., who are deceased ; Samuel 
A., who lives in California ; George, a Massachusetts 
farmer ; Martha, the widow of George Merriam, 
Newton, Mass. ; and Emily F., of Springfield, Ohio. 
The mother of this family was the daughter of John 
and Asenath Adams, the former born April 7, 1777, 
the latter Dec. 27, 1779. 

Dana Graham was born as stated and reared in 
his native town, receiving a fairly good education in 
the public schools. In young manhood he was ap- 
prenticed to the comb-making trade in the town of 
Leominster, Mass., and where he remained until 
Oct. 25, 1850. He then in connection with a gentle- 
man by the name of John Shaffner, engaged in busi- 
ness in Lancaster Pa., and which was continued un- 
til the firm was broken by the death of Mr. Shaflfner. 
Mr. Graham then reorganized the firm with his old- 
est son as a partner, and continued the business. He 
was a gentleman who took a prominent position in the 
community, and his fine ability was recogpiized by his 
fellow citizens, whom he served on the board of 
aldermen for five years, and in the common council 
two terms. He was active, in the local political life 
of his city, having been a stanch supporter of Re- 
publican principles. In fraternal affiliation he was an 
active and worthy member of the Independent Or- 
der of Odd Fellows, and also a member of the 
Encampment, was a high degree Mason and be- 
longed to the Junior O. U. A. M. 

On Jan. 19, 1848, in Northfield, Vt., Dana Gra- 
ham was happily joined in marriage to Miss Lucy 
M. Grant, who was born in Berlin, Vt., a daughter 
of Azariah and Phoebe (Vose) Grant, formerly of 
Charlestown, Mass., where Mr. Grant was a school- 
teacher; both the parents passed away in Ber- 
lin, Vt. To the marriage of Dana Graham were 
born the following children : Ella V. died in in- 



fancy ; Ella V. (2) died at the age of twenty years ; 
Lina L. married Joseph Herzog, a liveryman at 
Lancaster, Pa. ; Emma C, a trained nurse, resides 
at home; John S. is a hotel proprietor, Lancaster, 
Pa. ; Dana B. died at the age of three years ; Dana 
H. is a comb manufacturer at Lancaster, Pa. ; Har- 
riet E. died in infancy ; Grant A. lives in Lancaster, 
Pa. ; and Charles died in infancy. Mrs. Graham is 
•a lady of fine mold of character, hospitable and genial 
in her home life, and has been a splendid mother to 
her large family of children, who are much devoted 
to her. In maternal lines Mrs. Graham is a direct 
•descendant of Robert Vose, who with his wife, Anna, 
;settled in Maiden, Mass., in 1650; his eldest son 
Samuel taught school in Charteston, S. C, and 
-served imdcr W'ashington in the Revolutionary war. 
Samuel's son. Rev. Robert Vose, a Methodist min- 
ister, was Mrs. Graham's grandfather. Mrs. Gra- 
liam is a leading member of the St. John's Episcopal 
Church of Lancaster, and is much interested in the 
•charitable and religious work of the church. Both 
she a,nd her family receive the good offices of a 
large circle of friends, whom they delight to enter- 
tain in their pleasant and commodious home. 

PETER J. ROEBUCK, M. D., of Lititz, one of 
"the most successful practitioners of medicine in Lan- 
caster county, is called "Senator" as frequently as , 
""Doctor," for he was State Senator from the North- 
■«rn District of Lancaster county ; and although now 
•completely and absolutely devoted to his profession, 
and not a political aspirant in any sense, he is still 
among the foremost Republicans of the county. 

Dr. Roebuck's grandfather was of German par- 
ventage, and settling in Lebanon county, Pa., became 
a, prominent farmer. His wife was a Miss Sholly, 
•of Lebanon county, and to their union were born six 
•children, among whom was Jacob Roebuck. 

Jacob Roebuck was born Jan. 14, 1807, and spent 
"his early days on the parental estate. In early man- 
liood he wa.s married to Sarah, daughter of Ludwig 
^''engst, of Lebanon, and they had a family of eleven 
•children, all of whom are yet living. The father of 
this interesting family was in his more active days 
an ardent Whig, and became a Republican in his 
later years ; in religion he was a devout member of 
the Reformed Church. He remained a farmer to 
the day of his death, which occurred Sept. 5, 1877. 

Peter J. Roebuck, son of Jacob, was born in Dau- 
-phin county Dec. 10, 1838, and remained with his 
parents until he reached the age of ten years, when 
he entered the home of an uncle, that he might have 
"Jbetter educational opportunities than his native com- 
munity presented. When he was somewhat older 
lie spent two years in the store of John Bruner, and 
•six months in a store in Dauphin, after which he 
returned to the farm to recuperate his failing health. 
After a time he resumed his studies, and finally be- 
-came a student in the Annville Academy, taking up 
teaching after leaving that school. When he was 
aiineteen vears of age he entered the office of Dr. 

J. Seller, of Grantville, Dauphin county, to prepare 
for the profession of medicine. After spending 
three years with him Dr. Roebuck entered the Med- 
ical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, 
from which he was graduated in i860. That year 
he located at Derry Church, Dauphin county, where 
he practiced his profession until 1867, in which year 
he removed to Ohio, where he spent two years. 
After his return to this State he located at Lititz, 
and there he has resided to the present time, in the 
enjoyment of a practice hardly second to that 01 
any physician of Lancaster county. In recent years 
his practice has become so heavy that he has felt 
the need of an associate, taking into his practice, in 
that capacity, his nephew, Dr. John Paul Roebuck, 
a son of Dr. John Henry Roebuck, a practicing phy- 
sician of Bethlehem. This young man graduated 
from the Medico-Chirnrgical College, Philadelphia, 
in 1899, going immediately thereafter to Lititz, to 
assist his uncle. 

Dr. Peter J. Roebuck is justly regarded as one of 
the most skilled physicians and surgeons in his part 
of the county, and has established more than a local 
reputation as an oculist. He is a member of the 
Lancaster City and County Medical Society, of the 
State Medical Society, and of the American Medical 
Association. In politics he is an ardent Republican, 
and began to take an active interest in political af- 
fairs as early as 1873, when the adoption of the new 
constitution for the State was under discussion. This 
interest culminated in his election as State senator, 
and his re-election the following election. So ex- 
cellent was his record that he was strongly urged 
for Congressional honors in 1878. 

Dr. Roebuck was married, Sept. 3, 1864, to Miss 
Emma J., daughter of Samuel H. Thome, M. D., of 
Palmyra, Pa., whose ancestors belonged to the 
Scotch-Irish settlers of Pennsylvania, early making 
their home in Lancaster county. 

Dr. Roebuck is known as a generous and public- 
spirited citizen of Lititz, and his presentation of a 
magnificent drinking fountain to the borough of 
Lititz stamped his character as a benefactor of the 
town. The formal presentation occurred Oct. 3, 
1895, the presentation speech being made by A. F. 
Hostetter, of Lancaster, and the speech of acceptance 
on the part of the borough being made by Charles 
I. Landes, now a judge of the county. An illustra- 
tion of this beautiful fountain was published in the 
Lancaster New Era at the time, and a fine souvenir 
leaflet, containing the illustration, and the speeches 
connected with' the ceremony, was printed. The 
plot of land lying between the "Springs Hotel" and 
the Springs grounds belongs to the borough, and 
Was a part of the original farm of 600 acres on which 
the early settlers established Lititz. An ordinance 
setting apart this plot of ground for the fountain, 
forever, was prepared by A. F. Hostetter, and passed 
by the town council Aug. 20, 1895. The fountain 
is of bronze metal, and most beautiful in design. It 
is surrounded with concrete pavement and curbing. 



and the basin is also of concrete. Triangular plots 
of grass, enclosed with concrete coping, give a 
charming effect, and three powerful electric lights 
make it a veritable "thing of beauty." Two of the 
large posts have spigots from which the water is 
drawn, and in front of the fountain is a drinking 
trough for beasts. Hidden within the concrete pave- 
ment that surrounds the fountain is a receptacle 
for ice, a place where a huge lump of ice is placed 
on top of the water pipes, which are here laid in 
coils, thus offering to all in the heated term delicious 
spring water, cooled by the ice, and yet not touched 
by it — carrying out the highest hygienic principle 
for drinking water. 

In 1901 the Doctor became one of the insti- 
gators and founders of the Farmers' National Bank 
of Litit7, becoming its first president. The institu- 
tion stands with a capital of $60,000. They have 
erected a fine building for the business, and it is safe 
to say that their counting room is one of the finest 
in the county. 

Possessing personal magnetism in a marked de- 
gree, endowed with rare conversational powers, en- 
thusiastic in all that he does, and liberal, though 
firm, in his acts. Dr. Roebuck has been a power for 
good wherever his busy life has passed, and especial- 
ly to the people of Lititz, in whose welfare he has 
shown enduring interest. 

JOHN McCASKEY. There are branches of the 
McCaskey family in different parts of Pennsylvania 
and the Western States, some who came very early 
in the history of the country, and all doubtless of 
Scotch and Scotch-Irish origin. It is not unlikely that 
they came originally from the beautiful region of 
Caskieben, in the County of Inverness, bordering on 
Moray Firth, Scotland, the home of the clans Mac- 
pherson, FrazciT, Grant, MacKenzie, MacDonald and 
■others. The name comes down like many another 
from prehistoric times. "Mac" is the old Scotch way 
of saying "son of," so that "McCaskey" means simply 
"son of Caskey," and the name appears in both forms 
in many parts of the country. 

John McCaskey came to Lancaster county from 
Castle Blaney, County Monaghan, Ireland, about the 
year 1795. His ancestors emigrated from Scotland 
to Ireland probably a hundred and fifty years before 
that time. He was the oldest son and a freeholder, 
inheriting through his father, William McCaskey, 
who had been a soldier in the British service in 
America during the war of the Revolution, and was a 
man of means and energy. At his death John was 
left the responsible head of the family. After his 
marriage to Margaret Gorman and the birth of his 
eldest son he decided to emigrate to America. The 
family party included his three brothers, William, 
James and Hugh, all of them men of character, and 
John Henry and Thomas Gorman, his brothers-in- 
law. His brothers and Henry Gorman finally set- 
tled in Western Pennsylvania and Ohio. He settled 
in Leacock township, near the old Leacock meeting- 

house, north of Gordonville and west of Intercourse. 
He had been brought up in the Presbyterian Church, 
as became a good Scotch-Irishman, and was one of 
the prominent men of this congregation, his large 
family forming for many years no inconsiderable 
part of its membership. In this graveyard he is bur- 
ied. In the same ship with him came a number of 
friends, William Spencer and others, also of the Pres- 
byterian faith, who settled in and near Strasburg, 
Lancaster county. He became one of the best known 
men of his time in his locality. His chief business 
was that of drover, for many years upon a very large 
scale. As drover and farmer he accumulated what 
in his day was regarded a handsome fortune. Though 
he never learned to read or write he carried his large 
business in his accurate memory, and had the repu- 
tation of being one of the most honest men in his 
community, respected by everybody as a generous 
man of stanch integrity, undaunted courage, and 
marked force of character. He owned two valuable 
farms near Leacock meeting-house, one of them be- 
ing his own home, the other that of his son, William. 
He had ten children, three sons and seven daughters. 
The sons were James, born in Ireland, who was killed 
at the age of thirteen by the kick of a horse ; John, 
who died when about thirty-five years of age, leav- 
ing a son, John, also dead; and William, who sur- 
vived him. His daughters were Jane, who married 
Thomas Downey, and had one son and four daugh- 
ters ; Sarah married John Galbraith, and died early ; 
Agnes married Job Barefoot, and had four sons and 
four daughters : Margaret, who married James S. 
White, and had two sons and one daughter, is now 
(1Q03) in her ninety- fourth year, the only surviving 
member of the family, and has for many years made 
her home with her nephew, Dr. J. P. McCaskey, of 
Lancaster ; Mary married James Whiteside, and had 
two sons and one daughter; Eliza married Andrew 
White, and had one son and three daughters; and 
Matilda, who married James Moore, had' one son. 
William McCaskey married Margaret Piersol in 
February, 1836. Their children are John Piersol, 
publisher of the Pennsylvania School Journal and 
principal of the Lancaster High School, who married 
Ellen M. Chase, and has had five sons and two daugh- 
ters : Joseph Barr, dentist, who married Fannie Con- 
nell, and has two sons and one daughter ; William 
Spencer, colonel of the 20th U. S. Infantry, who mar- 
ried Eleanor Garrison, and has had four sons and 
two daughters ; Cyrus Davis, who married Harriet 
Bricker, and has one son and three daughters ; James 
Newton, dentist, who married Mary Hamaker; 
Catharine Wilson, wife of James H. Marshall, who 
has two sons and four daughters; and Margaret 
Salome, who married Llewellyn Spohn, and has two 
daughters. The children of John, the oldest son of 
William, are five sons and two daughters : Edward 
William, a graduate of West Point and captain in the 
regular service; Richard Douglas, dentist, of Lan- 
caster : Walter Bogardus, graduate of the Pennsyl- 
vania State College and lieutenant in the regular 

The words of Hail Columbia were written by Joseph 
Hopldnson in Philadelphia, in 1798, for the President's 
March, then a very popular air. The Star Spangled 
Banner was written in Baltimore in 1814 by Francis 
Scott Key, and adapted to an old French air long known 
in England as "Anacreon in Heaven," and later in 
America as "Adams and Liberty." My Country, tis of 
Thee, writfen in Boston in 1832 by Samuel F. Smith, 

was set by Lowell Mason to the music of the old tune 
God Save the Queen. The words of Flag of the Free, 
here gi'en, go well to the Wedding March in Loheii- 
grin. there is always room for a new song that has in it 
anything to suggest the thought of country, to stir pride 
in the flag, to quicken the oatriotic heart-beat. This 
music is distinctive in character and known throughout 
the world, and the sonjr is already sung very widely. 


Steady Time. 

J. P. McCaskey. 
March from Lohengrin. 


FJag of the Free! fair- est to see! Borne thro' the strife and the thunder of war, Ban-ner so 

2. Flag of the Free! all turn lo thee, — Golden thy stars in the blue of their sky! Flag of the 

3. Flag of the brave, long may it wave ! Chosen of God while His might we a - dore. High in the 

>. -^ J -^.-g - -g- ■ S-Stlt 

CAo. — Flag of the Free, all hail to thee! Floating the fair -est on o-cean or shore. Loud ring the 



bright with star - ry light, 
brave ! foes let them rave,- 
van, for manhood of man. 



Float ev - er proudly from mountain to shore. 

■Crimson thy bars floating gai - ly on high ! 

Symbol of Right thro' the years passing o'er; 

[Final ending. . ] 







cry, ne'er let it die, " Un - ion and Lib - er - ty [Omit. 

] now,ev er-more!" 



Em - pire of jus - tice, em - pire of law ; 
Matchless thy beau - ty on land or wave. 
Flower of the a ges, fade nev - er - more ! 

Sa ges of old thy com - ing fore-saw, 
Splendid thy sto ry, might - y to save. 
Flower of the a - ges, promised of vore, 






_-pi-.^ff- _-g: 








Flag of our fa - thers ! round all the 
Heroes have borne thee aloft in the 
Emblem of Free - dom, " Ma ny in 


-B«— S-«- 

tt^!^-. .,r^ 



world Blest of the millions wher-ev - er un - furled; 
fray, Foemen who scorned thee have all passed a - way ; 
One," O'er thee thine ea - gle, bird of the sun ; 







D.C.for Chorus. 


Ter - ror to ty - rants, hope to the slave 
Pride of our coun- try, hailed from a - far. 
All hail, "Old Glory !" hearts leap to see 


Spread thy fair folds to shield and 
Ban - ner of Prom ise, lose not a 
How from the nations the world looks to 

to save, 

a star, 










army ; Donald Gilbert, graduate of the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania; one 
daughter, Elsa Piersol, at home; and tw^o children 
deceased. There weve seven grandsons named for 
him, the eldest in each family. He was a great favor- 
ite vi^ith his two or three dozen grandchildren, whose 
parents were expected to bring them all, or as many 
as convenient, on festal days to the old homestead. 
The writer tastes yet, after sixty years, the cuts of 
choice licorice the kind old man was in the habit of 
sharing out to the little folks whenever he saw any 
of them. He always kept on hand a stock of the best 
quality, but cut it too sparingly, we thought. There 
was both delight and disappointment in it, for it was 
very good and we never got enough of it, nor were 
we ever at liberty to ask, like Oliver Twist, for 
"more." He sees, and feels too, the big, old-fashioned 
copper cents that '"grandfather" used to count out 
to him for reading the news of the war with Mexico, 
the Congressional debates, the messages of the Presi- 
dent and much besides, as given in the weekly issues 
■of the old "Dollar Newspaper." In person he was 
a man tall, well-proportioned, and of venerable ap- 
pearance. He was blind in the last years of his life, 
but to the end directed his business much as usual, 
keenly alive at the age of seventy-six to matters of 
private and public interest. 

JOHN PIERSOL McCASKEY, principal of 
the Boys' High School, is a man well known in 
Lancaster. He enjoys all sorts of good things, 
music, painting, sculpture, literature, the drama, the 
wonder and beaut)'' of nature, the society of friends — 
filling the breathing spaces in a busy life with these 
things to a degree unusual among men. He has 
worked hard and long, but enjoys his work, and has 
made it his business to enjoy and get good out of 
life at every turn. Not many men have seen so 
much that is worth seeing, heard so much that is 
•worth hearing, or done so much that is worth doing. 
He touches literature, music, art work, business, 
teaching, the work of editor and publisher, with 
■equal confidence, good judgment and success. With 
a wide range of talent, he has lived what Roosevelt 
would call "the strenuous life," for most marked of 
all is his talent for work and his unfailing enjoy- 
ment of it. 

For forty-seven years Dr. McCaskey has been 
teaching in the high school of Lancaster, and the 
Saturday holiday has all the while been his day of 
largest opportunity. "All days are good," but this 
has usually been a day for something new — very 
•often in Philadelphia, and not to be missed — in con- 
cert or play, at opera, lecture or art exhibition, at 
times for niany Saturdays in succession. The cost 
lie has thought of little account as weighed against 
the pleasure of the trip and the profit of such in- 
spiration and culture. This is one secret of his 
power as a teacher — his warm and eager life in the 
large world of art and literature and music, the Bible 
and the church. From this rich experience has 

come endless suggestion for his morning readings 
and morning talks to the boys on all sorts of subjects, 
which are recalled by many now grown to manhood 
as perhaps the very best feature of their profitable 
life in the high school. Dr. Thomas H. Burrowes 
once said to him : "You have the strong beginnings 
of all that is worth getting or worth having in edu- 
cation or life. You can now go open-eyed where 
you will, and it depends upon yourself how far you 
will go and in what direction." He has never lost 
the impulse given by these hearty words of cheer 
and ■ encouragement. 

Dr. McCaskey began teaching in the Boys' 
High School in 1855, and, with the exception 
of one year, 1857-58— most of which he spent 
in the old Evening Express printing office, learn- 
ing something of the printer's trade that was 
to mean so much to him afterward — ^he has been in 
the school ever since, in 1865 becoming its principal. 
The teachers here, Profs. James C. Gable, Carl 
Matz, Carl Thorbahn and Miss Mary Martin, have 
been associated with the school for many years. 
They are all people of strong individuality, of prac- 
tical business sense, with interests outside of the 
school as well as in it, people of character, energy 
and high rectitude, "good to live with." The school 
is recognized as of unusual power in its teaching 
force and in its quickening intellectual and moral 
atmosphere. There are many in this community who 
would be glad to know that the Doctor had rounded 
out his fifty years of useful life here, in one of the 
best lines of work in the world, and one for which 
he is especially fitted. He has the unique record of 
having been present at every one of the fifty or more 
sessions of the Lancaster County Teachers' Insti- 
tute since its organization, in January, 1853, the first 
three sessions as a pupil in the Boys' High School 
and since as a member of the Institute. For more 
than thirty years he was its treasurer, until the or- 
ganization of the Lancaster City Institute. For ten 
or twelve years he published its proceedings in large 
pamphlet form with extended reports of lectures, 
addresses and papers read, and full statistics as to 
the schools and teachers in the various districts. He 
joined the Pennsylvania State Teachers' Associa- 
tion in 1855, at Pittsburg, attended three or four 
sessions in those early years, and has been at every 
annual session since 1865. Since 1866, with the ex- 
ception of one year, he has been secretary of that 
body. The Pennsylvania School Journal being its 
official organ, he has given such careful attention to 
its annual reports of proceedings that, in fullness and 
accuracy for so many consecutive sessions, they are 
believed to surpass those of any other like associ- 
ation in the United States. During the past three 
years, as secretary, he has also issued a large volume 
of proceedings of the State Educational Association 
and its departments, which has been distributed to 
the members, the edition for the current year being 
2,500 copies. In this important work he has, for 
thirty years, been ably assisted by J. D. Pyott, an 



expert in reporting. He has for some time been 
the "patriarch" of each of these leading school or- 
ganizations in county and State, no other man hav- 
ing been an active nnember for so many years. 

Dr. McCaskey belongs to St. James' Episcopal 
Church, has been for forty years or more in regular 
attendance at the morning service, has been a mem- 
ber of the vestry since April, 1867, and has added to 
the memorial wealth of the old parish a window, a 
tablet in black onyx and gold, a noble granite tomb 
and other memorials in the churchyard, each a work 
of art of enduring value. 

Dr. McCaskey was one of the original stock- 
holders of the Inquirer Printing Company, now 
the Wickersham Company, and for many years 
its secretary. He was also one of the original mem- 
bers of the Adams and Perry Watch Company, and 
for twenty years stood by that hard-fought enter- 
prise, through its various changes and reorganiza- 
tions, with all the money he could put into it, being 
secretary of the several companies organized after 
the first year or two of failure and disappointment. 
When the final crash came he was the third largest 
stockholder and lost very heavily — what would seem 
a handsome fortune to most men. He laughs and 
says he has, by this time, with increase of value at 
ordinary rate of interest, at least $40,000 buried in 
the foundations of that great enterprise that pays no 
dividend beyond the gratification of seeing it a suc- 
cessful local industry. He is now, we believe, the 
only stockholder in the new Hamilton Watch Com- 
pany who came through the heroic struggle of the 
old companies that sunk nearly half a million dollars 
to make a good foundation for the great and suc- 
cessful enterprise that has succeeded them. 

The Doctor had much much to do with the in- 
troduction of Arbor Day into Pennsylvania, which 
has led to the planting of millions of trees, observ- 
ing the day in his own school before that time, pub- 
lishing in The School Journal many articles upon 
the subject, and being closely associated with Dr. 
E. E. Higbee, its editor-in-chief, who, as State super- 
intendent of public instruction, introduced the ob- 
servance of the day, and made it semi-annual. The 
Boys' Pligh School, of which he is principal, has for 
each of our thirty-seven consecutive Arbor Days had 
its attractive programme of music and literary ex- 
ercises, adapted to the occasion, each day planting 
more trees than it has had pupils enrolled except 
once, when roses were planted in memory of Dr. E. 
E. Higbee. It has thus far planted more than 6,000 
trees. He has all the while used The Pennsylvania 
School Journal as an influential agency in encour- 
aging this good work. This periodical, being sent 
regularly to each of the twenty-five hundred school 
districts in Pennsylvania and to many superintend- 
ents, school directors, teachers and others who are 
centres of suggestion and influence in their locali- 
ties throughout the State, has been for many years a 
leading factor in creating public opinion favorable 
to tree-planting and forestry. We do not know of 

any other publication that has been doing better 
work in this vital direction. His memorial work in 
honor of Dr. Thomas H. Burrowes, Dr. E. E. Hig- 
bee, Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, Hon. Samuel Breck 
(author of the School Law of Pennsylvania), and 
other school men, has been phenomenal. It includes 
a noble granite tomb to Dr. Burrowes in St. James'' 
Episcopal churchyard in Lancaster; a massive me- 
morial cross to Dr. Higbee, made by the late Herman 
Strecker ; a bust of Dr. Higbee in bronze, of heroic 
size ; some twenty-five thousand life-size portraits of 
Dr. Burrowes, Dr. Higbee and Thaddeus Stevens- 
distributed to schools in all parts of the State; a 
memorial volume of tributes from many loving: 
friends of Dr. Higbee, together with much char- 
acteristic of the man that he had said and written 
and done— an extraordinary book, of which 10,000 
copies were printed; and pamphlet sketches of Dr. 
Burrowes and others, of which 50,000 copies have 
been distributed. As one result of this great work, 
in which he was the moving and controlling spirit, 
there have been placed in the state department of 
Public Instruction, at Harrisburg, under his direc- 
tion, life-size portraits, richly framed in gold, of the 
men who had most to do with the founding and de- 
velopment of our common school system. The mem- 
ory of what some of these men did for the cause of 
general education had almost faded from the public 
mind. He has brought them back to the grateful re- 
gard of the State, making their faces and their work 
familiar in the schools and to school men. Whatever 
deficit there was at any time in the memorial funds^ 
while the work was in progress, he supplied as need- 
ed, that everything might be done promptly and well,. 
Thus his contribution to these funds amounted to not 
less than $3,000, or more than one-fourth of the fund 
needed — and in this in addition to the time and labor 
required. But all was gladly given. In the Dr. 
Higbee and Dr. Burrowes memorial work he had 
invaluable assistance from Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer,. 
County Superintendents M. J. Brecht, M. G. Brum- 
baugh and nearly all the county, city and borough 
superintendents of Pennsylvania. It is said to be the 
noblest work of its kind "that has ever been done by 
public school men in honor of public school men. 

For years Dr. McCaskey has been much inter- 
ested in the line of good memory work in literature^ 
which he regards the best work that can be done in 
any ordinary school of any grade, and in The Penn- 
sylvania School Journal and otherwise has published 
very widely the selections memorized weekly in the 
high school, urging the importance of this subject 
upon teachers and superintendents. He thinks, 
"Teachers cannot be too rich in wealth of this kind^ 
nor toil for it too long or too earnestly. Fair rank 
in the university of letters is here within reach of 
all, v/ith or without diploma." He has but one re- 
gret in this connection — that he has not been doing, 
regularly and persistently, this best of all school 
work all his life, both as pupil and teacher. Not 
being able to find what he wanted for use as a text 



book in this direction, some years ago he compiled 
the "Lincohi Literary Collection" for his own school. 
It contains over 600 favorite selections, and is pub- 
lished by the American Book Company. It would 
be a good thing for the schools if this book were 
found in every school library, for confident reference 
when good things are wanted for reading or reci- 

Of late years he has been giving attention to the 
publication of fine engravings, his "Lincoln Art 
Series" now containing twenty of the. best and most 
satisfactory things for schools and homes that can 
be found anywhere. His own school-room is very 
attractive for its display of good pictures, fine Eng- 
lish art proofs and others. We doubt whether it 
can be surpassed anywhere in Pennsylvania. A 
number of the pictures here are printed from his 
own plates. Of the "Lincoln Art Series" he has 
distributed many thousand copies to all parts of the 
country. The "picture on the wall" is an educating 
influence, silent but often far-reaching for good or 
ill. If well chosen, it may become a blessing for gen- 
erations. The value of pictures such as these upon 
the walls of schools and homes it is impossible to 
estimate. He has undertaken to put into the new 
building of the Young Men's Christian Association 
of Lancaster a finer collection of engravings and 
pictures generally than is to be found in any other 
Y. M. C. A. building in the United States. He is 
placing them there as a memorial to his mother. 
They supplement admirably the splendid Cross and 
Crown memorial window which he has placed in the 
same building in honor and in grateful memory of 
Dr. Burrowes and Dr. Higbee, on the first landing of 
the main stairway. These things give to the interior 
of this fine building an air of artistic elegance, lift- 
ing it quite out of the commonplace of ordinary sur- 
roundings. Of this window. Dr. Winship, seeing 
it when exhibited in Boston, says, in the N. E. Jour- 
nal of Education: "The central figure shows an 
ecclesiastical crown of sparkling gems surmounted 
by a Maltese cross set with brilliant jewels. It was 
made by Redding, Baird & Co., of Boston, who had 
it on exhibition for a time, and thousands visited 
their establishment to enjoy the elegance of the bril- 
Hant setting. It contains probably a thousand jewels, 
and is one of the most beautiful windows ever made 
in honor of educators." This superb window, cost- 
ing a thousand dollars, is of great size, contains 
nearly one hundred and twenty (120) sqviare feet 
of glass surface and weighs nearly half a ton. 

'Dr. McCaskey knows well the value of surrotmd- 
ings, the silent influence of appropriate mottoes and 
well-chosen pictures speaking from the walls, and 
one of his earliest ventures was the Lancaster School 
Mottoes, a dozen heavy cards printed on both sides, 
which are still published, and of which thousands 
of sets have been sold. This was followed by the 
Pennsylvania Song Collection, which was afterwards 
broadened out into the first number of the Franklin 
Square Song Collection, on the book list of Harper 

& Brothers, New York, He issued eight volumes of 
this popular collection, which has sold more than a 
quarter of a million copies in the United States and 
Canada, and is known in many other parts of the 
English-speaking world. His latest collection, 
"Favorite Songs and Hymns," containing between 
four and five hundred of the best songs and hymns 
in the world, is published by the American Book 
Company of New York. If he had done nothing else 
in music but compile this one book, it would have 
been a great thing to do. Many pleasant letters come 
to him expressing hearty appreciation of this work. 
Among others. Prof. Edmund D. Murdagh, presi- 
dent of the board of education of Oklahoma, writes : 
"Though an absolute stranger to you, I wish to ex- 
press my sense of the obligation under which you 
have placed the profession through your recent col- 
lection of songs and hymns. I have just bought, for 
our Normal School, one hundred copies, and we are 
delighted with the book. I need not specify points 
of excellence. Every page is helpful and suggestive. 
You have clone a great service to the cause of edu- 
cation. May I not tender the thanks of our school ?" 

In addition to many smaller annual song pamph- 
lets and song books, for institutes and schools, two 
dozen or more, which have been scattered by hun- 
dreds of thousands, he published, some years ago, 
through Harper & Brothers, a large quarto collec- 
tion of readings and songs, entitled, "Christmas in 
Song and Story," which the Episcopal Recorder pro- 
nounced "a perfect cyclopedia of Christmas song." 
In the vaults of the Wickersham and New Era 
Printing Companies he has thousands of music 
plates, that have cost more than ten thousand dol- 
lars. He has also written songs and adapted words 
to well-known or attractive airs that have found 
their way to permanent favor, and he celebrated the 
six hundredth issue (December, 1901) of The Penn- 
sylvania School Journal by the publication of a stir- 
ring patriotic song, entitled the "Flag of the Free," 
adapted to the familiar air of the wedding march 
from Lohengrin. This work in music he has enjoyed 
perhaps more than any other, and he regards it as 
extraordinary good fortune that he has been able all 
these years to be in close touch with a master of har- 
monv and musician of high rank such as Prof. Carl 
Matz, without whose constant practical help and un- 
failing advice in all matters relating to music, his 
work could not have gone forward with the ease and 
freedom that have made it so enjoyable. 

But Dr. McCaskey 's most influential and far- 
reaching work has been in connection with The 
Pennsylvania School Journal, every number of 
which he has put through press, month by month, for 
more than thirty-six years. He went upon The Jour- 
nal in May, 1866, and, with his customary staying 
power, he is at it yet, busy upon it day and night as 
leisure is afforded from the pressure of other duties. 
It is now in its fifty-first volume, the December num- 
ber, 1901, being its six hundredth issue. The in- 
fluence of this Journal, as the organ of the school 



officers and teachers of the State, and the medium 
through which the proceedings of their annual meet- 
ings have been made knoAvn to tlie public, can liardly 
be overestimated. The educational records of the 
State are found nowhere else outside of its fifty vol- 
umes. The only complete set of the annual reports 
of the State Superintendents of Public Instruction; 
the only continuous record of the proceedings of the 
Pennsylvania State Teachers' Association through 
its fifty sessions; the only complete record of pro- 
ceedings of the annual sessions of the City and Bor- 
ough Superintendents' Association; the only com- 
plete record of the annual meetings of the Pennsyl- 
vania State Directors' Association; the only con- 
tinuous history, and the only one that makes any 
approach to completeness, that is now in existence 
anywhere, of the work of the Department of Public 
Instruction of the State since 1854, all the archives 
of this department of the State government, which 
had been carefully preserved for so many years, hav- 
ing- been lost in the late fire that destroyed the Cap- 
itol building at Harrisburg — all this matter of great- 
er or less importance is found from year to year in 
The Pennsylvania School Journal, and nowhere else. 
This monthly periodical has kept the record intact 
and beyond the reach of destruction from any cause 

Dr. McCaskey's connection with The 'Journal 
has brought him into close personal relations with 
all the State superintendents who have held office at 
Harrisburg since 1854 except one, Hon. Charles R. 
Coburn, whom he knew but not intimately — Thomas 
H. Burrowes, Plenrv C. Plickok, J. P. Wickersham, 
E. E. Higbee, D. J. Waller, and N. C. Schaeffer. In 
an article upon "No, 600," he says : "The writer 
went upon The School Journal as associate editor in 
1866, and has put through press each one of the 
428 monthly issues since that time. Dr. Burrowes 
wished us to take hold of this work in 1865, but made 
the condition that we should give it all our time, 
leaving the Boys' High School. We could not do 
this. A year later he said, 'Come on your own terms,' 
and laughed, as he added, 'but I don't want to write 
your obituary.' We have been at it ever since, glad 
and grateful for the noble field of opportunity it has 
afforded these many years. These fifty volumes now 
occupy five or six feet of space upon the shelf, and 
make a goodly showing for Pennsylvania edu- 
cational interests as well as for her school history. 
It does not pay any large return on the investment, 
but enough, with two or three other sources of in- 
come, as school work, music, and art work, to make 
ends meet. It has been a blessed privilege to be as- 
sociated with it and its great work, and the men who 
have had to do with it, during the past third of a 
ccnturj- and longer. For what time we have yet to 
live we ask nothing better." The Neiv England Jour- 
nal of Education says of it : "The Pennsylvania 
School Journal has been in a class by itself. No other 
State educational journal has approached this in 
scope or in power. It is the best history of educa-' 

tion of a State that is to be found in all the land. It 
has always been admirably edited, has had high lit- 
erary flavor, and has given not only important and 
interesting facts concerning school affairs in Penn- 
sylvania, but the most important facts regarding 
education in general. Dr. J. P. McCaskey, its long- 
time editor, has been privileged to be a mighty edu- 
cational force, largely because of the opportunity 
afforded by this journal to his devotion to the cause 
of education in the Keystone State." 

The most important work of Dr. McCaskey, as 
we have said, has doubtless been that upon The 
School Journal, with its constant suggestion as to 
school work, its reports and records, arbor day, 
music, star-study, school decoration, ideal memory 
work, improved condition of school buildings, out- 
houses and grounds, etc., in all of which his influence 
has been felt for a generation; then perhaps the two 
or three dozen collections of music of various kinds 
which he has published, some of them known and en- 
joyed in schools and homes all over the land; and 
third in importance, his life in the Boys' High 
School for the past forty-five years. He holds, both 
m practice and theory, that a teacher is an influence 
— the great end of the school being thought and life, 
the growing life toward mature manhood and 
womanhood. There must be scholarship, but char- 
acter is of first importance. Ordinary school work 
must have careful attention, but not to the exclusion 
of other good things too often ignored. Therefore, 
he had vocal music introduced into the Boys' High 
School some thirty years ago, under a special teach- 
er, this finally extending to all the schools of the 
city. Prof. Carl Matz has been in charge of the vocal 
music in the high schools and Prof. John B. Kevin- 
ski in the lower grades, for twenty-five years, and 
longer. In the same way, some years ago. Dr. Mc- 
Caskey had instrumental music — instruction on 
orchestral instruments, as violin, flute, cornet, trom- 
bone, clarinet, oboe, etc. — introducted into the school, 
which was soon adopted by the school board as an 
optional branch and extended to the Girls' High 
School. This instruction is given before and after 
school hours. Hundreds have been busy at work 
here on musical instruments. Not less than a hun- 
dred boys and girls are now under training with 
Prof. Carl Thorbahn, and we all know the good work 
done by the high school orchestra and orchestra 
school on Commencement Day and other special oc- 
casions during the year. 

Dr. McCaskey has been offered place in the 
school department and elsewhere, and has been 
urged repeatedly to be a candidate for the city and 
county superintendency, but has always declined 
these positions, his hands being full of work such as 
he preferred to be doing. Besides, he could not turn 
to the smaller field when already busy in another so 
large, so attractive, affording constant opportunity 
these many years for the gratification of his varied 
tastes, and so nuich better suited to his peculiar tal- 
ents. He has resolutely declined all calls for papers 



or addresses except on rare occasions before the 
county or city institute, the State Association, and 
■once, a few years ago, before the American Institute 
■of Instruction at Montreal. His work in the school 
room and at the printing office occupying five days 
in the week, these calls would require too much time 
in the evenings and on Saturday, which must be kept 
free for other things. He would enjoy such work, 
and would be glad to do it, but there is no time for 
it. In his business his purpose has always been never 
to make a dollar that could in any way represent loss 
■or hurt to any human being. This thought he has 
•constantly urged upon his pupils. He could readily 
have been one of the wealthy men of Lancaster, for 
he has made what most persons would regard 
'"plenty of money," but that has not been the purpose 
•of his life. To have plenty of work worth doing, 
and time and strength to get it done, are the great 
things. He seems content with either loss or profit, 
as it, so that the loss be not too heavy, and 
thinks "Both are good; which is better who can 

Dr. McCaskey was born on a farm near Gordon- 
ville, Lancaster county. Pa., Oct. 9, 1837. He comes 
•of a strong ancestry, in which Scotch-Irish pre- 
dominates, other lines being Douglas of Scotland — 
his great-great-grandfather being Archibald Doug- 
las, Davis and Piersol of Wales, Wilson of England 
•or Scotland, Eckert and others of Switzerland and 
■Germany. His mother, the most blessed influence 
•of his life, was Margaret Piersol, third daughter of 
Capt. John and Catharine (Wilson) Piersol. His 
forbears on his father's side came to America about 
1793, and on his mother's long before the Revolu- 
tionary war, in which a number of them bore an act- 
ive part. His great-grandfather, William Mc- 
Caskey, served for a time in the Briti-sh army during 
the war of the Revolution, and his grandfather, John 
McCaskey, used to tell of his pleasure, as a little 
•child, in climbing upon his father's knee on his re- 
turn from the war in America. His great-grand- 
fathers, Zaccheus Piersol and Gabriel Davis, served 
in the American army during the same war, the lat- 
ter as captain and a member of the Committee of 
Safety. John P. McCaskey is the eldest of a fam- 
ily of seven children, six of whom are still living: 
John Piersol, the subject of our sketch ; Joseph Barr, 
dentist, of Lancaster; William Spencer, colonel of 
the 20th Regiment, LT. S. Infantry, now in command 
of Fort Sheridan, near Chicago, after four' years' 
service in Cuba and the Philippines; Cyrus Davis, 
-with the B. & O. railroad, Philadelphia ; James New- 
ton, dentist, Harrisburg; and Catharine Wilson, wife 
■of James H. Marshall, assistant postmaster of Lan- 
•caster. His name has in full that of both his grand- 
fathers, and he- is the youngest of seven grandsons 
named after their grandfather John McCaskey, the 
oldest son in each of the seven families being so 
nam.ed. His father, William McCaskey, was a man 
of iron will, resolute and fearless,. of good practical 
judgm.ent and unusual executive force and ability. 

His father's family belonged to the Presbyterian and 
his mother's to the Episcopal Church. They at- 
tended service regularly at both churches, the old 
Leacock Church west of Intercourse and All Saints', 
at Paradise, which he speaks of as a fortunate ex- 
perience. He learned to read at an early age, before 
going to the old Zook school house, and was re- 
quired to read daily and much, often aloud, in the 
Bible — the' great book of the household — so that by 
the time he was ten or eleven years old and left home 
for Oak Hill Academy, and later to attend school in 
Lancaster, he was saturated with the history and 
literature of the Book. This he regards as the 
choicest blessing, after the influence of his mother 
in childhood, that has ever come into his life — a con- 
viction that grows stronger and deeper with the pass-, 
ing years. , 

In May, 1849, Dr. McCaskey came to Lancaster, 
and was for a year in the secondary school on Duke 
street, under a noted teacher, Howard Worcester 
Gilbert. He entered the Boys' High .School in 1850, 
and has been there ever since, -with exception of 
two years, one as pupil and the other as teacher. 
Here the men who most impressed him were Rev. 
John S. Crumbaugh, a man of remarkable presence 
and power, and Dr. E. E. Higbee, with whom he was 
afterward to be associated so closely and so happily 
for eight years and more of his memorable service 
as State Superintendent of Public Instruction. He 
regards these tv/o men as great teachers, and to have 
been under their inspiring influence — two of them 
for one year each and one of them for two years — 
as the best good fortune of his boyhood life in the 
school room. 

In i860 Dr. McCaskey was married to Ellen 
Margaret Chase, at Bath, N. Y. Of their seven chil- 
dren five are .still living, four sons and one daughter. 
Two of the sons, Capt. Edward William and Lieut. 
Walter Bogardus, were on duty for the past three 
years with the 21st U. S. Infantry in the Philippine 
Islands, the former as quartermaster of his regiment 
and also as depot quartermaster in Southern Luzon, 
and the latter for a time as depot commissary at 
Calamba, on the Laguna, and afterward upon the 
staff of Gen. Wheaton. Richard Douglas is a dentist 
in Lancaster. Donald Gilbert is a student in the 
Medical Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Elsa Piersol is at home. Edward is now 
sattioned at Fort Snelling, Minn., and Walter at 
Fort Lincoln, N. Dak. Dr. McCaskey talks pleas- 
antly of himself as being one of the richest men of 
the community in boys, having six sons, one of them 
a young man in the Beyond; four manly fellows, 
brave, true, capable, generous, doing good work in 
the world ; and a foster son, William S. Gordon, 
worthy to stand with the rest, who came from Rus- 
sia at sixteen years of age with no knowledge of 
English, but who has done extraordinary work in 
these twelve years, and is now a rising lawyer in the 
city of New York. Each of the boys, after graduat- 
ing from the Lancaster High School, took a course 



of training elsewhere: Edward graduating from 
West Point Military Academy in 1886, Richard 
from the Pennsylvania Dental College, Walter from 
Pennsylvania State College, and Mr. Gordon from 
Yale University and the New York Law School. 
The _ boys Walter and Donald each took the two 
years' course on the Pennsylvania Nautical School 
Ship before entering upon their college course. 

In politics Dr. McCaskey has always been a Re- 
publican, casting his first vote in i860, for Andrew 
G. Curtin as Governor of Pennsylvania, and Abra- 
ham Lincoln as President of the United States. He 
was honored with the degree of Master of Arts by 
Franklin and Marshall College, and some years 
afterward with that of Doctor of Philosophy by the 
same institution of liberal learning. Each of these 
honorary degrees came to him as a surprise. He 
had never thought of either, and says that while he 
has done little to merit them he is grateful for the 
generous courtesy which awarded them, and appre- 
ciates the personal regard which prompted the 
authorities by whom they were conferred. 

now in command of the 20th United States Infantry, 
with headquarters at Fort Sheridan, twenty-five miles 
north of Chicago, 111., was born near Paradise, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., Oct. 2, 1843. He is of a family 
well known in Lancaster city and county, two of his 
brothers being Prof. J. P. McCaskey, the well-known 
teacher and publisher, and Dr. J. B. McCaskey, 
dentist, on East King street. On the side of his fa- 
ther, William McCaskey, who was a man of iron will 
and fine executive ability, he is of strong Scotch- 
Irish stock, his grandfather having come to this coun- 
try about 1795. Among his mother's ancestors are 
Douglas and Wilson, of Scotland; Davis and Pier- 
sol, of W^ales ; Eckert and others, of Switzerland and 
Germany, all of whom came to Penns3dvania long 
before the war of the Revolution. His great-grand- 
father, William McCaskey, was a freeholder in Coun- 
ty Monaghan, Ireland, and an officer in the British 
army on duty in America during the Revolutionary 
war. Two of his maternal grandfathers, Gabriel 
Davis and Zaccheus Piersol, were officers in the 
American army. 

After removing to Lancaster, in 185.1^, the sub- 
ject of our sketch attended the public schools. In 
1859 he left the high school and was an apprentice 
for two years in the Examiner printing office, in Lan- 
caster, until the breaking out of the Civil war. While 
in this office he belonged to a military company of 
young fellows who were drilled regularly by the late 
Dr. E. K. Young. Nearly all the members of the 
company of boys who had been trained by this ear- 
nest drill-master afterward became officers in the 
army. Perhaps the most noted of them all, and cer- 
tainly the man who has seen most service — having 
been a soldier on active duty for more than forty 
years — is Col. McCaskey. 

When Fort Sumter was fired upon, April 13, 

1 86 1, and President Lincoln issued his call for sev- 
enty-five thousand men for ninety days, two com- 
panies from I-ancaster responded promptly. The 
Lancaster Fencibles, Capt. Emlen Franklin, of 
which he was one of the youngest members, not yet 
eighteen years old, and the Jackson Rifles, Capt. 
Henry A. Hambright, filled up their ranks at once, 
and left for Harrisburg April 19th, within less than 
a week from the fall of Sumter. They were sworn 
into the United States service April 20th, and be- 
came respectively F and K Cos., of the ist Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. The first sergeant of the 
Fencibles was David Miles, afterwards lieutenant- 
colonel of the 79th Regiment. On the 21st of April,, 
the regiment, with two others, under command of 
Gen. Wynkoop, was sent toward Baltimore to rein- 
force the 6th Massachusetts, which had been at- 
tacked in that city. Fort McHenry was not then 
garrisoned, and the object of the movement of the 
Pennsylvania Brigade was to attract the attention of 
the Baltimoreans in the direction of Cockeysville, in 
order that Fort McHenry, on the opposite side of the 
city, might be occupied with troops, from Wash- 

During the months of May and June the regi- 
ment guarded bridges on the Northern Central Rail- 
road, north of Baltimore, marched through Baltimore 
to Cantons, thence to Hagerstown, Md., and later 
was stationed in Frederick City as provost guard; 
after which it joined Gen. Patterson's army, at Mar- 
tinsburg, Va., and took part in the pursuit of Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston's army en route to reinforce Gen. 
Beauregard at Bull Run. Gen. Patterson's army 
halted at Charleston, W. Va., and was at that point 
during the battle of Manassas. The regiment, while 
at Charleston, volunteered to remain in the service 
beyond its term if it should be needed. The Fenci- 
bles and Rifles, who had all the while been conspicu- 
ous in the regim.ent for discipline, drill and manly 
conduct and bearing, returned from their ninety-days 
enlistment July 27th, the regiment having been mus- 
tered out at Harrisburg, and were welcomed with en- 
thusiasm by the people of Lancaster. Nearly all of 
them began immediately to plan for re-enlistment for 
three years or the war. Of the 7S,ooo men wha 
answered the first call for volunteers, but twenty 
remain on the active list of the army (March, 1903) 
as commissioned officers, and the name of Col. Mc- 
Caskey is the tenth upon this list of honor. 

Capt. Henry A. Hambrisfht, of Co. K (Lancas- 
ter Rifles), was appointed to a caotaincy in the regu- 
lar army, but was detached for the purpose of raising 
a regiment of riflemen to be accepted for three years 
or the war. The regiment was mustered into the 
service at Camp Negley, Pittsburg;, Sept. 5, 1861, as 
the 79th Pa. Vols. Nine of the ten companies were 
recruited in Lancaster county. One of these, Co. 
B, was raised by Capt. David Miles, Lieut. Drucken- 
miller and Sergt. McCaskey, who was promoted to 
second lieutenant Oct. 9, 1862, the day following- 
the battle of Perryville, having served one year as 


Ciii.oNEi, Twentieth U. S. Infantry. 



The Senate passed the following preamble and resolutions, April 6, 1903, which 
were presented by Hon. Milton Heidelbaugh, recommending Colonel William S. 
McCaskey, of Lancaster, for promotion to the rank of Brigadier General on the active 
list of the Regular Army of the United States. They were approved on the 
following day by the House of Representatives : 

Whereas, Colonel William S. McCaskey, a native of Pennsylvania, viho is now in command of 
the Twentieth Infantry, Regular Army of the United States, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, enlisted from 
Lancaster county in the war of the rebellion, as a soldier in the First Pennsylvania regiment in 1 861, 
when seventeen years of age, and at the close of the three months' campaign re-enlisted in the Seventy- 
ninth Pennsylvania regiment, serving gallantly in twenty-eight engagements in which that regiment took 
part from 1861 to 1865, never absent from his company or regiment at any time from any cause, and 
rising from the ranks to a Captaincy before he was twenty years of age ; entered the Regular Army 
shortly after the close of the war and rendered important and valuable service, always in connection 
with troops, west of the Mississippi for more than thirty years ; commanded the Twentieth regiment 
with distinction during the Spanish-American campaign ; reorganized it for the war in the Philippines ; 
was appointed for eminent fitness to garrison duty in Manila, where for nearly two years the regiment 
under his command rendered servige which General MacArthur pronounces ' ' not showy but of incal- 
culable value" ; afterwards under General Bell in Southern Luzon, where he contributed largely to the 
success of that final vigorous campaign, and 

Whereas, By gallantry in action, continuous and vigilant service for more than forty years, great 
administrative ability, energy, intelligence and high personal merit. Colonel McCaskey has honored the 
State of Pennsylvania ; and 

Whereas, Should his term of service end with the age limit of retirement, he will be the last 
man on the active list of the Regular Army from Pennsylvania and probably the last from the United 
States, who carried a rifle or bore a commission during the entire period of the Civil War ; and 

Whereas, There is a strong desire on the part of those who are acquainted with his military 
record that his signal service, both at home and abroad, should be fitly recognized ; therefore, 

Resolved (If the House of Representatives concur) that the Legislature of Pennsylvania recom- 
mend to His Excellency, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, that Colonel William S. 
McCaskey, in recognition of his services, at the earliest day practicable, be promoted to be a Brigadier 
General on the active list in the Regular Army of the United States. 

Resolved, That a certified copy of the foregoing preambles and resolutions be forwarded to His 
Excellency, the President of the United States. 

— Pennsylvania Legislative Record. 



first sergeant. He was made first lieutenant April 
lo, 1863 ; captain July i, 1863, and was mustered out 
with his company July 12, 1865. 

With the 77th and 78th Regiments and a light 
battery, the 79th Regiment formed what was known 
as Negley's Brigade of Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
The brigade embarked at Pittsburg and was sent to 
Louisville in October, 1861, where it was reported 
to General William T. Sherman. It formed part 
of the advance to Green River, Ky., and during the 
spring of 1862 was detached and started to the relief 
of Gen. Grant at Fort Donelson, Tenn. Its services 
not being needed, it returned to the Army of the 
Ohio. During the advance on Nashville, and toward 
Shiloh, it was detached and stationed at Columbia, 
Tenn., forming part of Mitchell's flying division. In 
June, 1862, they made a movement, over two ranges 
of mountains, and in concert with troops from Hunts- 
ville, Ala., feigned an attack on Chattanooga, thereby 
causing the evacuation on Cumberland Gap by the 
Confederates, and permitting its occupancy by Fed- 
eral troops. This was the first movement toward 
East Tennessee. In September the brigade retired 
to Nashville, with Gen. Buell's armv. and was known 
thereafter as Starkweather's Brigade. 

After a year of hard service, in which these mfen 
of the Keystone saw much of Kentucky on long and 
hurried marches, and were drilled into a magnifi- 
cent fighting organization, the 79th had its awful 
baptism of fire at Perryville, or Chaplin Hills, Ky. 
In this bloody engagement, which was a close stand- 
up fight, without cover, the regiment lost one-third 
of its strength in killed and wounded. 

Starkweather's Brigade, of Rousseau's Division, 
to which this regiment belonged, stood like a rock 
in the way of the Rebel advance, and saved the day 
when the enemy came, driving everything before 
them, confident of victory. Five men were shot by 
the side of First Sergt. McCaskey, but the shorten- 
ing line closed up and thev held their ground, bitins? 
cartridges until tongues and throats were so black 
and dry they could hardly speak. More than 50,000 
troops were engaged in this desperately contested 
battle, the importance of which has not been general- 
ly recognized. Gen. Bragg, with the memories of 
Shiloh fresh in his mind, wrote : "For the time en- 
gaged, it was the severest and most desperately con- 
tested engagement .within mv knowledge." Gen. 
McCook declared it to be "The bloodiest battle of 
modern times for the numbers engaged on our side.' 
Of less than 13.000 troops of the 1st Corps engaged, 
2,299 — more than one-fourth — were killed, wounded 
and missing. The brigade took part in the pursuit 
of Bragg's army, having the usual rearguard fight- 
ing. , . , . 

This was followed bv incessant marchmg, skir- 
mishing, fighting — Murfreesboro, Chattanooga, 
Chickamauga. On Dec. 31, 1862. and Jan. i, 2, 3, 
1863, the battle of Stone River, or Murfreesboro, was 
fought, and the regiment did its full share of duty, 
whatever was required of it. It formed part of 

Rousseau's ist Division, 14th Army Corps, under 
Gen. Thomas. It participated in the Tullahoma cam- 
paign, having several engagements. It was also> 
in the Chickamauga campaign and was engaged 
in that battle for two days, suffering heavily. 
It was identified with Gen. Baird's division, stilt 
the 1st of the 14th Corps. The division held, 
the key point of the line on Sunday, Sept. 21, 1863^ 
and remained in line until ordered to retire. 
The 14th Army Corps, under Gen. Thomas, ever 
afterward known as "the Rock of Chicka- 
mauga," saved the army from rout in that great bat- 
tle. The 79th also passed through the siege and 
starvation experience of Chattanooga, from Septem- 
ber to November, 1863. 

The 79th went into the battle of Chickamauga 
with seventeen officers and 350 men, of whom six- 
teen were killed, sixty-six wounded and forty- 
seven missing, an aggregate of 129. An inci- 
dent occurred here which we have heard repeatedly- 
spoken of, showing the coolness of Capt. McCaskey 
in the midst of the greatest danger. As they lay 
on the firing line, protected by almost nothing in. 
the way of earthworks, the line of the enemy just 
beyond, and each firing to kill any who might be 
exposed, he saw that two of his men had been wound- 
ed by the tin cases from a gun in the rear firing grape 
and canister at point blank range. He got up, 
walked back to the commanding officer, then to the 
gun, had its position changed, then to his place in 
the line and lay down unharmed, all the while a con- 
spicuous mark, the bullets raining about him, and' 
many of them no doubt aimed directly at him. He 
seemed to bear a charmed life, for, though present in 
each of the twenty-eight battles in which the regi- 
ment was engaged (never absent from the regiment 
at anv time for any cause) , and constantly on active 
duty, he was never wounded. Bullets cut his cloth- 
ing, spent balls hit him, and he was knocked dowrt 
by the impact of a cannon ball striking the timbers- 
near his head, but he was never hurt. 

In March, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted, and 
came home to Lancaster for a furlough of thirty 
days. Returning to Chattanooga, they joined Gen, 
Sherman's army May 7th, and within an hour par- 
ticipated in the first charge made upon the enemy's, 
works on Rocky Ridge, Ga. During the next four 
months the regiment took part in all the movements- 
and battles of the 14th Army Corps, including Buz- 
zard's Roost, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Chattahoochie, Peach Tree Creek,. 
Atlanta, July 22d and 28th, and closing with the bat- 
tle of Jonesboro, Ga., Aug. 31, 1864. During these 
four months there was hardly a day that the regi- 
ment was not under fire. 

On July 2ist, 1864, Capt. McCaskey performed 
exactly the same service on a different part of the 
Peach Tree Creek battlefield for which the late Gen. 
Lawton and the present Gen. Baldwin were 
granted medals of honor. He led the charge 
of the regiment, though there were many senior, offi- 



cers present, and they were successful in capturing 
the enemy's works. The 79th Pennsylvania and the 
2 1 St Ohio were ordered to charge the works. Capt. 
McBride, then in temporary command of the 79th 
Regiment, asked Capt. McCaskey to lead the charge 
with his company, saying it was also the wish of the 
older captains that he should do this. He knew the 
risk, but accepted it promptly, and led right over the 
entrenchments, several paces in advance of old Co. 
B, which followed him with cheers, the whole line 
rushing forward, as Co. B set the pace. They suc- 
ceeded in driving out the enemy. Nearly all the 
medals of honor mentioned in the army register are" 
for similar or less dangerous acts of distinguished 
gallantry. One of the several brevets for which he 
was recommended was for this charge at Peach 
Tree Creek. 

The 79th formed part of the ist Division, 14th 
Army Corps, on Sherman's famous March to the 
Sea, engaged in the siege of Savannah, Ga., and ac- 
companied the same army on its march through the 
Carolinas. engaging in the battles of Averysboro and 
Bentonville, N. C, in the last of which the regiment 
lost heavily. In the latter part of this engagement 
it was commanded by Capt. McCaskey. This was 
the last engagement of any importance between the 
armies of Gens. Sherman and Johnson. The regi- 
ment proceeded to Richmond and thence to Wash- 
ington, where it participated in the grand review in 
May, 1865, and was then mustered out of the ser- 
vice, July 12, 1865. 

From the 19th of April, 1861, until July 26, 1865, 
with the exception of a few weeks in 1861, he was 
■continuously in the service. He was prornoted from 
second lieutenant to first lieutenant and from that 
to a captaincy in quick succession, the latter com- 
mission dating July i, 1863. He was seventeen 
years and six months old when he entered the ser- 
vice,' and was a captain before he was twenty years 
of age. He was never absent from his company or 
regiment when it was engaged in battle or campaign- 
ing, and has lost but one month from sickness in 
more than forty years. This was during the late ser-- 
vice in the Philippines, when the doctors told him 
he must quit or die. 

After the close of the war, like many another, 
Captain McCaskey looked about for something to 
do in civil life. One day, early in 1866, Thaddeus 
Stevens, Jr., came into the office of Dr. McCaskey, 
to say that his uncle, the "Old Commoner," had 
asked him whether there was any one whom he 
would like to have appointed second lieutenant in 
the regular army; that he had an appointment to 
make, and would name any friend whom he would 
recommend. "Young Thad." wished Captain Mc- 
Caskey appointed, vnth whom he had served as a 
private in the Fencibles, and whom he knew as a 
brave and skillful officer. It was some days before 
a letter was sent to him at Poughkeepsie, where he 
was then at Eastman's Business College, and before 
a reply was received Mr. Stevens called again, say- 

ing that his uncle must make the appointment within 
two or three days. He was much surprised and 
gratified at the offer of a commission. He had not 
thought of this, but it seemed the thing that fit his 
case exactly, and it had come to him as a gift from a 
friend. He received his commission in the regular 
army April 26, 1866, and has passed through all the 
grades up to his present rank. He has filled with 
marked efficiency every position in line or staff that 
was open to him. From April, 1866, until April, 
1898, he served on the frontier in Dakota, Montana, 
Minnesota, Texas and Missouri. He has been as- 
sociated with troops continuously during his forty 
and more years of service. He was never on ordin- 
ary staff duty, and has commanded troops and served 
with them a longer period than any other officer now 
on the active list. He was selected for duty on the 
staff of the governor of Illinois, and again on that 
of the governor of Wisconsin, as Instructor and In- 
spector, but was relieved at his own request, for the 
reason that he could not afford to live in a city with 
his large family. He has been on duty at many forts 
and distant posts in the Northwest, some of which 
are now thriving cities. In 1876 he succeeded Gen. 
Custer in command of Fort Abraham Lincoln, near 
Bismarck, N. D., when that dashing cavalry officer 
started on his fatal campaign against the Indians in 
the Big Horn mountains. We have heard him say 
that the hardest thing he has ever had to do was- to 
tell Mrs. Custer and the ladies of the post the awful 
news of the disaster, that came during the night, 
brought down the river by a scout to him as the of- 
ficer in command of the post. 

At the outbreak of the Spanish-American war 
the 20th Infantry was ordered to the Gulf. It left 
Fort Leavenworth April 19, 1898, and went into 
camp at Mobile. Col. Hawkins and Lieut. Col. 
Wheaton, of the regiment, were both made brigadier 
generals of volunteers, and the command devolved 
upon Major McCaskey. He took the regiment to 
Cuba, and was present, in command, day and night, 
in the battle of El Caney and during the dreadful 
experiences of the campaign before and after the cap- 
ture of Santiago. In his official report he says : 
"The effective strength of the regiment at the begin- 
ning of the first day's fight, Julv ist, was 23 of- 
ficers and 570 enlisted men," and gives a detailed 
account of movements, duty and casualties, with 
very courteous individual mention of officers of the 
command. He adds : "The non-commissioned 
staff and other enlisted men of the regiment sus- 
tained the reputation of the army for fortitude, in- 
telligent performance of duty, and ability to endure 
under privations. They were cool under fire or in 
the charge, were under perfect discipline at all times, 
and showed remarkable ingenuity in the construc- 
tion of entrenchments, the lines of which were main- 
ly built with bayonets, meat ration cans or tin cups." 

In a racy little book, "What I Saw in Cuba," Burr 
Mcintosh, among other things, pavs many compli- 
ments to the officers of the 20th Regiment. He went 



to Cuba on their transport, and when the regiment 
was landed managed to swim ashore, contrary to 
Gen; Shatter's orders in regard to newspaper men. 
He says : "I started inland in search of Gen. Bates 
and his command. A number of camp fires were 
glowing along the roadside in front of the lines of 
tents pitched by the men of the 20th and the 3d, the 
Independent Brigade commanded by Gen. Bates. As 
I approached them almost the first man I met was 
Major McCaskey. Aboard ship he had always been 
the essence of courtesy and kindness, but I knew he 
was a strict disciplinarian, and it was with some 
hesitation I ventured within a few yards of his camp 
fire. He recognized the figure, and with a stern 
look asked ; 'How did you get ashore ?' I removed 
my hat, bowed and answered, 'Please, sir, I fell off 
the side of the boat. They tried to rescue me, but 
there were no loose ropes, so I had to swim in.' After 
this edifying explanation I was invited to partake of 
the evening meal, which was being prepared for him 
and two of his officers. I remember this most be- 
cause of the fact that it was the only one I enjoyed 
during my stay in Cuba." 

From Cuba Major McCaskey took the regiment 
to Montauk Point for some weeks, and from there 
back to the old headquarters at Fort Leavenworth. 
Like all the other regiments from Cuba, the 20th 
returned a wreck, and he at once set about and com- 
pleted the work of reorganization. His own health 
had by this time been so much impaired that he was 
ordered on a long sick leave, and was about to go 
to southern California when orders were received 
for the regiment to start for the Philippines. Of 
course, he did not accept the leave, but took the four 
weeks' voyage to Luzon instead. They left Leaven- 
worth Jan. 21, 1899. 

Col. Elwell S. Otis, who was in command of the 
army in the Philippines, with headquarters at Ma- 
nila, needed a strong garrison in the turbulent city, 
and chose for this important service his own old regi- 
ment, the 20th United States Infantry, of which he 
had been colonel for more than thirteen years. It was 
now commanded by his intimate personal friend. Col. 
McCaskey, with whom he had- been pleasantly associ- 
ated all these years, and in whose vigilance and abil- 
ity in this trying situation he had the fullest con- 
fidence. The regiment was held here for nearly two 
years, and kept the great city of two or three hun- 
dred thousand people in order by vigilant service at 
all hours of the day and night, though conflagration 
and uprising were all the while threatened. This 
service was of a special character and of the utmost 
importance, and the 20th was held as the garrison 
regiment during the administrations of both Gen. 
Otis and Gen. MacArthur. , 

Manila was under strict martial law, the curfew 
regulation was in force and the duties that confronted 
the regiment were both delicate and important. It 
was absolutely necessary to prevent the disaffected 
natives from getting together to form organizations 
and cause disturbance. At the same time, upon the 

cosmopolitan inhabitants martial law must be admin- 
istered without imnecessary harshness, friction or 
oppression. There were no tribunals, either civil or 
criminal in existence, except the provost police 
courts. All disputes of every kind had to be decided 
temporarily, at least, off-hand, by the military police 
captains at the various stations, or by Colonel Mc- 
Caskey, who was chief in command. In addition 
to the police duties assigned to it the regiment acted 
for a time as a reserve to the forces in the trenches, 
and was frequently called upon, and for months was 
held in constant readiness by day or night to re- 
spond promptly to any orders, either to reinforce a 
threatened point without or promptly to put down 
disturbance within. The protection of all the high 
officials and of trains on the railroad, the care and 
guarding of all prisoners, both civil and military, 
looking after ladrones and others in the suburbs and 
elsewhere, the safety of the immense depots of sup- 
plies, and especially of the Maestranza Arsenal, 
which was the focus of all insurgent plans, and the 
enforcing of Customs regulations, were all a part of 
the duty of this regiment. 

The 20th Infantry had been recommended by 
Gen. Otis to be sent to China in 1900, as a repre- 
sentative organization. Gen. MacArthur also wished 
it to go, but he found it impossible at that time to 
take it from the duty in Manila with which it was 
so familiar, and he would not risk a change at that 
important juncture. In a personal note to Col. Mc- 
Caskey, dated March 18, 1902, Gen. MacArthur 
says : "I congratulate you heartily upon your re- 
turn from the Philippines. I appreciate very warmly 
all the good work done by your regiment, especially 
in Manila. It was not showy, but of incalculable 
value. Nobody knows that fact so well as Gen. 
Otis and myself. We felt absolutely dependent upon 
the garrison of Manila, and knew that everything 
would be secure in the hands of your regiment." 

The regiment was relieved from duty in Manila 
toward the end of January, 1901, and ordered to 
northern Luzon, where it was kept busy for some 
months in field duty and cleared the region of armed 
insurgents. At the time of leaving Manila it num- 
bered 1,500 men, exclusive of officers. Civil gov- 
ernment being organized in the north, the 20th was 
ordered south into Laguna and Batangas provinces, 
with headquarters at Tanauan._ The service here 
was very trying. Nearly evervbody was busy on 
scouting and other duty to keep the insurgents on the 
move. When, in December, 1901, Gen, J. F. Bell 
ordered his famous protection policy of concentra- 
tion camps, it was welcome news for the regiments 
operating here, for both officers and men saw an end 
to their thankless and often fruitless expeditions 
through almost impassable tropical jungles and 
swamps, under burning suns or torrential rains. Im- 
mediate steps were taken by Col. McCaskey to carry 
out the policy in his jurisdiction, and the large camp 
of 18,000 or more people which he organized at Tan- 
auan was pronounced by Gens. Wheaton and Bell 



the model concentration camp of the provinces. The 
humane and effective system here carried out, — the 
people well fed, well cared for, with constant occu- 
pation, under constant, sanitary inspection and medi- 
-cal care, — had much to do with the final collapse of 
-the rebellion in these very troublesome provinces. 
If the 20th did one thing better than another during 
its three years' service in the Philippines it was the 
masterly way in which it carried out the new Ameri- 
can Protection Policy, which culminated early in 
April in the surrender of Gen. Malvar and his entire 
command, thus ending the revolution not only in Ba- 
tangas Province, but also in the Philippine Islands. 
The general plan and scheme followed in these camps 
were formed by Col. William S. McCaskey. To 
-carry out his instructions he detailed a very efHcient 
officer, Capt. H. C. Hale, ably assisted by Lieut. A. 
M. Shipp and others. 

When a lieutenant in the Northwest Col. Mc- 
Caskey married Miss Nellie Garrison, of Detroit. 
Their children are four sons and two daughters, all 
•of whom are living. Two of them. Garrison and 
Douglas, are first lieutenants in the regular service, 
the first in the 25th Infantry and the second in the 
4th Cavalry. Both won their commissions in the 
■Cuban war, Douglas having special honorable men- 
tion for gallantry in the desoerate charge at San Juan 
July I, 1898. Garrison, after his school course, grad- 
uated from the Pennsylvania Nautical School Ship 
""Saratoga," in iSt).'^, having made four cruises. He 
■was also cadet on Pacific Mail Steamship, 1896 and 
1897, served in quartermaster's department, 1897- 
•98, was in the battles of El Caney and Santiago, saw 
■much active service in the Philippines, rescued two 
soldiers from drowning, in Luzon, at night, com- 
manded army gunboats, 1901-02, escorted troops to 
Pekin, China, 1902, and is at present senior aid on the 
staff of Gen. Lee in Batangas province, Luzon. His 
third son, Douglas, served in the 4th United States 
•Cavalry at Fort Walla Walla, Wash., and Yellow- 
stone Park, Wyoming, 1894 to 1897, was agent of 
■quartermaster's department in 1898, saw hard service 
in Cuba and the Philippines, and is now on duty at 
Fort Leavenworth as squadron adjutant of the regi- 
ment. The eldest son, Hiram Dryer, after graduating 
from the Lancaster High School in 1889 and Lehigh 
University in 1893, with the degree of mining engi- 
neer — his thesis being selected for the exhibit of the 
University at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893 — was 
assayer at the Boston Copper Smelting Works at 
■Great Falls, Montana, 1893-95, and instructor at 
Yeates Institute, Lancaster, and Military Schools at 
Mt. Holly, Miss., and San Mateo, Cal. In 1900 he 
■went to Manila, and is now engineer and assayer in 
•charge of the Department of Mines, Philippine Isl- 
ands, and is a very competent man in his special line 
•of work. The youngest son, Charles, was given his 
-choice to remain at the University of Kansas or go 
with his father to the Philippines. He preferred to 
■go with the regiment, and was in the action at 
Guadeloupe Church, Luzon, 1899, as a civilian. He 

has been on duty in the Customs Department, Manila, 
since April, 1899, and is now Deputy Surveyor of the 
port of Manila. The eldest daughter, Margaret, is 
married to Caotain William H. Chapman, of the reg- 
ular service, and the youngest, Eleanor, is unmar- 

Col. McCaskey has a unique record. He is Lan- 
caster county's most noted living soldier. In length 
of service he ranks first of all her brave sons whom 
she has at any time sent forth to military duty. In 
value of service his career is perhaps second only to 
that of Gen. John F. Reynolds, who must always 
stand as our foremost representative man in the army 
of the United States. He was the youngest major in 
the regular service, and is still, we think, the young- 
est officer of his rank in the army. He is a man of 
high honor, excellent habits and irreproachable char- 
acter, who enjoys the respect and confidence of the 
officers and men pi his command. He is the inti- 
mate personal friend, for almost a generation, of 
such men as Gen. Otis, Gen. Bates, Gen. Wheaton, 
Gen. MacArthur and others of their class, who give 
tone to the best element in the army. He has the 
reputation of being one of the most strict of disci- 
plinarians, but at the same time most watchful of 
the interests and well-being of his officers and men 
of all ranks. His work has been commended, and he 
has been recommended for promotion by every gen- 
eral officer and every regimental and post command- 
er under whom he has served since he entered in the 
regular army, in 1866, dozens of "such papers being 
on file in the War Department. Amonsf general of- 
ficers who have commended him, some of them in 
strongest terms, are Gens. Sykes, Terry, Stanley, 
Otis, MacArthur, Chaffee, Wheaton, Bates, Patter- 
son, Holabird, Davis (N. H.), Du Barry, Greene 
and others. He has been commended by all depart- 
ment inspectors and in all efficiency reports made by 
regimental or post commanders under whom he has 
served. He has never been in arrest, tried or ad- 
monished, has never been reported for non-payment 
of debts, is not addicted to the use of intoxicants nor 
to any other evil habit of army or social life. He is 
a courteous gentleman, a man of domestic tastes and 
habits, and it is a fortunate regiment that has such 
a man for its commanding officer, fortunate no less 
for officers than men. He could retire with the star 
of the Brigadier tmder the recent act of Congress, 
and that is now practically his rank in the army 
whenever he chooses to accept it. But he should be 
a Brigadier in active service rather than on the re- 
tired list. He has earned this honorable rank, and 
it can come to no man more worthily. He could 
have retired some time since on "term of service," 
but, being a man of unusual mental and physical 
vigor, he; has had no wish to do so. Should he live 
tmtil the age of retirement under the law, he will 
have the unique distinction of being the last officer, 
the last man, in the regular army who carried a rifle 
or bore a commission under the flag in the great war 
of the Rebellion. 



tenant in the 21st U. S. Infantry, was born in Lan- 
caster, Pa., Dec. 8, 1873. He is the fourth 
son of Dr. J. P. McCaskey, principal of the 
Lancaster High School and publisher of the 
Pennsylvania School Journal. After graduating 
irom the Boys' High School of Lancaster he was 
for two years on the Pennsylvania Nautical School 
Ship "Saratoga," taking the first prize for general 
•efficiency by common consent of the officers and ca- 
dets. Lieut. Sims, of the U. S. Navy, instructor in 
■navigation, endorsed him as "capable of sailing a ship 
to any part of the world." In climbing the ropes, 
setting and furling sails, and all other work of the 
ship, and in boxing, wrestling, rowing, swimming, he 
was easily "at the top." His quick grasp of a situa- 
tion, rapid decision and execution, here as later in the 
ioot-ball and military work made him always a leader. 
Prom the ship he went to the Millersville Normal 
School for review and to make some special prepara- 
tion for college. Here he found a kindred spirit in 
Prof. Pinkham, and did much work during the year 
in the gymnasium, among other things learning the 
■double trapeze act under his instruction. Prof. P. 
rated him "the most remarkable young man of his 
acquaintance, absolutely honest, and without fear." 
Hie was afterward for four vears at the Pennsylvania 
State College, for the last two years of the course in 
the special department of electrical engineering, tak- 
ing the highest cash prize in calculus at the end of 
the Sophomore year, and standing at the head of his 
■class in mathematics and in other departments at 
graduation. He was quarterback and captain of the 
well-known State College foot-ball team, with the 
reputation of being one of the best quarterbacks in 
the United States. He was recognized by all as the 
most skillful and daring athlete at State College, his 
career here being one of the traditions of the College. 
One of the best games on Franklin field, Philadelphia, 
in 1805, was between the University of Pennsylvania 
3,nd the State College teams. University of Penn- 
sylvania had not been scored against before during 
the season. The umpire, Williams, of Yale, said in 
the Press: "I never saw a team play more honest 
foot-ball than did State College." The Record said, 
""the cleanest, hardest game on Franklin field this 
year." The Ledger: "McCaskey, the captain and 
quarterback, is as quick as lightning, a clean passer, 
a splendid tackier and interferes finely." His games 
-were always fair and clean because he would not 
tolerate anvthing else. After a long and rigid inspec- 
tion drill of the State College battalion of three hun- 
dred cadets by the U. S. Army inspector, the Com- 
mandant was directed to name him first for honorable 
mention from this college in the United States Army 
register. "I can't do that." "Why not ?" "He is my 
brother." "Oh, name him second then." After grad- 
uating with distinction in the special department of 
electrical engineering, he entered the railroad ser- 
vice, for a time in the freight department, and after- 
ward in the steam-gauging and draughting depart- 

ments of the Pennsylvania railroad shops at Wil- 
mington during the day, and on duty as a student of 
medicine and in microscopic analysis at night in the 
office of Dr. J. W. Crumbaugh, one of the leading 
physicians of Wilmington. 

When the Spanish-American war broke out he 
enlisted in Capt. Whitson's company from Lancaster, 
of which he was afterward unanimously elected sec- 
ond lieutenant, and in which he served with such effi- 
ciency and such universal endorsement of the rank 
and file of the company as is seldom accorded to an 
officer, especially to one so young. This company was 
a part of Col. D. B. Case's 4th Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, and saw active service in Porto Rico. He 
was appointed by President McKinley as one of the 
five lieutenants apportioned to Pennsylvania in the 
increase of the regular army. In the written examin- 
ation to which these appointees were subjected *at 
Fortress Monroe, which lasted for a week, and cov- 
ered twelve or fourteen important branches, he took 
the second place on the list of more than a hundred 
officers examined. Because of this high rank which 
was especially gratifying to Hon. Marriott Brosius, 
by whom he had been named to the President, he was 
offered a commission in the cavalry arm of the ser- 
vice, but his preference was for the 21st Regiment of' 
Infantry, in which an older brother was serving as 
Captain. He joined the regiment near Manila and 
saw much active duty about Laguna de Bale (the 
large lake from which the Pasig river flows) and in 
the southern provinces of Luzon. He served for a 
time on the staff of Gen. Wheaton, and also as de- 
partment commissary at Calamba, though he would 
have much preferred service in the field, during the 
active operations of Gen. Bell in Laguna and Batan- 
gas. He was a first-class "duty man" always, and 
with no unfortunate habits of any sort. In the 
Manila American of May i, 1901, we find an account 
of a heroic rescue of one of his men quite in character 
with this young officer: "Gen. Cailles was being 
hard pressed by our troops, made up of detachments 
from the garrisons on the Laguna in the vicinity of 
Santa Cruz. Scouting parties reported the enemy en- 
camped in a barrio about seven miles north of Cavinti. 
Acting on this information Lieut. McCaskey was sent 
out to learn if there was any chance for an ambus- 
cade. After hiking over various trails, through deep 
gorges and ravines peculiar to the country, the small 
party came to the bank of a mountain stream which, 
it seemed, must be crossed. The current was very 
swift, and the officer, telling his men to wait until 
he had found a safe fording place, plunged in to try 
the stream. He is a powerful swimmer, one of the 
best in the army, and at home in the water. Inspired 
by his apparent disregard of danger and wishing to 
be with him, if needed on the other side, three of his 
men plunged after him, without thought of the depth 
of the water or the weight of their accoutrements. 
They were at once swept away by the current. On 
looking around he saw their peril, and turned to save 
the nearest man, who caught him about the waist. 



but tearing himself loose, he landed him safely on the 
bank. In the meantime the other two had sunk, and 
it was a question how far they had gone down stream 
with the rapid current. Passing the apparently 
drowned man over to others of the command who had 
come up, and giving them hurried instructions in re- 
gard to restoring him to life, without pausing for 
breath, the young officer, relying on his skill and 
strength as a swimmer, repeatedly dived into the river 
in different places in the hope of rescuing his men. It 
was fruitless, however, and at last he was forcibly 
held back from making further attempts. Their 
bodies were afterward found and given hasty burial 
on the bank. Lieut. McCaskey deserves especial 
recognition for his heroic work, and his many friends 
in Manila and at home will be glad to learn that he 
has suffered nothing from his desperate effort to save 
the lives of his men." 

After the surrender of Gen. Cailles he happened 
one day at Calamba to see Lieut. McCaskey, and rec- 
ognized him as the officer who, at a critical moment, 
had saved the life of his chief of staff, to whom he 
was much attached. He was very ardent and earnest 
in the expression of his gratitude. Since his return 
from the Philippines (1902) he has been stationed at 
,Fort Yates and Fort Lincoln, near Bismarck, N. 
Dak. He was married in 1899 to Miss Edna Mc- 
Clelland, of Beech Creek, Clinton Co., Pa. His 
name Bogardus is that of a maternal ancestor. Domi- 
nie Everardus Bogardus, who came from Holland in 
1633, the second clergyman of New Amsterdam, now 
the city of New York. He came over in the ship 
"Zoutberg" with Gov. Wouter Van Twiller, and is 
described, in the "Annals of Old Manhattan," as a 
"tall and stately man of high character and hot tem- 
per." He was a powerful personality in the province 
and so relentless in denunciation from the pulpit of 
the excesses of Van Twiller and Keift, the first two 
Dutch governors, that the old record tells how on one 
occasion Keift ordered the drums to be beaten during 
the sermon to drown the preacher's voice. The first 
church was built for him in 1633, on Pearl street, be- 
tween the present lines of Broad and Whitehall, and 
into it the congregation of fifty members was trans- 
ferred from the "mill-tower" where service had pre- 
viously been held. In 1639 he married Anneke Jans, 
in whose right the Bogardus heirs long claimed cer- 
tain valuable property belonging to the Trinity 
Church corporation in New York. Their descend- 
ants have multiplied to many thousands. The ship 
in which he sailed for Holland Aug. 16, 1647, to 
lay his difference with Keift before the Classis of 
Amsterdam, was named "The Princess," and was 
wrecked on the coast of Wales. About one hundred 
of the passengers were drowned, including "both Gov. 
Keift and Dominie Bogardus. Cornelius Bogardus, 
son of Everardus, was baptized Sept. 9, 1640. He 
married Rachel Dewitt. Their son Cornelius, born 
Jan. 5, 1698, married Catharine Tuoor Dec. 23, 1722. 
They had thirteen children, of whom Cornelius, third 
son, married Marry Philips. John, the fourth of 

their five children, married Elizabeth Lawson Jan^ 
20, 1783. Cornelius, the eldest of their nine children^ 
married Margaret Long Sept. 8, 1808. Of their six 
children, Sarah, the eldest daughter, was married to- 
Asa H. Chase Feb. 24, 1835. Of their three children, 
Ellen Margaret, the eldest, was married to John P. 
McCaskey at Bath, N. Y., Aug. 8, i860, and of their 
seven children Walter Bogardus is the fourth son. 

Asa H. Chase, his maternal grandfather, the eld- 
est of nine children, was born July 21, 1809, and had 
the reputation, when a young man, of being one of 
the best stage drivers in western New York ; in the- 
stage vernacular of that early day, "able to cut a fly 
off the ear of his lead horse." He was afterward a 
well-known passenger conductor on the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, always a good churchman, and a mam 
of sterling charaJcter. He married Sarah C. Bo- 
gardus Feb. 24, 1835. His father, Caleb Chase, borm 
April II, 1781, the oldest of three children, was a 
stonemason, noted for great strength, activity and 
skill in athletics. He married Barthenia Harris, of 
Connecticut, an estimable woman, the memory of 
whose virtues yet survives. His father, Joshua 
Chase, was born May 25, 1722, was married twice 
and had eight children in all. Caleb was the eldest 
son by the second marriage. The father of Joshua- 
was Benjamin Chase, born July 15, 1682, the fourth 
of six children ; he married Mercy Simmons June 23,. 
1703. He was the son of Benjamin Chase, Sr., 
youngest of three children, born in 1639, who mar- 
ried Philippe Sherman. William Chase and his wife 
Mary came to Massachusetts from England in 1630, 
just ten years after the landinsr of the Plymouth col- 
ony. On the records of the first church in Roxbury,. 
now Boston Highlands, is the following minute, sup- 
posed to be in the handwriting of Rev. John Eliot, 
com.monly called the Apostle to the Indians, who 
was the first pastor of that church : "William Chase 
came with the first company (1630), bringing with 
him his wife Mary and his oldest son William." He 
died in May, 1659, at Yarmouth. These lines of de- 
scent have been carefully kept in church records, the 
old family Bibles, and also, on the Bogardus side, 
through the claim, for generations, upon the Trinity 
Church property. Heredity is the first important fac- 
tor in the makeup of any man, environment the sec- 
ond. It is very interesting to trace lines of worthy 
descent, and we add these paragraphs here that they 
may go into this record of biographical annals. 

JOHN GANTNER, born in Lancaster July 4, 
1 76 1, enlisted at the age of seventeen in the company- 
of Capt. John Hubeley, and marched under his com- 
mand to Shamokin (now Sunbury) , to assist in re- 
pelling Indian attacks on the settlers. After sus- 
taining the hardships of a winter campaign on the- 
Susquehanna; he returned to Lancaster and was- 
discharged. He afterward joined Colonel Armand's 
corps, and served two years, when he was discharged. 
He then enlisted in Capt. Sharp's company of 
dragoons, and was on the march to Yorktown, when 



the news of the surrender of Cornwallis was re- 
ceived and they_ turned back. The date of the death 
of this Revolutionary hero has not been preserved. 

WILLIAM R. WILSON. The profession of 
law when clothed with its true dignity and purity 
and strength, must rank first among the callings of 
men, for law rules the universe. The work of the 
legal profession is to formulate, to harmonize, to 
regulate, to adjust and to administer those rules and 
principles that underlie and permeate all govern- 
ment and society, and control the varied relations of 
man. As thus viewed, there attaches to the legal 
profession a nobleness that cannot but be reflected 
in the life of the true lawyer, who, conscious of the 
dignity and distinction of his profession, and honest 
in the pursuit of his purpose, embraces the richness 
of learning, the profoundness of wisdom, the firm- 
ness of integrity and the purity of morals, together 
with the graces of modesty, courtesy and the general 
amenities of life. Of this type of the profession was 
Mr. Wilson, who stood among the eminent members 
of the Bar of Lancaster county, and whose life was 
one of signal usefulness and honor in all its relations. 
In his private life he was distinguished by all that 
marks the true gentleman. His was a noble charac- 
ter, one that subordinated personal ambition to pub- 
lic good, and sought rather the benefit of others than 
the aggrandizement of self. He was the architect 
of his own fortunes, and his success was niost 
worthily achieved. Endowed with high intellectual 
qualities, to which were added the embellishments 
and discipline of culture, his was a most attractive 
personality. Well versed in the learning of his pro- 
fession, and with a deep knowledge of the well- 
springs of human thought and action, with great 
sagacity and extraordinary tact, he gained prestige 
as one of the representative members of the Pennsyl- 
vania Bar, which he honored with his life and 
ser\nces. He was summoned from the field of life's 
activities Feb. 26, 1901, and in the city of Lancaster, 
where he had maintained his home for more than half 
a century, his death came as a personal bereavement 
to the community, while it was fully realized that 
an able lawyer and a noble man had passed to his 
reward, in the fullness of years and well earned 

The great-grandfather of William R. Wilson 
was of Scotch-Irish extraction, and his grandfather 
was born in New York, near the Canadian line, and 
he eventually removed thence to Amity, Berks 
Co., Pa., where he married a Miss DeHart, who was 
a near relative of the Boone family, of which the 
celebrated frontiersman, Daniel Boone, was a mem- 
ber. The grandfather of our subject was a trader 
in furs, a line of enterprise much in vogue in the 
early days, and his children were two in number, 
namely : Sarah, who became the wife of R. Ringler ; 
and John, the father of the subject of this memoir. 
John Wilson was born in Amity township, Berks 
county, in 1792, and was there reared. About 1814 

he removed to Reamstown, Lancaster county, where 
he passed the residue of his life, his death occurring 
Oct. 28, 1854, at which time he was sixty-two years 
of age. John Wilson was a self-made man in the 
best sense of the term. Though his early educational 
advantages were of the most meager sort, by per- 
sonal application and well directed study he became 
a man of learning and broad mental grasp. He was- 
one of the first men to open an English. school in that 
section of Lancaster county of which Reamstown is 
the center, and he was for many years a successful 
teacher, not only of children, but also of young men 
and women, for that locality was at that time almost 
entirely given to the German language, which Mr. 
Wilson acquired most thoroughly, thus enabling 
himself successfully to instruct his pupils in the 
English. In 1825 he was commissioned justice of 
the peace by Governor Andrew Shulze, and for fif- 
teen years he conducted a large and important busi- 
ness in this line, The office then became elective, 
and he was chosen by popular vote as incumbent of 
the same for another decade, thus serving as justice 
for a consecutive period of a quarter of a century. 
He was also a scrivener from 1825 until the time of 
his death. He served as major in the State militia 
in the early days, and was one of the commissioners 
at the division of the Cocalicos. He was a stanch 
supporter of the Democratic party, and was at one 
time a candidate on its ticket for representative in 
the lower house of the State Legislature. He was 
a man of lofty integrity, and was highly respected 
and much loved in the community where he passed 
so many years of his long and useful life. 

In November, 18 15, at Reamstown, John Wilson 
married Miss Lydia Rhoads, who preceded him into 
eternal rest, her death occurring March 9, 1846, and 
both are interred in the churchyard at Reamstown. 
William R. Wilson, the subject of this memoir, 
was born in Reamstown, Lancaster county, Jan. 20, 
1826, .and there his early life was passed. His edu- 
cational advantages were very limited in scope, since 
the impaired health of his father rendered it neces- 
sary for him to assist in the latter's office, his practi- 
cal service in the line being initiated at the early age 
of fourteen years, while he thus aided in the support 
of the family, in which there were twelve children. 
He remained at the parental home until he had at- 
tained his legal majority, devoting every possible 
opportunitv to study and the reading of the best class 
of literature, and he decided to adopt the profession 
of law as his vocation in life. Upon leaving home 
he came to Lancaster, and was entirely dependent 
upon his own resources for a livelihood. On April 
19, 1847, he began the study of law in the office of 
the late Colonel Reah Frazer, at Lancaster, locally 
famous as the "war horse of Democracy," and rec- 
ognized as one of the able members of the Bar of 
the county. The two gentlemen became firm friends 
and so continued until death severed the ties, each 
haying named a son in honor of the other.' Mr. 
Wilson devoted himself assiduously to his technical 



study, and was admitted to the Bar of the State Aug. 
i8, 1849. In the following spring he here entered 
upon the active practice of his profession, and this 
he continued consecutively and with an eminent de- 
gree of success, until the time of his death, repre- 
senting a period of more than half a century. With 
one exception he was, at the time of demise, the oldest 
lawyer, in point of service, of the Bar of the county, 
and no member was held in higher confidence and 
esteem. Mr. Wilson was for twenty-five years a 
member of the board which examines candidates 
for admission to the Bar, and was chairman of the 
same at the time of his death. The other members, 
in harmony with his personal request, acted as pall- 
bearers at his funeral. He was vice-president of the 
Lancaster Bar Association. He controlled a large 
and representative practice and was widely known, 
especially through the northern part of the county. 
He was for fifteen years a member of the board 
of education of Lancaster, and was known as a man 
of most scholarly attainments, being well read in all 
branches of literature, and having an excellent knowl- 
edge of the German language, which he acquired by 
personal application, his entire schooling having been 
confined to seven months, but this fact having slight 
bearing upon the acquirement of knowledge on the 
parr of the determined and industrious youth. He 
always manifested a deep interest in politics, and 
rendered most effective service in many campaigns. 
Of his political proclivities a formerly published 
tribute spoke as follows : "He was a Democrat of 
Dem.ocrats. His faith never failed ; his interest never 
abated ; his ardor never cooled ; and his loyalty never 
was questioned. Before the war, during the war, 
and after the war he remained the advocate, on the 
stump and in private, of Jacksonian principles. He 
voted as he believed and talked. He neither courted 
nor shunned political honors, and the frequent marks 
of his party's favor 'which came to him were highly 
appreciated, though unsolicited and barren of profit." 
He was a member of the city council on various oc- 
casions, and also served for a time as city solicitor. 
Of his ability in his profession one who knew him 
well has spoken as follows : "Mr. Wilson was a 
lawyer of much learning and painstaking care. He 
never went to trial without elaborate preparation 
on the law and the facts, and never quit until he had 
exhausted every resource. He was a familiar figure 
in the Appellate courts, and never failed to command 
the respect of these bodies for his erudition and in- 
genuity. He had the dignity and courtesy of what 
we must, too often, call the 'old school,' and but few 
surpassed him in cordiality and grace of manner. 
He was urbane toward his associates, especially the 
juniors of the Ear, and with him passes away almost 
the last active practitioner of his generation." His 
first case before the Supreme court was in 1853, and 
from that time forward he was concerned in much 
important litigation in this section of the State. His 
death occurred as the direct result of a stroke of 

The parents of Mr. Wilson were members of the 
German Reformed Church, and while he never 
formally united with any religious organization he 
was a regular attendant and liberal supporter of the 
Presbyterian Church, having been chairman of the 
board of auditors of the Lancaster church for more 
than twenty years, and having held other official 
positions in the same. He was one of the pall-bearers 
of President James Buchanan, and acted as auditor 
of his estate. 

In the city of Harrisburg, Pa., on Jan. 10, 1852, 
Mr. Wilson was united in marriage to Miss Caroline 
S. Oberlv, daughter of Frederick and Maria Oberly, 
and her death occurred April 16, 1899. They became 
the parents of four children, of whom we enter the 
following brief record : Reali F., who is supervisor 
of one of the western divisions of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, with headquarters at Blairsville, this State, 
was united in marriage, in 1883, to Miss Mary Mc- 
Gecham, of Lancaster, and they have three children, 
James R., Agnes and May ; Lanna Theodosia remains 
at the old home ; Harry O. still remains in the office 
of his father ; and Alphonso is deceased. 

In speaking of the death of Mr. Wilson a local 
paper summed up as follows: "All in all, we shall 
not look upon his like again. His taking off snaps 
a link in the chain that bound us to the past. His 
death will be mourned; his life and experience will 
remain a pleasant and useful memory ; his place will 
not be filled." 

AMOS R. HOUGENDOBLER, postmaster at 
Columbia, and one of the oldest shoe merchants in 
the city, comes of an old and honored family which 
originated in Switzerland, three brothers of the 
name coming to Lancaster county over two hundred 
years ago. John, Nicholas and Isaac Hougendobler 
took part in the Revolutionary war, and are men- 
tioned in the archives of the State. John purchased 
600 acres of land in Hempfield township, near the 
Wrightsville Ferry, at the close of the Revolution, 
and a part of this original purchase is still in the pos- 
session of the family. 

Amos R. Hougendobler, so well and favorably 
known in his locality, was born Oct. 3, 1843, in 
West Hempfield township, three miles from Colum- 
bia, son of Plenry and Catherine (Getz) Hougen- 
dobler, both of whom lived on the old homestead 
tmtil the close of their lives. The former died in 
1856, at the age of fifty-seven, and the latter in De- 
cember, 1 88 1, at the age of eighty-eight, and the 
remains of both were buried in their private ceme- 
tery. They were most worthy members of the United 
Brethren Church. The record of their eleven chil- 
dren is as follows: EHzabeth (deceased) married 
John M. Greider, a prominent man in Lancaster 
county, he having served as justice of the peace, and 
also as Lancaster county treasurer ; George, who died 
unmiarried in 1871, served four years in the army 
during the Civil war, and was killed in a stone 
qiiarry ; Henry met death in an ore mine, at the age 



■of seventeen; Christianna (deceased), married 
Aaron R. Lutz; Albert died in infancy; Barbara 
married Hiram C. Lockard, of West Hempfield 
township; Cattierme (deceased), married Henry 
Baker, wlio was killed in battle in the front of 
Richmond, Va. ; Mary married William Berntheisel, 
a retired farmer of West Hempfield township ; John 
A. was shot through the heart at the battle of South 
Mountain, during the Civil war; Amos R. is the 
subject proper of these lines; Adeline became Mrs. 
Briggs, of Tyrone, Pennsylvania. 

Amos R. Hougendobler was reared on a farm in 
West Hempfield township, and attended the district 
school. At the a,ge of twelve years he came to Colum- 
bia and entered the store of H. F. FonDersmith, as 
clerk, remaining with him one year, when he was 
■offered a larger salary, going into the store of Peter 
Haldeman, where he remained until the outbreak of 
the Civil war, in 1861. 

Urged by patriotic impulses, Mr. Hougendobler 
■enlisted for the service of his country, joining Co. K, 
5th Pa. Reserves, known as the Cookman Rangers 
(so named by Joseph Fisher, who was appointed 
captain). But almost at the beginning of his service 
he met with a serious accident. Being first in the 
line of march, Campbell's Battery ran over his left 
heel on June 27, 1861. He was again unfortunate, 
heing slightly wounded in the left leg at the battle 
■of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, and was sent to the 
Columbia College Hospital, in Washington, D. C. 
This was particularly discouraging, as the accident 
•came iipon the very day that his three-years' term 
of enlistment expired. He endured but one month 
in the hospital before he joined his company and 
came home. Mr. Hougendobler's war record is a 
■grand one, and one of which his descendants will 
^e very proud in the years to come. He participated 
in the following battles: Drainesville, Mechanics- 
ville, Gaines Mills, Charles City Cross Roads, Savage 
Station, Malvern Hill, Bull Run, Fredericksburg, 
Gettysburg, Bristol Station, Mine Run and the 
AVilderncss. At Fredericksburg few of his company 
escaped death or wounds, or at least bullet holes in 
their clothing. Plis term of service expiring, Mr. 
Hougendobler was discharged at Harrisburg, Pa., 
June 14, 1864. The saddest experience of his army 
life was the death of his brother John, who was in 
the same company, and was shot through the heart, 
at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862; his body was 
hrought home and placed in the family graveyard, 
about two and a half miles northeast of Columbia, 
adjoining the farm wliere the family has lived more 
than sixtv years. 

On Sept. 6, 1864, Miss Margaret Kneisly was 
married, in Columbia, to Amos R. Hougendobler, 
and this union has also' been blessed with eleven. chil- 
dren: Ella M., who married Edward B. Koons, a 
contractor in Columbia; Clara K., who married 
Charles Curvel, superintendent of a shirt cutting 
factory in Chester, Pa. ; Margaret, a school teacher ; 
Catherine, who was educated in the Hahnemann 

Training School for Nurses, in Philadelphia; John 
Andrew, a silk mill loom repairer (he is married) ; 
Anna G., a well known professional trained nurse 
at the Methodist Hospital, at Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Emily A., who stays in the store, as do also Harry 
and William (twins) ; Charles D., a clerk in the 
Columbia post office ; and Mary E., attending school. 

Mrs. Hougendobler was born in Columbia June 
27, i'S45, a daughter of Andrew and Margaret 
(Fordney) Kneisly, of Manor township. Andrew 
Kneisly was a blacksmith by trade, but later became 
boss inspector for the Pennsylvania Railway Co., 
and after a service of thirty years with the railroad 
was killed, a train running over him, in October, 
1881, at the age of fifty-nine years. For many years 
he was a class-leader in the M. E. Church, and he 
was an active Christian in every walk of life. He 
was connected with the I. O. O. F., being a charter 
member of Susquehanna Lodge, No. 80, Columbia, 
and had held many of the offices. Mrs. Kneisly died 
at the age of eighty-one, and was buried in Mt. Beth- 
el cemetery. The family located in Columbia in 1834. 
The children born to these worthy people were as 
follows: William, a car inspector, who died in 
Columbia; Anna, a resident of Columbia; David 
and Barbara, deceased in infancy ; Emma, a resident 
of Columbia; Samuel, who died in infancy; Mar- 
garet, the wife of Mr. Hougendobler ; and Benjamin, 
who died in infancy. Misses Anna and Emma con- 
duct a notion store in Columbia, and are highly es- 
teemed ladies. 

Mr. Hougendobler is one of the prominent men 
of Columbia, and is now postmaster there, having 
been appointed to that office through Hon. Marriott 
Brosius, in 1898. By his industry, efficiency and 
courtesy Mr. Hougendobler has given general sat- 
isfaction. He is a charter member of Gen. Welsh 
Post, No. 118, G. A. R., and is one of its past com- 
manders and active members. He was a member 
of Department Commander Alfred Dart's stafif in 
1897, and is on the executive committee for Lancas- 
ter county of the Central Association of the Penn- 
sylvania G. A. R. He is also a charter member of 
an A. O. M. P. lodge in Columbia, is a past master 
artisan and was trustee for many years. In politics 
he is a Republican, and he is an active and prominent 
member of his party in the city and county. 

JOSEPH EHRENFRIED was born in May- 
ence, Hessen-Darmstadt, Germany, Dec. 25, 1783. 
His parents were Catholic in faith and designed him 
for the pries^iood, sending him to school with that 
object in view. When he was nineteen years of age 
he left his native country, emigrating to America 
in 1802. He began his career in this country as a 
school teacher in the Grove school house, in East 
Donegal township, in 1803. A short while after- 
ward he secured a situation as translator and book- 
keeper in Albright's printing establishment in Lan- 
caster, where he acquired a practical knowledge of 
that art. 



In 1808 Joseph Ehrenfried and William Hamil- 
ton established the Volksfreund, a German news- 
paper, which he disposed of to Johan Baer in 1817, 
the paper still being published in Lancaster by the 
son of Air. Baer. He continued, however, in the 
employ of Air. Baer for twenty years, during which 
time he translated a number of works into German, 
which were published, among them being "Buck's 
Theological Dictionary" and "Ehrenfried's Collo- 
quial Phrases." 

In 1837 Air. Ehrenfried visited Germany, and re- 
turning to this country, located in Harrisburg, where 
he published the Vaterland's Waechter, and during 
the administration of Governor Ritner he held the 
office of German State Printer. He afterward es- 
tablished the Friedenboten, a German newspaper at 
Allentown, Pa. This he disposed of and returned 
to I,ancaster, where in the autumn of 1845 he became 
deputy register of wills, which office he filled until 
in i860. In 1816 he became a Swedenborgian in 
faith and in 1835 connected himself with the Lan- 
caster New Jerusalem Society, of which he was 
president for twenty years. 

In 1809 he married Airs. Ann (Hubley) Smith, 
who was a daughter of Bernard Hubley, Esq., of 
Lancaster. He died Alarch 6, 1862, esteemed by all 
who knew him. 

generations members of the Locher family have fol- 
lowed one line of industry, beginning it among the 
hills of Alaryland, as an accessory to extensive farm- 
ing operations, and pursuing it with accelerated 
skill and profit. To Charles Howell Locher, presi- 
dent of the City Savings Fund & Trust Company, 
of Lancaster, the industry has been only an accessory 
to extensive financial and business operations, in 
which he has been most successfully interested. 

Seven generations back Henry Locher, the 
founder of the family in America, left his native 
home in Switzerland and settled in the Colony of 
Virginia. Some of his descendants removed to 
Alaryland, where Jacob Locher, the grandfather of 
Charles Howell, owned and operated a large farm, on 
the Hagerstown pike, 112 acres of which remained, 
until very recently, in the possession of the family. 
Jacob Locher was also a tanner and currier, as were 
his father and grandfather before him. He was a 
patriotic American, and during the war of 18 12 en- 
listed from Alaryland in the American army. He 
married Alary Grove, daughter of an extensive 
farmer of Alaryland, and removed ta Lancaster 
county, Pa., later continuing the leather trade at 
Harrisburg, where he died at the age of sixty-two 
years. His wife survived to the age of seventy- 
three, passing away in 1871. 

David P. Locher, father of Charles Howell, was 
born at Shepherdstown, Va. (now West Virginia), 
on the banks of the Potomac, in July, 1827. He 
came with his parents to Lancaster county, and in the 
early days of his manhood became interested in busi- 

ness which he prosecuted most successfully through- 
out life, becoming one of the best known business- 
men in Lancaster. He built a small tannery on 
South Prince street, which he operated for two years, 
then building a larger tannery, which he managed 
successfully for many years, until 1868. In 1876 he 
bought a tannery on South Prince street, which he 
extended and operated most profitably until his 
death. A/[r. Locher also owned and conducted an 
excellent and well improved farm of 120 acres in 
Alanheim township, this county, which is still in the 
possession of the family. He was greatly interested 
in fine stock, and his herd of blooded Jersey cattle 
was the admiration of farming communities for 
many miles around. He was an admirable judge of 
horses, and kept a fine stable in Lancaster, his four- 
in-hand of Hambletonian breed being the only one 
in the city for many years. It was in 1870 that he 
engaged in the banking business in partnership with 
his son, Charles Howell, who has since followed that 
foundation branch of finance with remarkable suc- 

In November, 1848, David P. Locher was mar- 
ried, at Lancaster, Pa., to Clementina AI., daughter 
of Robert Evans, a merchant of Lancaster. To this 
imion were born four sons, Charles Howell, Robert 
E., Grove and Clement E., the three last-named be- 
ing, respectively, president, secretary and treasurer 
of the Park Run Tanning Company, incorporated in. 
1895, and succeeding to the business so successfully 
conducted by the father. The death of David P. 
Locher occurred Feb. 11, 1884, when he was aged 
nearly fifty-seven years. His widow survives, re- 
siding in Lancaster, on East King street. She is a 
devout member of the Presbyterian Church, and a. 
lady most highly esteemed for her many womanly 
and Christian qualities. 

Charles Howell Locher was born at Pottsville,. 
Pa., Oct. 21, 1849. The following year his parents- 
returned to Lancaster, and there he spent his child- 
hood and boyhood. He attended the city schools, 
and from the Lancaster high school, in February^ 
1867, he entered the bank of Evans, McEvoy & Co., 
as a clerk. While gaining experience there he ac- 
quired a taste for a financial career. On Nov. 30, 
1870, the business of Evans, AIcEvoy & Co. was pur- 
chased by his father and himself, under the firm 
name of D. P. Locher & Son, the partnership con- 
tinuing until the death of the father, in 1884. The 
bank then became the property of Charles tl. and 
Robert E., his brother. It is now the City Savings 
Fund & Trust Company, located at the corner of 
West King street and Penn Square, and has a 
paid-up capital stock of $150,000. Charles Howell 
Locher is president and one of the directors. 

Air. Locher has also been interested in many 
other successful business enterprises. In June, 1894, 
in company with John Keller and Alichael Reilly, 
he purchased the Lancaster & Quarryville narrow 
gauge railroad, fifteen miles in length. The com- 
pany was , reorganized, with Charles Howell Locher 





as president, and he operated the road in connection 
with the board of directors until Dec. 28, 1899, when 
the property was sold for $350,000 to the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. Mr. Locher is also inter- 
ested in the Park Run Tanning Company, incor- 
porated in 189s by the consolidation of the Cones- 
toga Oak Tannery and the Park Run Tannery, both 
owned by Mr. Locher and brothers. The six stock- 
holders were Mr. Locher, his three brothers, his 
mother and George Greiner, foreman, who is now 
■deceased. In 1894 Charles H. Locher was one of 
the organizers of the Citizens Power, Light & Heat- 
ing Company, which sold their property at a hand- 
some profit to the Edison Company. He is now di- 
Tector and treasurer of the Lancaster Electric Light, 
Power & Heating Company. For the past twenty 
years he has been a stockholder and secretary of 
the Lancaster Hotel Company; he is trtasurer oi 
the Conestoga Fire Insurance Company, having 
$100,000. capital; and president of the Lancaster & 
Columbia Railway Company. He is also treasurer 
■of the Woodward Hill Cemetery Association. In 
1887 he laid out an addition to Harrisburg, a tract 
■of thirteen acres, which was subsequently sold in 
building lots at a handsome profit, and is now well 
improved. Mr. Locher is recognized as one of Lan- 
'caster's most capable and successful business men. 
While prospering to an unusual degree in his own 
"business affairs, his success contributes also to the 
.^general advancement of the city, for his investment? 
and enterprises are constructive in their nature and 
insure the general welfare. He is public-spirited 
and generous in disposition, and earnestly supports 
those measures that promise to advance the best in- 
terests of Lancaster. 

Mr. Locher was married, at Pittsburg, Pa., in 
1872, to Miss Lila S. Reno, a native of Beaver coun- 
ty, Pa., daughter of Eli Reno, a farmer, who was 
also engaged in steamboating. To Mr. and Mrs. 
l^ocher were born five children, namely : David R., 
Mira E., James R., Lila R. and Robert E. David R. 
is president of the Eastern Milling & Export Com- 
pany, of Philadelphia; he was married Oct. 23, 
1901, to Miss Mary Eshleman, of Lancaster. Mira 
E. married Jay Nevin Shroder, manufacturer of 
paints in Lancaster, and they have one child. Jay N., 
Tr. Lila R. was married April 12, 1902, to Frederick 
Atwood -McVay, treasurer of the Pittsburg Trust 

In politics Mr. Locher is a Republican, and he 
is serving at present as a member of the school board 
•of Lancaster. 

ALEXANDER CRAIG, M. D. (deceased). The 
■entire medical career of this eminent physician of 
Columbia belongs to that city. His practice extend- 
■€d over a period of thirty-four years, beginning im- 
mediately after graduation and continuing until 
<ieath closed his usefulness in the summer of 1899. 
During that time he was one of the prominent figures 
an the medical history of Lancaster county, contribut- 

ing largely to the current professional literature, em- 
inent as a surgeon, honored repeatedly by the various 
medical societies of which he was a member, and 
exerting a wide influence in the community where his 
mission was cast. The medical career was preceded 
by a term of military service during the Civil war. 

Dr. Craig was born at Hillside, Westmoreland 
Co., Pa., Dec. 22, 1838, son of Alexander and Sy- 
billa (Kern) Craig, and grandson of Samuel Craig, 
a soldier of the Revolution. The family were of 
Scotch-Irish extraction. Alexander Craig, the 
father, was a woolen manufacturer and a land owner 
of Westmoreland county, Pa. He died in 1869, aged 
seventy-four years. Sybilla, his wife, survived until 
1888, passing away at the age of eighty years, at the 
residence of her son Alexander, in Columbia. To 
Alexander and Sybilla Craig were born three chil- 
dren : Alexander, the subject of this sketch ; Louisa 
S., who married James B. Moore, of Wheeling, W. 
Va. ; and George G., a physician of Rock Island, 

Alexander Craig, the subject of this sketch, was 
educated in the public schools of Westmoreland 
county, and at Eldersridge Academy. The pathway 
to learning was rugged, and he continued his studies 
at night while engaged in teaching school. Choosing 
medicine as his profession, he began a course of read- 
ing in 1850, in the office of Dr. Eli Ferguson, at New 
Derry, Pa., and continued after his army service with 
Dr. C. D. Hottenstein, then of Columbia. In 1862 he 
patriotically abandoned his studies to enter the ser- 
vice of his country.' In that year he enlisted as a 
private in Co. F, 135th P. V. I., and was soon after- 
ward appointed hospital steward of the regiment, 
in which capacity he completed his nine months term 
of service. He then joined the 57th Regiment State 
MiU.tia, serving as second lieutenant of Co. A. 

The young student then attended two courses of 
lectures at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 
from which he graduated in 1865. On May 1st, of 
that year, Dr. Craig entered upon his long medical 
practice in Columbia. His military service gave 
him a predilection for surgery, and, while a general 
practitioner, he was especially recognized by his col- 
leagues as an authority in surgery. His practice in- 
creased steadily and in a few years he became one of 
the most successful physicians of the city. His abil- 
ities were recognized by the profession throughout 
the State and even beyond its borders. In 1890 he 
was honored with the presidency of the Medical So- 
ciety of the State of Pennsylvania, having previously 
filled the offices of vice-president in 1870, and of 
corresponding secretary in 1880-81. He was in 

1878 elected president of the Lancaster City and 
County Medical Society, of which he had for many 
vears been an active and prominent member. In 

1879 he was also honored by election to the presi- 
dency of the Pennsylvania and Maryland Union 
Medical Society. Among other professional organi- 
zations with which lie was actively associated was 
the National Association of Railway Surgeons. In 



an honorary capacity he was a member of the York 
County Medical Society and of the Grand Rapids 
Academy of Medicine of Grand Rapids, Mich. From 
i860 he was surgeon at Columbia for the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. He prepared many papers and re- 
ports of surgery, which were presented at the vari- 
ous medical societies with which he was connected. 
Dr. Craig was identified with a number of fra- 
ternal and social orders, including the G. A. R. and 
the I. O. O. F., the K. of P., and the Scotch-Irish 
society of America. He served as a member of the 
town council of Columbia from 1869 to 1878, and in 
the latter year was president of that body. He was 
one of the organizers of the Columbia Electric Light 
& Power Co., in 1883, and two years later was elected 
its president. From 1887 and until his death he was 
a director of the First National Bank of Columbia. 

- At Columbia, Oct. 29, 1867, Dr. Craig married 
Miss Eleanor M. Righter, a native of Lancaster, and 
the daughter of Washington and Elizabeth Mayer 
(Cottrell) Righter, granddaughter of Jacob and 
Ed-ith (Evans) Righter, and great-granddaughter of 
a Revolutionary soldier, who was taken prisoner by 
the British in Philadelphia, and died on board one 
of the prison ships. Washington Righter, the father 
of Mrs. Craig, was born Dec. 9, 1799. He was by 
trade a tanner, and became one of the pioneer lumber 
dealers of the Susquehanna Valley. In 1827 he re- 
moved from Chester county to Columbia, where he 
engaged in the lumber trade. For four years, 1843- 
46, he resided in Lancaster, serving during that 
period as clerk of the Orphans' Court. His death 
occurred at Columbia, Sept. 22, 1879. His widow, 
who was born in January, 1810, survived him many 
years, dying in her ninety-second year, Sept. i, 
1901, at -Columbia. To Washington and Elizabeth 
Righter were born five children, namely : July E., 
who married Rev. Joseph Gregg, and died at Col- 
umbia, Nov. 7, 1881 ; Thaddeus Stevens, who died 
aged two years; Eleanor, widow of our subject; 
Washington, a lumber merchant of Philadelphia, 
who died July 16, 1902 ; and Joseph C, a lumber- 
merchant of Williamsport. The children born to 
Dr. and Mrs. Craig were five : Alexander R., whose 
sketch appears below : W^ashington, a graduate of 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, class of 1893, and 
now resident engineer on the Pittsburg, Shaumut & 
Northern Railroad, stationed at Bolivar, N. Y. ; 
Elizabeth, who graduated with the degree of B. S. 
from Wellesley College in 1891 ; Eleanor Sybilla, 
who attended Wilson College, for one year, and com- 
pleted her studies in music at the Musical Academy 
in Philadelphia ; and John J., a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, afterward resident 
physician at the Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital. 
Dr. Alexander Craig died Aug. 16, 1899. 

Dr. Alexandep. Righter Craig, the eldest son 
oi Dr. Alexander and Eleanor M. Craig, and now a 
risinrr voung practitioner at Columbia, was born at 
Columbia. Jnlv 31, 1868, and graduated from the 
Columbia High School at the age of seventeen years. 

Entering Franklin and Marshall College at Lan- 
caster, he graduated in the class of 1890. His col- 
legiate studies ended, he began the study of medi- 
cine and received the degree of M. D. from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, in 1893, having been hon- 
ored with the presidency of his class. He served 
for a year as resident physician of the Philadelphia 
Polyclinic College Hospital, and in February, 1895, 
began the practice of his profession at Columbia. 
He has attained a very large and lucrative practice, 
and enjoys the professional confidence of an unusu- 
ally large acquaintanceship. In politics Dr. Craig 
is a Republican, and in religious affiliations a member 
of the Presbyterian Church. He is a Mason, and is 
prominent in the social life of the city. He was 
married at Port Deposit, Md., Oct. 17, 1899, to Miss 
Florence C. Bromwell, daughter of R. E. and Jo- 
sephine (Evans) Bromwell, her father being a 
prominent physician residing near Port Deposit. To 
this union two children have been born^ Josephine 
Bromwell, on Nov. 15, 1900, and Margaretta, on 
Sept. 3, 1902. 

some time a well-known farmer of Manheim town- 
ship, now residing in Manor township, has had a 
career which, if fully written up, would fill a good- 
sized book. 

The first Summys to arrive in this country came 
from Summiswald (Summy's Woods), Switzerland, 
landing in Philadelphia in 1732. Five brothers 
started from the old country, but one died on the 
ocean. One of the four who reached this country 
married a Mrs. Barr, a widow, near Landisville, 
where he lived and died, and from him the Lancaster 
county Summys are descended. It has recently been 
learned that one or more of the brothers also settled 
in South Carolina, along the Catawba river. 

Peter Summy, the grandfather of Aaron H.,. 
married Barbara Long, and died on a farm of which 
the Fondersmith estate in East Hempfield forms a 
part. John Summy, the father of Aaron H., was- 
a farmer and a Mennonite preacher. He married 
Susan Hostetter, daughter of Jacob Hostetter, a 
farmer at Salunga, this county, and an aunt to the 
late David Hostetter, the millionaire manufacturer 
of "Hostetter's Bitters." To this union were born 
seven children, only two of whom survive:- Abra- 
ham, the well-known coal and lumber merchant at 
Marietta ; and Flon. Aaron H. Summy, of Manheim 

Aaron Hostetter Summy was born on his father's, 
farm, in East Hem.pfield township, Aug. 28, 1830, 
and obtained his education in the public schools of 
his district, remaining at home until he was sixteen 
years old, when he went to learn carriagemaking at 
Roseville. In 1S51 he married Lavinia Miller, a* 
daughter of John Miller, at one time a commissioner 
of Lancaster county, and they had four cliildrenr 
Annie, rhe wife of John R. Burkholder, wholesale 
dealer in grain and feed ; Lavinia, the wife of L. N> 



Spencer, an attorney at law, in Lancaster ; Frank, a 
bookkeeper in the Lancaster Trust Company; and 
John Miller, who died when twelve years old, from 

Mr. Snmmy was engaged in the lumber and coal 
trade in Marietta from 1852 to i860, and then bought 
a farm in East Hempfield township, which he sold 
to buy the coach works of A. B. Landis, in Mt. Joy, 
where he continued five years. Selling out, he finally 
located on a farm in Manheim township, where he 
resided until April, 1902. In 1866 he bought the 
Abbeville Mills, on the Columbia pike, in Manor 
township, renting the property until April, 1902, 
when he took charge of the same himself, running the 
mills and renting the farm. But Mr. Summy had 
a varied career before he came to Manheim. At one 
time he ran the grist and saw mills at GraefiE's Land- 
ing; was in business at Marietta; ran a sawmill at 
Chickies ; was United States storekeeper and ganger 
at various distilleries ; filled a clerkship in the War 
Department at Washington; was deputy marshal 
under Elias Billingfelt, State marshal of Lancaster 
county during the State draft ordered by Gov. 
Curtin ; rjnd afterward assistant assessor under James 
Alexander, when the excise laws were first enacted 
and enforced : was a school director in his district ; 
and was elected and re-elected to the council in 
Marietta. He served one term in the General Assem- 
bly from East Hempfield, and another while living 
at Mt. Joy. In the Assembly he served on important 
committees, and gave much attention to the interests 
of his constituents. 

Rev. Thomas Barton, pastor of St. James' Episcopal 
Church, Lancaster, was born in that city Feb. 10, 
1766, his mother having been Esther Rittenhouse, 
a daughter of the celebrated philosopher David Rit- 
tenhouse. The death of his parents was the cause 
of his removal to Philadelphia in 1782, when he 
took a course at Goettingen and there obtained the 
himself to the study of the sciences and medicine. 
Going to Great Britain in 1786 he pursued his stud- 
ies at Edinburgli and London. He subsequently 
took a course at Gottingen and there obtained the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine. He returned to 
Philadelphia in 1789, and began the practice of 
medicine. The same year he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Natural History and Botany in the College 
of Philadelphia, and continued in that professorship 
after the college was merged into the University of 
Penn.-;ylvania m 1791. On the resignation of Dr. 
Griffiths he was appointed Professor of Materia 
Medica, and he succeeded Dr. Rush in the depart- 
ment of the Theory and Practice of Medicine on the 
death of the latter. He died Dec. 19, 1816. 

Dr. Barton contributed much to the natural 
science of this country and published a number of 
valuable works, among them being "Elements of 
Botany," which appeared in 1803 ; he also in 1805 
commenced the publication of the Medical and Phy- 

sical Journal. As a naturalist his merits were un- 
common and he has the honor of being the first 
American who gave to his country an elementary 
wOrk on botany. 

for many years prominent as a justice of the peace 
and pension collector at Buck, Lancaster county, 
was born in East Drumore township May 8, 1824, 
a son of Tilghman and Elizabeth (Boehm) Thomp- 
son. The father was born in Harford county, Md., 
in March, 1804, and the mother in Lancaster county, 
in November, 1808. 

Tilghman Thompson was the son of Nicholas 
Thompson, a native of Maryland, and a soldier of 
the war of 18 12, who came to Lancaster county ii; 
1 8 14, and was located near Conestoga Springs for 
some years. Then, taking with him a part of his 
family, he moved to the remote West, where he 
died. His wife died in Lancaster county. They 
had one son, Tilghman, and two daughters : Rachel, 
wife of Martin Shaub, who moved into Ohio, where 
they died ; and Sarah A., who married John Wilson, 
and is living, a widow, in Illinois. 

Tilghman Thompson began life as a farmer in 
Lancaster county, but presently became a merchant, 
and was for some years engaged at Martinsville, 
this county, in that line. He purchased a farm and 
hotel property near Clearfield Church, in this county, 
where he made his home for some years, and then 
.bought a farm on the State road leading to the 
McCall Ferry, where he died in January, 1864. His 
widow passed to her reward in 1887. Mr. and Mrs. 
Thompson belonged to the Methodist Church, and 
are remembered in that communion as good, earnest 
Christian people. In politics he was a Whig and a 
Republican. Hiram L. was their only child. 

Hiram L. Thompson acquired his education in 
the public schools, and when he was sixteen took 
up the work of a school teacher, in which he made. 
a decided success. For eight years he taught at 
the Rising Sun school house, and he was also en- 
gaged at his profession in Maryland. In 1842 he 
taught school in Ohio, but after a year there came 
back to Pennsylvania. He taught in all for thirty- 
five years. Squire Thompson was a man of scholarly 
attainments, and by close application largely in- 
creased the somewhat limited education which he 
secured in the public schools and the Carlisle Pre- 
paratory School, which he attended for three 

'Squire Thompson was married, in April, 1846, 
to Miss Jane Laird, daughter of John Laird, of 
Rawlinsville, where Mrs. Thompson was born, and 
where she died in 1863, leaving one son, Tilghman 
L., who, following in his father's footsteps, also be- 
came a distinguished teacher. He was teaching at 
Quarryville when he was stricken with a fatal sick- 
ness, and passed away, leaving a wife and three 
children, Cora, Charlie and . 

'Squire Thompson was married the second time. 



in 1886, to Miss Lizzie A. Beecher, daughter of 
Benjamin and Mary (Herr) Beecher, and the same 
year they settled on the present farm in East Dru- 
more township. Mrs. Thompson was born in East 
Drumore in 1844. 

Hiram L. Thompson was a member of Co. I, 
I22d P. V. I., serving as sergeant of his company. 
For a time he was detailed as a clerk of his regi- 
ment. He was in the battles of Cloud Mills, second 
Bull Run, Fredericksburg (December, 1862) and 
Chancellorsville. When his term of enlistment had 
expired he was honorably discharged, at Harris- 

Hiram L. Thompson was elected a justice of 
the peace in East Drumore township, was reelected, 
and served until his death, giving excellent satis- 
faction to all concerned in the administration of the 
important duties of that position. Always a Re- 
publican, he was an active worker in the interests 
of that party, and his influence was widespread. 
He belonged to the Methodist Church, where his 
substantial and reliable character commanded re- 
spect and confidence, and served as trustee at Mt. 
Hope and also at Quarryville. His widow also 
unites with that church. Mr. Thompson died at 
his home in East Drumore. Jan. 16, 1902, after a 
few days' illness, in his seventy-eighth year. His 
wife and three grandchildren survive. The funeral 
was held on Jan. 19th, with services and interment 
at the Clearfield M. E. Church. 

JOHN B. WARFEL was born in Paradise 
township, Lancaster county, Sept. 19, 1830, son of 
John Warfel, who was a farmer until 1836, in which 
year he was appointed recorder of deeds for Lan- 
caster county; he then with his family removed to 
Lancaster city. 

Mr. Warfel's paternal great-great-grandfather, 
George Warfel, came from Germany, and was one 
of the early settlers of what is now Conestoga town- 
ship, Lancaster county. He was twice married, and 
by his first wife had two sons, Henry and Peter. 
Henry married Margaret Good, and by that union 
had seven children, three sons and four daughters. 
Their second son, Jacob, married Mary Stoutzen- 
berg, whose father was Jacob Stoutzenberg, and 
whose mother was Barbara Eekman, a granddaugh- 
ter of Mathias Slaymaker, who came to this country 
from Strasburg, Germany, in 1710. Jacob and Mary 
(Stoutzenberg) Warfel had five children, one son 
and four daughters. John Warfel, the eldest, and 
father of John B., married Maria Eshleman. 

John B. Warfel's maternal great-great-grand- 
father, Jacob Eshleman, came to this country in the 
ship "Mortonhouse," from Holland, landing in Phila- 
delphia in August, 1729. He was married to Bar- 
bara Barr, and they had one son Jacob, who married 
Barbara Groff, a descendant of Hans (John) Groff, 
a native of Switzerland, who was one of the first set- 
tlers in the Pequea Valley. Barbara Groff's mother 
was Barbara Brackbill,' a daughter of Rev. Benedic- 

tus Brackbill, who with his family came from Ger- 
many, landing at Philadelphia Aug. 24, 1717, and 
settling in what is now Strasburg township, Lan- 
caster county. Jacob and Barbara (Groff) Eshle- 
man had eight children. The eldest, Jacob, married 
Mary Brackbill, who was a daughter of Benedict 
Brackbill and his wife, Mary (Kendig), and a 
granddaughter of Ulrich Brackbill and his wife 
Fanny (Herr). Ulrich Brackbill was a son of Rev. 
Benedictus Brackbill, and Fanny Herr was a grand- 
daughter of John (or Hans) Herr, who came from 
Switzerland in 1710, and who was the progenitor of 
the numerous Herr family now living in Lancaster 
county. Jacob and Mary (Brackbill) Eshleman had 
twelve children, Maria, the wife of John Warfel, and 
mother of John B. Warfel, being the fourth. 

John B. Warfel received his education in the 
public schools of Lancaster, at the Strasburg Acad- 
emy, and at Lewisburg (now Bucknell) University. 
From the latter, in 1895, he received the honorary 
degree of A. M. He taught the public school in the 
village of Paradise during the term of 1849-50, and 
the public school in Strasburg borough during the 
term of 1853-54. In the spring of 1854 he com- 
menced farming on the place where he was born, 
and he continued in that occupation until 1863. In 
1855 Mr. Warfel was elected a justice of the peace 
for Paradise township, and was re-elected in i860. 
When elected a justice he commenced the practice 
of surveying and conveyancing, and in the latter 
business had a large clientage. He was elected a 
school director for Paradise township in the spring 
of 1856, and was re-elected in 1859 and 1862. In 
January, 1863, Mr. Warfel was appointed an ex- 
aminer in the United States Pension Bureau, at 
Washington,. D. C. He then abandoned farming, 
resigned his several positions in Paradise township, 
and with his family moved to Washington. While 
in that city, and serving as an examiner in the Pen- 
sion ofifice, Mr. Warfel commenced the study of law 
at Columbia College, attending the lectures at night. 
He graduated with the class of 1867, and shortly 
afterward was admitted to practice in the courts of 
Washington city, and at Lancaster, Pa. In April, 
1867, he was appointed by the President of the 
United States assessor of Internal Revenue for the 
9th Pennsylvania District, and he then moved with 
his family from Washington to Lancaster. In the 
spring of 1869 he was elected a member of the Lan- 
caster city school board, and he has been re-elected 
and has served as a school director from that time 
to the present (1902). He was president of the 
board in 1877-78-79-80. In 1869 he was elected 
senator, to represent Lancaster county in the State 
Senate. He was re-elected in 1872, and again in 
1875, ^"^d while in the Senate was chairman of the 
following standing committees : Federal Relations, 
Education, Private Claims and Damages, Railroads, 
and Pensions and Gratuities. In May, 1872, Mr. 
■V\''arfel was appointed a State trustee of the Normal 
School at Millersville, and he has been re-appointed. 




serving continuously as such to the present time ; he 
has been president of the board since May, 1897. In 
1876 he was one of the Presidential electors for 
Pennsylvania, on the Republican ticket, elected to 
cast the vote of the State for Rutherford B. Hayes. 
He was president of the Howard Benevolent Asso- 
ciation of Lancaster for a number of years ; president 
•of the Lancaster County Society for the Prevention 
•of Cruelty to Animals for more than a quarter of a 
century; a- director of the Farmers National Bank 
for a number of years until 1888, and since then has 
been a director in the Lancaster County National 
Bank. He was one of the organizers and for some 
time the manager of the Inquirer (now Wicker- 
sham) Printing Company; was director and presi- 
dent of the Union Building & Loan Association; 
and director of the West End Building & Loan As- 
sociation. He has been trustee and W. M. of Lodge 
No. 43, A. F. & A. M., and trustee of Lancaster 
Commandery, No. 13, K. T. He has been a trustee 
■of the Lancaster Cemetery Association since Feb- 
ruary, 1882. He is also a trustee of the Home 
•of Friendless Children, of Lancaster; of the 
Stevens Orphans' Home, of Lancaster; and 
of the Henry G.' Long Asylum, also of that city. As 
•executor and trustee Mr. War f el has had charge of 
a number of estates, several of them quite large, and 
■these occupied a great deal of his time and attention 
from 1874 to 1897. In April, 1877, i"^ connection 
Avith J. M. W. Geist, Mr. Warfel commenced the 
publication of The New Era Daily and Weekly 
newspapers, and continued thus engaged until May 
15, 1897, when he withdrew from the partnership, 
and retired from active business. 

Mr. Warfel was married to Mary, daughter of 
the late Col. Isaac Girvin, of Strasburg township, 
Lancaster county. Of the children born to this 
imion the following survive: Ila, wife of William 
F. Beyer, Esq. ; John G., one of the firm of The 
New Era Printing Company ; and Jessie F., at home. 
One son, Robert, died young. 

REV. JOHN B. LANDIS, deceased. The trav- 
■eler through many portions of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, particularly through Lancaster county, will 
■not fail to observe the air of comfort and neatness 
prevailing around the farmhouses, the excellence 
of the improvements, and the fine state of cultivation 
of the land, and perhaps come to a better under- 
standing of the thriving appearance of his surround- 
ings when he notices the modest white structures 
along the well-kept highways, in which devoted 
ministers of the Mennonite Church minister to their 
people. Many of the residents belong to that simple 
Christian denomination, and among those well- 
known and much beloved was Rev. John B. Landis, 
who for nearly fifty-three years faithfully served 
his Master and ministered to tjiis people. 

Abraham Landis, the father of John B., was 
the second son of Jacob Landis (3), the family 
being an old and honored one in this portion of the 

State, and was born Nov. i, 1767. He passed out 
of life March 10, 1851, after a Hfe full of good 
deeds, and he ever stood high in the community. 
He was engaged as a farmer in East Lampeter 
township, where he first married a Miss Houser, 
and after her early death he married, in 1795, Eliza- 
beth Brenneman, who was born Aug. 11, 1775, and 
died Nov. 15, 1857, leaving a family of ten children: 
Hettie, who married Christian Segrist; Nancy, who 
married Benjamin Stauffer; Jacob; Maria, who 
married Tobias Kreider; Elizabeth; Tobias; Abra- 
ham; Benjamin; Adam; and John B. 

Rev. John B. Landis was born March 5, 1820, 
in East Lampeter township, and received his educa- 
tion in the common schools, b§ing a studious and 
eager pupil. The year following his marriage, which 
was solemnized in 1844, he settled upon a farm of 
108 acres in East Hempfield, and immediately be- 
gan its improvement, devoting himself to it care- 
fully and thoroughly, as was his habit, in whatever 
he undertook. Serious and thoughtful during his 
youth, it was but natural that he should enter the 
church at an early age, and on Oct. 18, 1849, ^^ 
was ordained a minister of the Mennonite faith, in 
which he had been carefully reared by Godly par- 
ents. After ordination he took up the ministerial 
work connected with the Petersburg and Landisville 
Churches, and for over a half century never wavered 
in his allegiance, working hard, ministering to the 
sick and well, with advice, comfort, sympathy and 
religious counsel, having the great satisfaction of 
realizing that his work bore good fruit, and that 
he was of benefit to those he so faithfully tried to 
direct intp the right path. Quiet and unassuming 
in manner, John B. Landis inspired respect from 
all with whom he came into contact, and his death, 
on April 26, 1902, at the advanced age of eighty- 
two years, was widely mourned. 

John B. Landis married Anna Krider, a daugh- 
ter of Jacob and Elizabeth Krider, who was born 
near Strasburg Dec. 29, 1819, and passed away 
Sept. 24, 1880. Although our venerable subject 
was thus deprived of his beloved companion, a 
family of children survived, and at one time eleven 
merry little great-grandchildren belonged to the 
family, but death has claimed three of these. The 
children of John B. and Anna Landis were named 
as follows: Elizabeth (deceased) was the wife of 
Israel Root ; Maria is the widow of Martin P. Swar, 
of East Hempfield township ; Anna is the wife of 
Christian F. Charles, of Mt. Joy township, who is 
a deacon in the Old Mennonite Church; Katie is 
the wife of Benjamin F. Charles, of East Hempfield 
township ; Hettie is the wife of John M. Denlinger, 
of near Millersville ; Fannie married Daniel Den- 
linger, of near Kinzers; Jacob has been a resident 
of the far West since 1890, his present residence 
being San Francisco. The grandchildren of the 
family, who are ever welcome in the old home, are 
as follows: The children of Maria — Salome, Mil- 
ton, Harry and Martin ; of Anna — Amos, Christian, 



Landis, John, Jacob and Anna; of Katie — Ellen, 
Anna, John, Joseph, Benjamin, Fannie, Jacob, Liz- 
zie, Katie and Clayton; of Hettie — Landis, Benja- 
min, Harry, John and Abraham ; of Fannie — Lizzie, 
Daniel, Fannie, Ruth and Jacob. All are descend- 
ants of whom the family has reason to be justly 

DAVID ESHLEMAN, Sr., is one of the oldest 
and most respected residents of Manor township, 
Lancaster county, where he was born Nov. 8, i8i7< 
son of Jacob and Catherine (Lutz) Eshleman, and 
grandson of John Eshleman, whose wife was a 

Jacob Eshleman, father of David, was also a 
native of Manor township, and died when over sev- 
enty-two years of age, a member of the Albright 
Church. Although the son of a blacksmith, he 
chose the carpenter's trade as a vocation, and car- 
rying on same in connection with a small farm suci 
ceeded in securing a competency. He was thrice 
married. His first wife bore the maiden name of 
Catherine Lutz, and they had eight children, viz. : 
Jacob, a carpenter, went to Sterling, 111., where he 
died ; Elizabeth was married to Christian Myers, of 
Manheim township, and is now deceased ; John, a 
carpenter, died in Hannibal, Mo., at the age of 
sixty-four years ; Catherine, deceased, was the wife 
of William Tillman, of Lancaster county, Pa. ; one 
son died in infancy unnamed; David is mentioned 
below; Mattie, wife of Michael Hess, died in Illi- 
nois ; Martin was captured while in the Civil war, 
and died in Salisbury prison, South Carolina. The 
second marriage of Jacob Eshleman was tq, Barbara 
Stoner, who bore him three children, as follows : 
Daniel, a carpenter, who died in Jackson, Miss. ; 
Barbara, widow of Frederick Doerstler, and resid- 
ing in Millersville ; and Christian, who was a shoe- 
maker by trade, and is now deceased. The third 
marriage of Jacob Eshleman was to Susan Hurtzler, 
to which union were born several children, of whom 
only three reached years of maturity, namely: 
Susan, who was married to John Herr, of Millers- 
ville, and is now deceased; Henry, deceased, a 
farmer; and Annie, wife of Henry Millhause, of 

David Eshleman, Sr., early learned the carpen- 
ter's trade, but after working at that business four- 
teen years, rented a 128-acre farm of Jacob Frye, 
in Manor township, which he occupied three years. 
He then rented another farm, and a few years later 
purchased the 128-acre farm mentioned from Jacob 
Frye, lying south of Creswell, and near Highville. 
He cultivated it for ten years, and then placed it 
in charge of his son Isaac, and retired from active 
labor, but continued his residence on the farm ten 
years longer, with his son. In 1893 he purchased 
the property on which he now lives, at Creswell, 
where he is passing his declining years in quiet 

The marriage of David Eshleman, Sr., and Eliza- 

beth Kauffman, took place June 16, 1844. She was 
born July 3, 1826, and died July 14, 1880, the 
mother of nine children, viz. : Isaac, a farmer, and 
Cyrus, a laborer, of Manor township; Anna, wife 
of Reuben Baker, a miller, of Martic township ; 
Aaron, who died when four months old; Hiram, 
present supervisor of Manor township; Abraham^ 
who died at the age of nineteen years, ten months; 
Jacob, who is employed in iron works in Dauphin 
county ; David, a farmer of Manor township ; and 
Elizabeth, a graduate of the State Normal School 
at Millersville, and at present employed as a stenog- 
rapher in a watch factory at Lancaster. 

David Eshleman, Sr., although he has lived be- 
yond the proverbial span of man's life, is still hale 
and hearty, and bears himself much better than 
many men that are a quarter of a century his junior. 
Notwithstanding the immense amount of hard work 
he has accomplished, he still possesses a constitu- 
tion of iron and a pleasant and genial disposition. 
Ever temperate in all things, Mr. Eshleman now 
enjoys the reward of his abstemiousness and the 
sincere respect of his acquaintances. He has always 
been a devout Christian, and was first a member 
of the Albright Church, but is now a member of the 
United Evangelical Society; he has contributed lib- 
erally in his day toward the erection of three church; 

CAPT. ELIAS McMELLEN is not only one 
of the most prominent and familiar figures in the 
city of Lancaster, but he is a remarkable example 
of the self-made man. Robert McMellen, his grand- 
father on his father's side, was a native of the North; 
of Ireland, and came to America before the Revo- 
lutionary war, in which he took an active part. He 
was a farmer, and made his home in Lancaster 
county. Joseph McMellen, a son of Robert, was 
a stonemason. He married Barbara, daughter of 
John and Barbara (Hess) Derredinger, both of 
whom were natives of Lancaster county, of German 

Capt. Elias McMellen, son of Joseph and Bar- 
bara McMellen, was born in the township of Cone- 
stoga, Lancaster county, Nov. 23, 1839. His motheii 
was left a widow soon after his birth, the father 
dying in 1841, at the early age of thirty-one years. 
He left no estate, and the fatherless boy learned 
very early to take care of himself and of his mother 
as well. He was educated in the public schools of 
his district, attending until he reached the age of 
fourteen years, at which time he became a carpen- 
ter's apprentice. In 1853 he came to Lancaster, 
where, after working for a time in a sash factory, 
and later as a journeyman carpenter, at bridge build- 
ing, he engaged in this latter business for himself, 
under exceptionally favorable circumstances. When 
he was twenty years, old he built the bridge over 
Chickies creek, at Snavely's mill, and continued at 
that work until 1861, when he enlisted for service 
in the Union army, becoming a private in Co. K, 



79th P. V. I., which regiment was assigned to Gen. 
Negley's brigade, and became a part of the Western 
Army. Mr. McMellen tool< part in the battles of 
Bowling Green and Nashville, and in all the en- 
gagements of that memorable campaign. He was 
with Buell in his famous retrograde movement 
through Tennessee and Kentucky, and fought at 
Perryville, where he contracted camp fever through 
exposure, and was sent home on a furlough. In 
1863 he was mustered out of the 79th Regiment on 
a surgeon's certificate, and the same year, when his 
health had somewhat recovered, was again received 
into the service, as first lieutenant of Co. C, 21st Pa. 
Cav., being assigned to duty in the Shenandoah 
Valley. This regiment was enlisted for six months, 
and at the conclusion of that term was reenlisted at 
Chambersburg for three years, at which time Lieut. 
McMellen was appointed recruiting officer for the 
regiment, with offices at Lancaster and Harrisburg. 
At the reorganization of the regiment he was ap- 
pointed captain of the Color Company of the regi- 
ment, Co. I, 2 1st Pa. Cav. Capt. McMellen re- 
turned with his regiment to the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and took a gallant part in the battles of the 
Wilderness, Cold Harbor, James River and the 
siege of Petersburg. In August, 1864, the 21st 
Pennsylvania became a part of the cavalry division 
under command of Gen. Gregg, attached to Gen. 
Sheridan's Corps, and in the battle of Boydton Plank 
Road Capt. McMellen was shot in the left leg, Oct* 
27, 1864. He was again wounded at Black Water 
Swamp, in the arm, and at Dinwiddle Court House 
by a fragment of an exploding shell, in the hip. 
Again, at Amelia Springs, April 5, 1865, he had 
his left ankle injured by his horse falling on him, 
but did not leave his command. Capt. McMellen 
participated in the last charge made by the Array of 
the Potomac, on the morning of the surrender of 
Gen. Lee. After the collapse of the Rebellion the 
2ist was ordered to Lynchburg, Va., and from there 
Capt. McMellen was sent, with Cos. I and A, to 
Campbell Court House, on provost duty. He was 
mustered out with the regiment July 8, 1865. 

The war ended, this battle-scarred veteran has- 
tened to resume the arts of peaceful life, and re- 
turned to Lancaster to take up the work of a car- 
penter and contractor, which he had thrown down 
at the cry of an imperiled country. In this work 
of building and contracting he has been very suc- 
cessful, and many iron, wooden and stone bridges 
in this and adjoining counties were erected by him, 
his reputation as a bridge builder being second to 
that of no man in eastern Pennsylvania. In 1876 
he purchased the "Exchange Hotel," on East King 
and Christian streets, which two years later he com- 
pletely remodeled, greatly enlarging it at the same 
time. His private residence for many years has 
been at No. 28 East Vine street, and next door to 
it he provided a- handsome and commodious home 
for his miother, but in her latter years she preferred 
to make her home with him. She entered into rest 

Jan. 7, 1894, at the advanced age of eighty-two 

Capt. McMellen is a stanch Republican, and is 
a liberal contributor of both his time and money to 
the success of the party. It is said that he has in 
several notable campaigns paid the entire expenses 
of fitting out marching clubs, and their expenses in 
going elsewhere, that the cause he has cherished 
may be helped onward. In 1869 Capt. McMellen 
was elected a member of the select council, and 
served continuously until 1879, when he was elected 
prothonotary of Lancaster county, serving his three- 
years terms with much credit to himself and satis- 
faction to all with whom he had to do business. 
Repeatedly he has attended State and county Re- 
publican Conventions as a delegate, and in 1880 was 
an alternate delegate to the National Republican 
Convention which nominated James A. Gasfield for 
the position, of President of the United States. Capt. 
McMellen was elected a member of the select coun- 
cil in 1892, after an interval of some years, and 
again in 1894. 

Capt. McMellen is a member of George H. 
Thomas Post, No. 84, G. A. R., and of the 21st 
Pennsylvania Cavalry Association. He also belongs 
to the Jr. O. U. A. M. He was one of the promoters 
and officers of Lancaster's first street railway com- 
pany, became a stockholder of the Lancaster Trac- 
tion Company, and has endeared himself to the Lan- 
caster public by the erection of many substantial 
and comfortable homes. 

Capt. McMellen was married Sept. 21, 1865, to 
Annie E., daughter of Christian and Elizabeth 
(Markley) Wenditz, born at Chestnut Level, Lan- 
caster county, Nov. 13, 1841. To this union were 
born the following children: Ella Minerva, Sara 
Elizabeth, Joseph Charles, Walter Elias and James 
Donald. The survivors are Sara E., who is the 
wife of M. M. Denlinger, M. D., and James D., 
who is at school. The mother died April i, 1899. 

Capt. McMellen is still vigorous and .hardy, 
bearing himself with the ease and power of a man 
in his prime, and his appearance, at this writing 
(October, 1902) indicates that ht has many useful- 
and industrious years yet before him. 

of Lancaster's most eminent and respected citizens, 
died March 19, 1891. He was born April 24, 1812, 
in the borough of Marietta, where, with the ex- 
ception of three short intervals, he resided until 
1848, when he removed to Lancaster. His people 
were remotely of Swiss descent, settling in Lancaster 
county many years ago. Between the seventh and 
tenth years of his age he attended four or five terms, 
of three months each, at three different common 
schools, where he "learned to read, write and cipheir 
as far as compound division," which completed his 

In 1832, Mr. Rathvon became a member of a 
literary society which numbered among its mem- 



bers Prof. S. S. Haldeman, Judge J. J. Libhart and 
others who became prominent in their chosen fields ; 
it was soon merged into a "Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory" with Mr. Rathvon as secretary. It was while 
affiliating with this society that he first felt the need 
of proper literary training; and to understand and 
realize the want was a sufficient cause for action. 
At this time he devoted his spare time to the studyi 
of mineralogy, herpetology and ornithology, collect- 
ing and preparing specimens of all that the count}} 

In 1869 Mr. Rathvon assumed editorial charge 
of the Lancaster Farmer, continuing in the position 
until its suspension in 1884. In the columns of this 
periodical Mr. Rathvon is seen at his best as a 
scientific writer. Since 1861 Mr. Rathvon had been 
Professor of Entomology to the State Horticultural 
Society, ^nd also to the Philadelphia Horticultural 
Society since 1864, succeeding Prof. . Haldeman. 
Since 1862 he had been curator and treasurer of the 
Lancaster Linnsean society, and its Entomologist, and 
had averaged about four papers annually to its 
transactions. By request he contributed two papers 
to the United States Agricultural Reports for 1861 
and 1862, which were properly illustrated, treating 
of the several orders of insects in a popular manner, 
in this way filling the position of United States 
€htomologist. Since 1869 he had been entomologist 
to the Lancaster County Agricultural Society and 
had frequently read papers before that body. In 
June, 1878, Franklin and Marshall College con- 
ferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The Doctor was a corresponding member of the 
following: Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, American Entomological Society, Daven- 
port (la.) Academy of Sciences, and various local 
and State horticultural and agricultural societies ; 
and in the transactions and reports of the above, 
in the Pennsylvania Farm Journal, Lancaster 
Farmer, American Entomologist, and the various 
local, daily and weekly newspapers are to be found 
some of his published articles, which number 
among the thousands. 

Dr. Rathvon was married May 2y, 1834, to 
"Catherine Freyberger, at Marietta, Pa. The chil- 
dren surviving are Linnaeus, Geo. F., William D., 
Robert H., Harry, Mrs. E. Maxwell, widow of 
David, Parthenia and Annie. 

If Dr. Rathvon's studies and merits did not 
bring him wealth, they at least brought him hon- 
ors. He was an honorary member of many societies, 
at home and abroad. He was a member of Lodge 
No. 43, A. Y. M.; of Chapter 43, R. A. M., and 
of Goodwin Council, and also of Lancaster Com- 
mandery. No. 13, Knights Templar. He was for 
many years chairman of the Library Committee of 
the Mechanics Library. In early life he was known 
as a musician and took a pride in our volunteer 
soldiery. He became a member of a military com- 
pany in early life and was its captain for a period 
of four years, holding his commission from Gov- 

ernor Ritner. His first literary efforts were made 
in 1844. 

His remote ancestor in this country, John George 
Rathvon, was a lieutenant in the Pennsylvania 
militia during the Revolutionary war. 

FREDERICK A. CAST, D. D., professor of 
Hebrew and Old Testament Theology in the Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Reformed Church in Lan- 
caster, was born in that city, Oct. 17, 1835, son of 
Christian and Maria (Eckert) Gast. 

Frederick Gast, his paternal grandfather, was 
born in Germany, and came to America with his 
children. These in the order of their birth were 
as follows: Henry; Margaret, the wife of Mr. 
Shroad; Christian, the father of Frederick A.; 
Conrad; Elizabeth, the deceased wife of Mr. 
Hougendobler ; Philip, deceased; and Col. Freder- 
ick, a railroad engineer, who served in the Mexi- 
can war, won his rank of Colonel in the Civil war, 
and died in California in 190 1. 

The maternal grandfather of Dr. Gast was 
Jeremiah Eckert, a native of Schuykill, Pa., and 
who came to Lancaster at an early day. He built 
the first winding stair in this county, which at the 
time was something of a curiosity. His death oc- 
curred in 1859, and that of his wife in 1878. Two 
children were born to this couple: John, formerly 
a carpenter, later a marine; and Maria. 

Christian Gast was for many years prominently 
connected with public institutions and business en- 
terprises in Lancaster, and in the discharge of his 
large responsibilities evinced not only marked finan- 
cial and executive ability, but conscientious and 
painstaking rega:rd for the best interests of all 
concerned. He was born ten miles from Giessen, 
Germany, and came to Lancaster with his parents 
when ten years of age.. By trade a shoe maker, he 
was also a shoe merchant, and gradually became 
identified with politics and county institutions. 
He not only held the position of county prison in^ 
spector, but was for many years superintendent 
of the county poor house, and held other positions 
in various institutions maintained by the county. 
He was a director in the Lancaster Cemetery Asso- 
ciation, and was one of the founders and also 
a director of the Mechanics Association ; also 
a director in the Lancaster County Mutual Life 
Insurance Co. He was a charter member of 
the Reformed Church, in which he was an 
elder up to the time of his death, Jan. i, 1897, 
at the age of eighty-eight years, and he was a 
frequent delegate to the synod of the church. His 
wife, formerly Maria Eckert, was born in Lancas- 
ter county, Jan. 12, 1812, and is still living in this 
city. She is the mother of the following children: 
Emanuel, formerly with his father in the shoe busi- 
ness, but now deceased; Catherine A., deceased 
during childhood; Rev. Frederick- Augustus; Al- 
bert, a confectioner, who was killed on the rail- 
road while off on a fishing expedition; William, 



formerly manager of his business but now retired; 
Mary E., deceased in infancy; Anna, widow of 
Jacob Martin, of Lancaster; Samuel D. ; Charles 
E., attorney at Pueblo, Colo., and solicitor for the 
A. & T. R. R. Co. ; and Margie, widow of William 
Welchans, living with her mother in Lancaster. 

While yet a student in the Lancaster high 
school, Prof. Cast, at the age of sixteen, became as- 
sistant at the Oxford Academy, New Oxford, Pa., 
for a year, after which he completed his course in 
the high school, and in 1853 entered Franklin and 
Marshall College, from which he was graduated 
in July, 1856. He then spent a year as a student 
in the Theological Seminary at Mercersburg, but 
owing to the prevailing panic returned to his home, 
and in the fall of 1857 assumed charge of Mt. 
Dempsey Academy for a year, resigning his position 
to enter the ministry. As there was no vacancy 
at the time, he undertook the management' of the 
high school at North Lebanon, and at the end of 
a year was enabled to carry out his intentions. In 
October, 1859, he took charge of the New Holland 
church, and in March, 1865, was commissioned 
chaplain of the 45th P. V. I., remaining with the 
regiment until it was mustered out. The follow- 
ing September he became the pastor of the Loun- 
don and St. Thomas charge, Franklin county, and 
at the end of two years, in Sept., 1867, was called 
to the management of the Franklin and Mar- 
shall Academy. During his term of service, which 
extended to the summer of 1871, he was associated 
for a part of the time with Rev. Dr. C. S. Gerhard, 
who died November,' 1902; Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, 
the State superintendent; and Rev. Dr. J. A. Peter, 
later president of Heidelberg University, who died 
in 1 90 1. Prof. Gast taught in Franklin and Marshall 
college for a year (1871-1872), and in January of 
1872, was elected tutor in the Theological Seminary, 
In October, 1873, the tutorship was converted into 
the professorship of Hebrew and Old Testament 
Theology, to which he was elected by the synod. In 
1877 he was made Doctor of Theology by Waynes- 
burg College. Dr. Gast is a brilliant scholar, an 
able writer, and one of the most cultured men in 
Lancaster county. 

On Dec. 24, 1857, Prof. Gast married Adeline 
G. Frey, a native of Lancaster county, and daugh- 
ter of Jacob Frey. Mrs. Gast died July 4, 1901. 

HERSHEY. John Eby Hershey and Elias 
Hershey, two well known residents of Paradise 
township, are representatives of one of the oldest 
and most distinguished families in Lancaster coun- 
ty, and descendants of the sixth generation from 
Andrew Hershey, the founder of the family in 

(I) Andrew Hershey was a resident of Switzer- 
land about two centuries ago. He removed from 
his native land Friedensheimerhof in the Palatin- 
ate country prior to 1709, for in the latter year 
he emigrated with two of his sons, Andrew and 

Benjamin, to America, settling in Lancaster county, 
near the present city of Lancaster. A third son, 
Christian, remained in the Fatherland until 1739^ 
when he, too, crossed the ocean, joining his two 
brothers and father. The three brothers were all 
ordained ministers in the Mennonite Church. 

(II) Andrew Hershey, eldest of these three 
brothers and son of Andrew Hershey, was born in 
1702. He had a family of twelve children, namely : 
Christian, Andrew, John, Benjamin, Jacob, Abra- 
ham, Isaac, Henry, Peter, Maria, Catherine and 
Adli. The father lived to the age of ninety years, 
passing away in 1792. 

(III) Jacob Hershey, fifth son of Andrew 
Hershey, was born about 1743. He married Anna 
Newcomer, and to them were born six children, as 
follows : John, Jacob, Christian, Elizabeth, Abra- 
ham and Joseph. Jacob, the father, died in 1825, 
in his eighty-third year. 

(IV) John Hershey, eldest child of Jacob and 
Anna (Newcomer) Hershey, was born about 1762. 
He became a man of considerable prominence and 
influence, and was ordained a deacon in the Men- 
nonite Church. A man of quiet, unassuming man- 
ners, he was, nevertheless, positive in his convic- 
tions, sentiments and beliefs. He was a farmer, 
and purchased several tracts of land in Lancaster 
county, which descended to his children. He mar- 
ried Anna Horst, and a family of seven children 
were born to them, as follows : Jacob, Magdalena, 
Anna, Feronica, John, Benjamin and Joseph. The 
father lived to the age of seventy-eight years, and 
died in 1850, his wife surviving until 1861. 

(V) Jacob Hershey, eldest son of John and 
Anna (Horst) Hershey, was born in 1803. He 
was a lifelong farmer of Paradise township, resid- 
ing about one mile south of Paradise on the farm 
now owned by his son, Elias Hershey. Jacob was 
ordained to the ministry in the Mennonite Church 
in 1842, and remained in the work until the close of 
his life in 1883, at the ripe old age of eighty years. 
He was a man who attended to his own affairs,, 
and looked carefully after the welfare of his family. 
His union with Elizabeth Eby, a daughter of Bishop 
Peter Eby, was blessed with a family of children 
who still survive, namely: Margaret, John E., 
Elizabeth, Elias, Peter, Susanna and J. Menno, all 
of Lancaster county. The mother of these chil- 
dren died May 31, 1897, at the age of eighty-nine 
years, eleven months and nineteen days, leaving 
seven children, thirty-three grandchildren, and 
sixty-nine great-grandchildren, and seven great- 

John Eby Hershey, eldest son of Jacob and 
Elizabeth (Eby) Hershey, was born Jan. 16, 1830, 
on the old homestead located in Paradise township, 
one mile south of Paradise village, and adjoining 
the well tilled farm which he now owns and oc- 
cupies. Here he was reared, receiving his education 
in _the common and academic schools, and remain- 
ing at home until he was twenty-four years of age. 



when he began farming on his own account on 
the fine farm of ninety acres, which has since then 
remained his residence and field of labor. The 
year preceding, or in 1853, he assisted in the erec- 
tion of the buildings on the place, and being then 
a young man of powerful physique, he himself 
handled most of the heavy timbers used in framing 
the buildings. Into this dwelling he moved early in 
1854, soon after his marriage, and there he con- 
tinued to reside until 1889, when he erected an- 
other commodious dwelling-house and has ever 
since occupied the same, living a life of retirement 
and surrendering the active operation and manage- 
ment of the farm to his son, Benjamin. In 1889 
he also erected a tenant house. 

General farming and stock raising received the 
careful and successful attention of John Eby Her- 
shey throughout his active life, and he was soon 
recognized as one of the wide awake and progres- 
sive agriculturalists of Lancaster county. He has 
been prominent in local affairs, and has served his 
township as a member of the board of education, 
and also as auditor. He has interests . aside from 
his highly improved farm, and for many years has 
been a stockholder in the Farmers National Bank 
of Lancaster. 

On Jan. 3, 1854, John Eby Hershey married 
Miss Anna Millinger, who was born June 30, 1833, 
daughter of John and Anna (Hertzler) Millinger < 
To John and Anna Hershey were born a family of 
eight children, as follows : Jacob M., a farmer near 
Palmyra, Marion Co., Mo., who married Miss 
Mary Eby, and has seven children, Emma, Elmer, 
Charles, Eva, Paul, Isaac and Martha; Elizabeth, 
who died in childhood; Isaac E., a merchant at 
Buyerstown, Pa., who married Miss Ada Leaman, 
and has one child, Noah ; Anna, at home, a zealous 
worker in the Sabbath school; Benjamin, an exten- 
sive farmer and stock raiser, who manages the old 
homestead, and who married Miss Fannie Wenger, 
who died in November, 1900, leaving five children, 
Elizabeth, Maud, Annie, Katie and Benjamin; 
John H., a farmer of Marion Co., Mo., who married 
Miss Mary Buchwalter, and has three children, 
Paul, Mark and Phoebe; Mary, wife of John K. 
Hershey, a farmer of Paradise township, by whom 
she has three children, Ruth, John and Rhoda ; and 
Susan Salome, who died at the age of twelve years. 
The devoted mother of these children died March 
16, 1897. Mr. Hershey and children are mem- 
bers of the Old Mennonite Chu^rch. They have 
high social rank in this well settled and well de- 
veloped farming region, and are an honor to the 
family which for so many generations has been in- 
fluential in the history of Lancaster county. 

Elias Hershey, the fourth child and second 
son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Eby) Hershey, was 
born March 13, 1837, on the old homestead, situated 
about a mile south of Paradise village. He was 
reared on the farm, receiving his education in the 
neighboring schools, and throughout his useful arid 

industrious life, until his retirement in 1895, he 
had been a successful and prominent farmer. He 
is the owner of several good tracts of land, includ- 
ing, besides the old homestead of 105 acres, two 
others of eighty acres each, and the two-acre prop- 
erty at Paradise village, which he has occupied since 
his retirement from active work in 1895. He is 
recognized as one of the liberal-minded, public- 
spirited citizens of the township, widely esteemed 
and influential. He has held various local offices, 
including those of tax collector ahd member of the 
school board. 

On Nov. 28, 1865, Elias Hershey married Miss 
Anne Kreider, who was born Oct. 26, 1840, in New 
Danville, Lancaster county, daughter of Michael 
and Nancy (Boyer) Kreider. To Elias and Anne 
Hershey have been born five children, as follows: 
John K., who resides on the old homestead, married 
Miss Mary Hershey, and has three children, Ruth, 
John W. and Rhoda. Lizzie A., married H. Mar- 
tin Eby, a farmer of Paradise township, residing 
on one of her father's farms, and they have six 
children, Ruth, Eli, Mina, Annie, Menno and Ada; 
Susan is the wife of John E. Keneagy, a farmer 
of Kinzers, by whom she has three children, Elias, 
Sabina and Martha; David E., a farmer residing 
on one of his father's farms, married Miss Ella 
Wilson, and has one child, Clarence E. ; and Sabina 
is at home. Elias Hershey and family are prom- 
inent members of the Old Mennonite Church, which 
has been so long and so steadily the faith of their 

JACOB G. WEAVER, M. D. The Weaver 
family, in Lancaster county, has become prominent 
through its members, in many lines, and among 
those who have won approbation in a professional 
career, is Dr. Jacob G. Weaver, a well-known phy- 
sician of Strasburg. 

The birth of Dr. Weaver was in the old Weaver 
homestead, in West Lampeter township, on April 
9, 1840. He was reared on the old farm, and his 
early education was obtained in the public schools, 
this being supplemented by a course at the Coates- 
ville Academy and the Chester County Normal 
school, and in the spring of 1863, he entered the 
office of Dr. Benjamin Musser, of Strasburg. From 
early boyhood he had shown a strong inclination 
toward medicine, and when he was prepared to en- 
ter Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, it 
was with the intention of profiting to the greatest 
extent. This thoroughness enabled him to graduate 
with honor, in 1865, and his first office was located 
at Midway, a hamlet on the Strasburg Pike road. 
A year later he came to Strasburg and was asso- 
ciated with his preceptor, the distinguished Dr. 
Musser, for one year, profiting by his experience, 
and then opened up an office of his own, where 
he has been ready for practice and consultation, 
ever since. Dr. Weaver confines his practice to 
Lancaster county, unless the call is exceptional, and 



his skill, knowledge and success have gained him 
patronage over a wide extent. 

Dr. Weaver is a thorough physician, and keeps 
abreast of the times, studying every new discovery 
of medical science for himself, and providing all 
modern appliances for the alleviating of pain, and 
the cure of disease. Dr. Weaver is a member of 
all of the medical associations and in 1882 repre- 
sented the Lancaster County Medical Society at 
the National Medical Association, at St. Paul, 
Minn. Since 1869, he has conducted a drug store 
in connection with his practice, thus being able to 
fill his own prescriptions in a satisfactory and safe 

On Dec. 31, 1873, he was married to Miss Lizzie 
Shultz, a daughter of Christian Shultz, of vStras- 
burg township, where she was born, on July 28, 
1846, and to them have been born six children; 
Wilmer John, a graduate of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, in the class of 1895, who is as- 
sociated with his father in the drug business ; Lizzie 
Blanche ; Mary Emily ; Carl Shultz ; Ross Kreider ; 
and Park Jacob. The Doctor and his estimable wife 
are members of the Reformed Mennonite Church, 
where they are valued as consistent Christians. Dr. 
Weaver has taken an active part in civic affairs, 
has been a member of the council, a^nd served for, 
several years on the school board. As a physician 
he is trusted and beloved, and as a citizen he is re- 
garded with respect and approbation. 

HON. C. G. BOYD, one of the leading citizens 
and substantial farmers of Penn township, has been 
prominent in business and political life for an ex- 
tended period. 

The Boyd family is of Irish origin, John Boyd, 
the father of C. G., being the first of this branch 
of the family to locate in Pennsylvania. John Boyd 
came from Ireland in 1810 and settled in Berks 
county, Pa., where he became manager of the 
Gibraltar Iron Works, moving to Lancaster county 
to take charge of the Mt. Hope Iron Works, and 
remaining in the employ of the owners, the Grubbs, 
for a period of fourteen years. Then he bought a 
farm near Mt. Hope, in Penn township, and gave 
his exclusive attention to farming until his death, 
in i860. He married Catherine Likens, and they 
had a family of ten children: William (deceased) 
was the efficient manager of the Mt. Hope Iron 
Works for some years; John (deceased) was a 
merchant in Middletown, Pa. ; Mary died unmar- 
ried ; James (deceased) was a farmer of Penn town- 
ship; Anna Jane was the wife of John A. Beam; 
Edward and Harriet were twins; Elizabeth is the 
widow of Eli Lichtenberger ; C. G. is the subject 
of this article; H. C. is a merchant of Manheim, 

C. G. Boyd was born in Mt. Hope July 28, 1836, 
and until the age of eighteen years grew up on the 
farm, busy with the duties pertaining to agricultural 
life, and attending the public schools. Later he 

attended the State Normal School, at Millersville, 
in 1855. ^i"- Boyd was by nature intended to 
adorn public life, for very early he displayed that 
quickness in learning, that easy understanding, that 
love of study, which have contributed in no small 
measure to his continued success. Beginning his 
public career as a teacher, he continued in that line 
in Lancaster county for three years, having charge 
at different times of schools in both Penn and Raphe 
townships. Then for five years he was employed 
in the store of John Shaffer, at Elstonville, but. 
tiring of this confinement he bought a farm near 
White Oak, to which he retired for ten years. In 
1872 he purchased the farm on which he now re- 
sides, at Fairland, and where he has since enjoyed 
a comfortable home. Mr. Boyd was also a com- 
petent scrivener. 

Mr. Boyd has always been an ardent Republi- 
can, and has efficiently filled many of the township 
and county offices, serving from 1864 to 1877 as 
assessor of Penn township ; and for seventeen years 
after 1859 as collector of the township. So well 
did he perform the duties of the offices committed 
to his care that in 1890 his fellow citizens elected 
him as the representative of the Northern District 
in the State Legislature, and during his term of 
office he came fully up to their expectations. In 1894 
he was elected prison inspector, and has held that 
responsible position until the present time, having 
been re-elected in 1897. 

Mr. Boyd was united in marriage with Miss- 
Fannie L. Thuma, and to this union has been born 
a family of eight children. Alfred T., at home; 
Benjamin T., of Denver, Colo. ; A. Lincoln, of 
Oklahoma ; Lizzie T., wife of A. G. Shelley ; Jacob, 
a resident of Manheim; Clement T., a farmer of 
Penn township; Katie T., at home; and Dora T., 
wife of Harry B. Miller. Mr. and Mrs. Boyd are 
both members of the Lutheran Church of Manheim, 
and Mr. Boyd is one of the trustees in the same, 
being also one of the most liberal of its supporters. 
He was one of the organizers of the Lititz Agricul- 
tural Mutual Fire Insurance Co., was one of the 
first directors of the company, serving as such for 
three years and was then elected president of same, 
which position he has filled since 1892. He was 
also one of the organizers of the Penn Township 
Mutual Fire Insurance Association. One of Lan- 
caster county's most respected citizens, his public 
career has reflected honor upon the location of his 
birth as well as upon the honorable family from 
which he originated. Mr. Boyd is a man of pleas- 
ing personality and great ability, 'and, being still 
in the prime of life, may again become a standard 
bearer in the ranks of his party. 

born in Franklin county. Pa., Feb. 20, 1803, and he 
was born and reared a Presbyterian. He entered 
Union College, New York, in 181 7, graduating 
therefrom in 1821. In 1823 he studied in the Theo- 



logical Seminary at Princeton, and in 1826 he tem- 
porarily filled the chair of Biblical Literature in 
that institution. In 1828 he received his license 
to preach by the Presbytery of Carlisle, then in ses- 
sion at Philadelphia. In 1829 he became professor 
of Biblical Literature in the seminary at Allegheny, 

In 1840 Dr. Nevin entered the Reformed Church, 
by accepting the professorship of theology in t